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Full text of "The diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, wife of the first lieutenant-governor of the province of Upper Canada, 1792-6 : with notes and a biography by J. Ross Robertson, and two hundred and thirty-seven illustrations, including ninety reproductions of interesting sketches made by Mrs. Simcoe"

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MCOE 


PRESENTED  TO  THE 


LIBRARY  OF  THE 
UNIVERSITY  OF  TORONTO 

BY 

THE  HONOURABLE 
JOHN  B.  AIRD 

CHANCELLOR 
UNIVERSITY  OF  TORONTO 


•"^P^QTV-^^-O — ^\   . 

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(From  a  Crayon  Drawing  at  Woltord,  Devon  ) 


THE  DIARY 


OF 


MRS. JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE 

WIFE   OF   THE 

FIRST   LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR   OF  THE   PROVINCE 
OF   UPPER   CANADA,    1792-6 


WITH   NOTES  AND  A  BIOGRAPHY 

BY 

J.  ROSS   ROBERTSON 


AND  TWO   HUNDRED   AND   THIRTY-SEVEN   ILLUSTRATIONS,    INCLUDING 

NINETY   REPRODUCTIONS   OF   INTERESTING   SKETCHES 

MADE   BY   MRS.    SIMCOE 


TORONTO 

WILLIAM    BRIGGS 
1911 


Copyright,  Canada,  1911,  by 
JOHN  Ross  ROBERTSON. 


AN   ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


The  writer  gratefully  acknowledges  Ms  debt  to  the  many  persons  in 
Canada  and  elsewhere  who  have  shown  a  kindly  and  personal  interest  in 
the  collection  of  data  and  of  illustrations  for  this  volume.  It  would  not 
have  been  possible  to  present  so  much  in  the  line  of  information  and  of 
illustrations  in  tJie  volume  without  the  aid  of  these  friends. 

Many  portraits  connected  with  the  early  history  of  Canada,  and  much 
of  the  information,  have  been  generously  supplied  by  His  Excellency  the 
Governor-General,  Earl  Grey;  Mrs.  .John  Kennaway  Simcoe,  of  Wolford, 
Devon;  Dr.  Arthur  Doughty,  Archivist  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada;  Mr. 
L.  P.  Sylvain,  Assistant  Librarian  of  the  Library  of  Parliament,  Ottawa; 
Mr.  Avern  Pardoe,  Librarian  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  Toronto;  Dr. 
G.  H.  Locke,  Chief  Librarian  of  the  Public  Library,  Toronto;  Mr.  T- 
O'Leary,  Curator  of  the  Chateau  de  Ramezay,  Montreal;  and  Miss  Janet 
Carnochan,  President  of  the  Niagara  Historical  Society. 

Grateful  acknowledgment  for  many  portraits  connected  with  the  earlier 
history  of  Canada,  and  much  of  the  information  presented,  is  extended  to 
Messrs.  J.  Ashbridge,  J.  8.  Carstairs,  J.  E.  Featherstonhaugh,  ^Emilius  Jar- 
vis,  E.  M.  Playter,  S.  H.  Townsend,  J.  8.  Cartwright,  K.C.,  A.  Olaude  Mac- 
donell,  M.P.,  A.  McLean  Macdonell,  K.C.,  Walter  Read,  K.C.,  H.  Crawford 
Scadding,  M.D.,  Col.  George  Shaw,  C.  C.  James  (Deputy  Minister  of  Agricul- 
ture, Ontario) ,  Mrs.  Stephen  Heward  and  Mrs.  Robert  Sullivan,  of  Toronto  ; 
Messrs.  J.  S.  Brierley,  Hertel  La  Rocque,  H.  Ryland  Low,  J.  W.  Molson, 
W.  H.  Whyte,  Sir  Edward  Gordon  Johnson,  Bart.,  W.  D.  Lighthall,  E.G., 
David  Ross  McCord,  K.C.,  Miss  Gertrude  Coffln  and  Mrs.  Henry  J.  Lows 
of  Montreal;  Dr.  H.  J.  Morgan,  and  Mr.  Errol  Bouchette,  F.R.S.C.,  of 
Ottawa;  Philippe  B.  Casgrain,  K.C.,  and  Mr.  L.  Lemieux,  of  Quebec; 
Messrs.  J.  G.  Elliott,  Olark  Hamilton,  Abraham  Shaw  and  Mrs.  J.  Maule 
Machar,  of  Kingston;  Messrs.  Charles  E.  Britton  and  Charles  Macdonald, 
of  Gananoque;  His  Honor  Judge  Herbert  S.  Macdonald,  of  Brockville; 
Messrs.  W.  E.  McKeough  and  Sydney  Stephenson,  of  Chatham;  Messrs. 
William  Johnson  McKee  and  Francis  Cleary,  of  Windsor;  Prof.  A.  Mac- 
mechan  and  Rev.  C.  W.  Ternon,  of  Halifax;  F.  J.  French,  K.C.,  and  Mr. 
Edward  Jessup,  of  Prescott;  Andrew  F.  McCallum,  C.E.,  Hamilton;  Mrs. 
George  Macbeth,  London;  Miss  Mary  Servos,  of  Niagara-on-the-Lake ; 
Messrs.  James  H.  Coyne,  St.  Thomas;  James  B.  Sheehan,  Dunnville; 
K.  G.  Thomson,  Norwood;  A.  F.  Hunter,  Barrie;  C.  H.  Hale,  Orillia; 
William  Forbes,  Grimsby;  W.  R.  Hickey,  Bothwell;  A.  Courtney  King- 
stone,  St.  Catharines;  A.  C.  Casselman,  North  Bay;  Robert  C.  Givins, 
Chicago;  Peter  A.  Porter,  Niagara  Falls,  N.Y.;  Basil  Hamilton,  Wilmer, 
B.C.;  A.  H.  Askin,  Walkerville;  C.  M.  Burton,  Detroit;  J.  A.  Macdonell, 
K.C.,  Alexandria;  A.  E.  Holland,  St.  Eleanor's,  P.E.I.;  A.  E.  C.  Holland, 
Wallace  Bridge,  N.S.;  Mrs.  E.  Vosburgh,  niece  of  the  late  Reverend 
Prebendary  Sadler,  of  Honiton,  Devon;  Miss  H.  E.  Macaulay,  Exmouth, 
Eng.;  Hector  Sinclair  Fraser,  Inverness;  Mrs.  Arklay  Fergusson, 
Ethiebeaton,  Scotland;  Mr.  A.  M.  Broadley,  Bridport,  Eng.;  Mr. 
B.  0.  Pearce,  Portland,  Dorset,  Eng.;  Prof.  Rushton  Fairclough,  Stan- 
ford University,  and  Mr.  Thos.  H.  Gwillim,  San  Francisco,  California; 
Ian  Robert  James  Murray  Grant,  of  Glenmoriston,  Inverness-shire,  Scot- 
land; Mme.  Falret  de  Tuite,  Pau,  France;  the  British  Museum  and  College 
of  Arms,  London,  Eng.;  Miss  Maude  Givins,  Toronto. 

vii 


PREFACE 


THE  early  history  of  Upper  Canada  has  been  usually  sought  for 
in  constitutional  documents  and  State  papers.  The  social  life  of 
the  period  is  recorded  principally  in  the  few  private  letters  which 
have  survived  a  century.  To  this  scanty  fund  of  information  it  is 
to  be  hoped  that  the  diary  of  Mrs.  John  Graves  Simcoe,  the  wife  of 
the  first  Governor,  will  make  an  interesting  addition. 

This  record  is  the  simple  recital  of  her  daily  life  in  the  pioneer 
days  when  Niagara  was  the  centre  of  military,  civil  and  social  life 
in  the  new  province,  and  York,  the  future  capital,  could  scarcely 
count  a  score  of  habitable  dwellings  outside  the  primitive  barracks 
that  the  Governor  had  erected  within  the  few  acres  of  ground  where 
still  stands  the  Fort — the  Old  Fort — as  it  is  familiarly  called  in 
these  modern  days.  Yes,  when  Navy  Hall,  on  the  banks  of  the 
Niagara  River,  was  the  first  Government  house  of  the  province  and 
an  attractive  home,  full  of  welcome  for  visitors,  official  and  unofficial. 

The  original  manuscript  of  the  diary,  of  which  this  volume 
embodies  the  only  copy,  has  been  carefully  transcribed  by  the  kind 
permission  of  Mrs.  Simcoe,  of  Wolford,  the  Simcoe  estate,  near  the 
old  town  of  Honiton  in  Devon,  so  well  known  to  womankind  for  its 
manufacture  of  exquisite  lace.  Mrs.  Simcoe  is  the  present  lady  of 
the  manor,  and  widow  of  the  late  Captain  John  Kennaway  Simcoe, 
R.N.,  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  the  County  of  Devon.  He  was  the 
only  son  of  the  late  Rev.  Henry  Addington  Simcoe  (1800-1868) 
of  Penheale  in  Cornwall,  who  was  the  third  son  of  General  Simcoe. 
Captain  Simcoe  died  at  Wblford  in  March,  1891. 

As  a  general  rule  entries  were  made  in  this  record  day  by  day 
and  the  writings  mailed  every  week  to  Mrs.  Hunt,  a  lady  who  had 
undertaken  the  charge  of  Mrs.  Simcoe's  four  daughters,  Eliza, 
Charlotte,  Henrietta,  and  Caroline,  all  under  seven  years  of  age,  who 
remained  at  Wolford.  Sophia,  born  in  1789,  and  Francis  Gwillim, 
born  in  1791,  accompanied  the  Governor  and  his  wife  to  Canada. 

The  diary  was  commenced  on  the  17th  September,  1791,  nine 
days  prior  to  Mrs.  Simcoe's  departure  from  Weymouth  for  Quebec, 
on  the  "Triton,"  man-of-war.  The  last  entries  are  on  the  16th 
October,  1796,  when  Governor  Simcoe  and  his  wife  again  arrived  in 
London. 

My  annotations,  instead  of  being  arranged  and  placed  in  the 
.conventional  form  as  footnotes,  are  incorporated  with  the  text  of 
the  diary  following  the  entries  to  which  they  belong.  The  notes 
are  so  voluminous  that,  if  given  at  the  foot  of  each  page,  they  would 
be  pages  in  advance  of  the  text.  The  reader  will,  therefore,  have 


PREFACE 

the  advantage  of  reading  first  the  text  and  then  the  note  which 
accompanies  it.  The  few  brief  notes  that  appear  in  parenthesis 
throughout  the  actual  text  are  principally  from  memoranda  made 
by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  connection  with  the  small  maps  that  form  part 
of  the  diary. 

The  illustrations,  except  where  otherwise  stated,  are  reproductions 
of  water-colors,  pen  sketches  and  pencil  drawings  made  by  Mrs. 
Simcoe  on  her  outward-bound  voyage,  and  during  her  residence  in 
Canada  and  after  her  return  in  1796  to  her  old  home  in  Devon. 

The  originals  of  these  drawings  are  nearly  all  at  Wolford.  But 
thirty-two,  in  sepia,  are  in  a  portfolio  in  the  Royal  Library  in  the 
British  Museum.  This  library  was  given  by  George  II.  to  the 
Museum,  and  with  the  gift  the  Royal  privilege  of  receiving  gratui- 
tously a  copy  of  every  book  copyrighted  in  the  British  dominions 
passed  to  the  Museum.  After  his  return  to  England,  Governor  Simcoe 
presented  these  drawings  to  His  Majesty  King  George  III.  Some 
of  them  are  copies  of  sketches  made  by  Lieutenant  Robert  Pilldngton 
(afterwards  Major-General ),  one  of  the  staff,  while  on  various  excur- 
sions with  the  Governor.  The  inscription  on  the  title  page  of  the 
portfolio  which  contains  these  pictures  reads:  "Thirty-two  views  in 
Upper  Canada  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  presented  to  His  Majesty  by  Governor 
Simcoe,  with  a  sketch  of  Upper  Canada,  drawn  on  bark."  These  have 
been  carefully  reproduced.  Other  water-colors  of  the  collection  which 
have  so  faded  that  they  could  not  be  satisfactorily  reproduced  have 
been  redrawn,  while  the  original  pen-and-ink  sketches  and  pencil 
drawings  are  in  facsimile. 

Notwithstanding  its  excellence,  the  value  of  the  art  work  of  Mrs. 
Simcoe  lies  not  so  much  in  its  merit  as  an  exemplification  of  good 
color  and  pencil  work,  but  in  the  fact  that  it  gives  to  present  readers 
of  Canadian  history  faithful  pictures  of  places  and  scenes  in  Upper 
and  Lower  Canada  from  1791-6,  which  we  would  have  lost  absolutely 
had  it  not  been  for  the  gifted  hand  of  the  wife  of  the  first  Governor. 

"Were  it  not  for  her  work,  we  would  not  have  views  of  Toronto 
Harbor  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century.  We  would  not  be  able 
to  contrast  the  quiet  of  the  harbor  and  its  surroundings  in  1793, 
when  it  was  the  home  of  the  aborigine  and  the  haunt  of  the  wild 
fowl,  with  the  commercial  activities  of  to-day.  We  would  not  have 
a  picture  of  the  Mohawk  Village  on  the  Grand  River  near  Brantford, 
which,  with  the  exception  of  the  Mohawk  Church,  has  passed  away ; 
nor  of  the  early  days  of  the  Niagara  and  Kingston  settlements  that 
were  then  and  are  now  important  places  in  the  history  of  the  Province 
of  Upper  Canada. 

Her  sketches  of  places  on  the  route  from  Quebec  to  York,  in  and 
about  Niagara,  and  her  copies  of  Lieutenant  Pilkington's  sketches  in 
the  Georgian  Bay  district,  must  also  add  much  to  the  interest  of  the 
reader.  One  of  Mrs.  Simcoe's  best  efforts  is  a  large  water-color  of 
the  Falls  of  Niagara,  made  during  her  many  visits  to  this  favored 
spot.  It  adorns  the  walls  of  Wolford. 

x 


PKEFACE 

To  the  diary  I  have  appended  the  journal  of  John  Bailey,  who 
for  over  thirty-seven  years  was  in  the  service  of  the  Simcoe  family 
at  Wolford.  He  entered  the  Simcoe  household  in  the  autumn  of 
1802,  when  a  lad  twelve  years  of  age,  and  after  the  death  of  General 
Simcoe  in  1806  he  continued  in  the  service  of  Mrs.  Simcoe  for  about 
two  years.  He  then  went  to  sea  for  a  short  time,  but  once  more 
wore  the  Simcoe  livery  from  1818  to  1850,  when  his  mistress  died. 

In  her  travels  in  different  parts  of  England  and  Wales  never 
once  did  she  neglect  to  have  Bailey  look  after  all  arrangements  for 
her  comfort,  and  act  when  desired  as  her  coachman.  His  opinions, 
his  reverence  for  Mrs.  Simcoe,  his  devotion  to  the  family,  mark  him 
as  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  intelligence.  It  is  most  refreshing 
to  read  his  narrative. 

The  writing  of  the  biography  of  Mrs.  Simcoe  entailed  much 
research.  Every  facility  was  courteously  afforded  me  by  Mrs.  John 
Kennaway  Simcoe.  I  can  never  sufficiently  thank  her  for  her 
unwearying  efforts  to  help  me  in  my  quest  concerning  not  only  the 
life  of  Mrs.  Simcoe,  but  also  that  of  General  Simcoe,  whose  biography 
will  appear  in  another  volume. 

Nothing  has  ever  been  published  concerning  the  esteemed  and 
talented  wife  of  the  first  Governor  of  Upper  Canada.  In  presenting 
this  record  of  her  life  my  hope  is  that  it  not  only  may  be  read  with 
pleasure,  but  also  find  a  place  on  the  bookshelf  of  all  who  take  in- 
terest in  the  pioneer  days  of  the  province  that  started  its  pace  in 
the  making  of  history  one  hundred  and  twenty  years  ago. 


Toronto,  August,  1911. 


Xi 


CONTENTS 


CHAPTER  I. 
MRS.  SIMCOE — HER  ANCESTORS.  PAGE 

The  early  days  of  Elizabeth  Posthuma  Gwillim — The  home  at  Old 
Court — Her  father  a  distinguished  officer — The  Gwillims  of  noble 
lineage — Arms  and  genealogy  of  the  family 1 

CHAPTER  II. 
ANCESTORS  OF  JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE. 

Origin  of  Simcoe  family — Capt.  John  Simcoe,  R.N. — His  marriage 
— Simcoe  arms  granted — Death  of  Capt.  Simcoe — Brief  sketch  of 
John  Graves  Simcoe  in  American  Revolutionary  War  and  as 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Upper  Canada 12 

CHAPTER  III. 
COURTSHIP  AND  MARRIAGE. 

Colonel  Simcoe  meets  Miss  Gwillim — Engagement — Marriage — Sim- 
coe-Gwillim  arms — Removal  to  Wolford — Appointed  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Upper  Canada 29 

CHAPTER  IV. 
FAREWELL  TO  WOLFORD. 

Arrival  at  Weymouth — Pleasant  days  before  setting  sail  for  Canada 
— First  entry  in  Mrs.  Simcoe's  diary — Mrs.  Simcoe  meets  Lady 
Collier— George  III.— Visit  to  the  island  of  Portland— Story  of 
the  custom  of  gavel-kind — The  records  kept  by  a  reeve  staff — 
Something  about  the  reeve — Lady  de  la  Pole — Capt.  Murray  of 
the  "  Triton  " — Mrs.  Simcoe  meets  a  number  of  distinguished 
officers 35 

CHAPTER  V. 
THE  GOVERNOR  AND  SUITE  EMBARK. 

Captain  Stevenson  and  Lieutenant  Grey — The  Azores — The  "  Deal 
Castle  " — A  gale — Mother  Carey's  chickens — Off  Sable  Island — 
Cape  Breton  sighted — In  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence — Communica- 
tion with  the  "  Liberty  " — Heavy  seas — Signalling  a  pilot  -  -  43 

CHAPTER  VI. 
THE  GOVERNOR  AND  His  FAMILY  IN  QUEBEC. 

Sir  Alured  Clarke — Prince  Edward — Regrets  at  leaving  the  "  Triton  " 
— First  impressions  of  Quebec — Capt.  Murray  sails  for  Halifax 
— House  in  St.  John  Street — Recollet  Church — Mrs.  Simcoe 
meets  Quebec  notables — Colonel  Simcoe  sets  out  for  Montreal — 
The  Chateau  St.  Louis — Lieut.  Talbot  returns  with  Colonel 
Simcoe  from  Montreal  -  - 53 

xiii 


CONTEXTS 

CHAPTER  VII. 
MRS.  SIMCOE  SPENDS  AN  ENJOYABLE  WINTER.  PAGE 

Feast  of  the  Epiphany — A  visit  to  Falls  of  Montmorency — Mrs.  Simcoe 
meets  Prince  Edward — Canoe  travel  in  winter — An  ice  bridge 
— Social  functions — Removal  from  St.  John  Street  house — A 
journey  from  Frederickstown,  N.B.,  to  Quebec — The  Heights  of 
Abraham — Cape  Diamond — A  catastrophe 73 

CHAPTER  VIII. 
JOURNEY  TO  UPPER  CANADA. 

Governor  Simcoe  and  suite  leave  for  Upper  Canada — The  Bishop  of 
Caps — Letters  from  England — A  night  at  Cap  Sante  with  habit- 
ants— A  drive  to  Grondines — Impressions  of  places  en  route  to 
Montreal — Capt.  Stevenson  meets  the  party  at  Pointe  aux 
Trembles  (en  haut) — In  Government  House,  Montreal — Joseph 
Frobisher  extends  hospitality — La  Baronne  de  Longueuil — From 
Montreal  to  Lachine — A  Highland  welcome — Courtesy  of  settlers 
along  the  St.  Lawrence — Sojourn  at  Gananoque — Arrival  at 
Kingston — Its  unfitness  as  a  seat  of  Government  89 

CHAPTER  IX. 

SIMCOE  TAKES  OATH  OF  OFFICE. 

Early  Kingston — The  shipyard — The  lake  fleet — Simcoe  takes  oaths 
as  Governor — Entertained  by  Indians — Mrs.  Macaulay  calls  on 
Mrs.    Simcoe — Method    of    clearing    land — Rev.    John    Stuart — 
The  Governor  determines  to  proceed  to  Niagara — On  board  the 
"  Onondaga " Ill 

CHAPTER  X. 

MRS.  SIMCOE'S  ARRIVAL  AT  NIAGARA. 

Navy  Hall  and  environments — Freemasons'  Hall — An  early  call  at 
Hon.  Robert  Hamilton's — Mrs.  Simcoe  spends  a  day  sightseeing — 
Making  friends — A  thunderstorm — The  visit  of  H.R.H.  Prince 
Edward — Mr.  Littlehales  goes  to  Philadelphia  to  see  the  British 
Ambassador— Commodore  Bouchette  surveys  Toronto  harbor — 
Thayendanegea — Evening  pastimes 121 

CHAPTER  XI. 
JOURNEYS  OF  THE  GOVERNOR. 

Mr.  Littlehales  returns  from  Philadelphia — The  Governor  and  party 
set  out  for  Detroit — Different  stages  of  the  journey — Home  again 
— An  account  of  the  trip — Governor  Simcoe  indisposed — A  fort- 
night at  Queenstown — The  "  Upper  Canada  Gazette  " — Captain 
yEneas  Shaw's  family  arrives  at  Niagara — The  Governor's  first 
visit  to  Toronto 146 

CHAPTER  XII. 

AMERICAN  COMMISSIONERS  GUESTS  AT  NAVY  HALL. 

Their  arrival — The  King's  birthday  celebrated — Sir  William  Johnson 
— Mrs.  Simcoe  ill  at  Fort  Niagara — Queen's  Rangers  in  camp — 
The  Commissioners  leave  for  Fort  Erie — Illness  of  Francis 
Gwillim  Simcoe — Recuperates  at  the  camp  on  the  mountain — An 
Indian  council — Mrs.  Simcoe's  first  visit  to  Toronto — Picturesque 
scenes — Ojibways  pay  their  respects — Envoys  of  the  Government 
— Governor's  trip  to  Lake  Huron — Varied  experiences  -  -  -  164 


CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  XIII. 
BUILDING  OF  CASTLE  FRANK  ON  RIVEB  DON.  PAGE 

The  want  of  a  summer  home — a  site  for  Castle  Frank  selected — 
Description  of  the  building— Life  in  the'  early  days  of  York- 
Dining  in  a  meadow  on  Toronto  peninsula — A  canoe  trip  to 
Scarborough  Heights — Peculiarity  of  Indian  burial  rites — Armed 
schooner  "  Onondaga  "  of  the  Provincial  Government — Sergeant 
Wright  of  the  Queen's  Rangers — Mrs.  Simcoe  visits  old  French 
Fort  Rouille 203 

CHAPTER  XIV. 
A  WINTER  AT  YORK. 

Residing  in  Castle  Frank — John  Scadding's  dwelling  burned — The 
"  Onondaga  "  afloat — Poverty  of  Indians — Instructions  of  Lord 
Dorchester  with  regard  to  building  Fort  Miami— Mr.  McGill's 
farm — Again  at  Niagara — Rumor  of  war — Francis  Gwillim  Sim- 
coe's  third  birthday — Soldier  accidentally  wounds  the  Governor — 
An  excursion  to  the  "  Forty  " — General  Washington  at  Phila- 
delphia— Bishop  Mountain  visits  Niagara — News  from  Fort 
Miami — Return  of  Alex.  Mackenzie  from  the  Pacific  -  -  -  213 

CHAPTER  XV. 
MRS.  SIMCOE  VISITS  QUEBEC. 

Uncertainty  of  continued  peace  necessitates  Mrs.  Simcoe's  going  to 
Lower  Canada — The  "  Mississaga  "  in  readiness — Passage  for 
Molly  Brant — Anchored  in  Kingston  harbor — Hospitality  of  Gan- 
anoque  settlers — A  stormy  sail,  attended  with  anxiety — Lachine 
reached — Wearisome  drive  to  Montreal — Mr.  Frobisher  always 
hospitable — Voyage  recommenced — The  closing  day — Welcome  at 
Cap  Sant6 — Reception  at  Belmont — Friendships  renewed — Cer- 
tainty of  peace — Courtesy  of  Lord  and  Lady  Dorchester — Loss  of 
the  Bridget" 244 

CHAPTER  XVI. 
RETURN  TO  UPPER  CANADA. 

Assembly  at  the  Chateau — Social  enjoyments — Lady  Dorchester  calls 
to  take  leave  of  Mrs.  Simcoe — Travel  in  winter  season — The  Gov- 
ernor meets  his  wife — They  proceed  westward — Difficulties  on  the 
way — In  Kingston — Many  miles  covered  on  Bay  of  Quinte  ice — 
The  Governor  seriously  ill — In  great  danger  off  Gibraltar  Point — 
Gaieties  at  York — Pleasurable  canoe  trip  to  Niagara  -  -  -  264 

CHAPTER  XVII. 
VISIT  OF  DUKE  DE  LA  ROCHEFOUCAULD. 

Prominent  in  France — Guest  at  Navy  Hall — His  remarks  regarding 
Mrs.  Simcoe — "  Anglo-Canadian's  "  criticism — Mrs.  Simcoe's 
opinion  of  the  Duke  and  his  party — Mrs.  McGill  visits  Niagara — 
Characteristics  of  Fort  Erie — Governor  Simcoe  proceeds  to  Long 
Point  and  Mrs.  Simcoe  returns  to  Niagara — A  mineral  spring — 
Long  Point  (Charlotteville)  impresses  the  Governor  favorably — 
His  illness  on  return 277 

XV 


CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 
VISIT  TO  NEW  CAPITAL  OF  UPPEB  CANADA.  PAGE 

A  quick  trip  across  the  lake — Mr.  John  B.  Laurence  accompanies  the 
party  to  York — Deer  in  vicinity  of  Lake  Simcoe — Castle  Frank 
in  process  of  erection — Fishing  on  the  Don  River — Governor's 
health  improves— Winter  picnics — John  Macaulay  (Honorable 
John  Simcoe  Macaulay)  an  axeman — Thaw  affects  the  "  Head  of 
the  Lake  " — A  few  days  at  Castle  Frank  in  camp  fashion  -  -  297 

CHAPTER  XIX. 
A  TRIP  ACBOSS  LAKE  ONTABIO. 

The  Governor  worse — The  journey  from  York  to  Niagara  is  made  in 
four  hours — A  snowfall  in  May — News  of  the  ratification  of  Jay's 
Treaty — Mrs.  Simcoe  takes  leave  of  Mrs.  Hamilton — Farewell  to 
Navy  Hall — Grandeur  of  the  "  Forty " — Over  mountain  and 
stream  to  the  "  Kings'  Head  "  inn — The  surrounding  country — 
Some  inhabitants — Sight-seeing  at  Stoney  Creek — A  diversion  at 
Burlington  Bay — Embarked  at  the  inlet — A  sail  through  a  heavy 
sea  to  the  River  Credit— Arrival  at  York 310 

CHAPTER  XX. 
LEAVETAKINGS  OF  FBIENDS. 

Castle  Frank  in  summer — The  Governor  receives  official  reply  to  his 
request  for  leave  of  absence — He  and  his  suite  to  sail  on  the 
"  Pearl "  from  Quebec — A  round  of  farewells — Mrs.  Simcoe  much 
depressed  at  leaving  friends — Sail  from  York  on  21st  July,  arriv- 
ing in  Kingston  on  25th — A  short  stay  in  Kingston — Some  events 
of  the  voyage  east  to  Lachine — Piloted  through  the  rapids  to 
Montreal — Sojourn  at  Mr.  Edward  Gray's — Unpleasant  voyage 
from  Montreal  to  Three  Rivers — A  few  minutes  with  Rev.  Dr. 
Mountain — Mrs.  Simcoe  enjoys  approach  to  Quebec — Greetings  at 
Belmont 332 

CHAPTER  XXI. 
HOMEWABD  BOUND. 

Bishop  Mountain  places  his  house  in  Quebec  at  Mrs.  Simcoe's  disposal 
— She  accepts  offer — The  "  Active  "  with  Lord  Dorchester  wrecked 
off  Anticosti — Mrs.  Simcoe  fears  Lord  Dorchester  will  sail  oil  the 
"  Pearl " — A  visit  to  the  Convent  of  the  Ursulines — Recollet 
Church  destroyed  by  fire — Embark  on  the  "  Pearl " — Chased  by 
French  frigates — Anxiety  at  an  end — Several  days  of  stormy 
weather — Land's  End  sighted — In  the  Downs — Pleasant  hours  at 
Dover — The  Cathedral  at  Canterbury — Mrs.  Simcoe  contrasts 
English  climate  with  that  of  Canada — Arrival  in  London  -  -  350 

CHAPTER  XXII. 
AGAIN  AT  WOLFOBD — SIMCOE'S  DEATH. 

The  home-coming — Life  at  Wolford — Gov.  Simcoe  appointed  Com- 
mander-in-Chief  at  San  Domingo — Climatic  conditions  unfavor- 
able— Returns  to  England — Commander  of  the  Western  Military 
District — Appointed  Commander-in-Chief  in  India,  followed  by 
orders  to  leave  for  Portugal — Mrs.  Simcoe  makes  preparations  to 
leave  for  the  East — News  of  the  General's  illness  and  return  to 
England — Mother  and  daughters  hasten  to  Exeter — General 
Simcoe's  death .  359 

xvi 


CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  XXIII. 

MBS.  SIMCOE  AND  HER  CHILDREN.  PAGE 

Wolford  after  the  death  of  the  General — Rev.  Henry  Addington  Sim- 
coe— Work  of  the  Misses  Simcoe— What  they  did  for  the  Parish  of 
Dunkeswell — The  building  of  the  Abbey  church — Carving  and 
ornamentation  by  the  Misses  Simcoe — Death  of  Mrs.  Simcoe — An 
impressive  funeral  service — A  daughter  on  her  mother's  char- 
acter— Capt.  John  Kennaway  Simcoe  succeeds  to  Wolford — His 
marriage  and  life  on  the  old  estate 363 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 
LOVING  WORDS  FROM  THE  PULPIT. 
A  last  tribute  to  Mrs.  Simcoe — A  memorial  sermon  in  the  parish 

church — Every  parishioner  present — A  memorable  gathering      -    370 

CHAPTER  XXV. 
THE  WILL  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE. 

Her  daughters  her  heirs — Leaves  a  large  sum  of  money  to  each — The 
land  and  estate  of  Dunkeswell  Abbey  left  to  Eliza  and  Caroline 
as  joint  tenants — Mr.  Walcot,  of  Oundle,  a  cousin  of  Mrs.  Simcoe, 
bequeaths  a  large  estate  to  the  Simcoe  family  -  ...  381 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 

GENERAL  SIMCOE'S  ESTATE  IN  CANADA. 

His  lands  principally  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  province — His  income 
as  Governor — Accounts  not  all  adjusted  when  he  left  Canada — 
Trouble  in  disposing  of  lands  and  in  collection  of  arrearages — 
The  Castle  Frank  property,  which  belonged  to  Francis,  his  eldest 
son — Mrs.  Simcoe's  interest  in  property  at  York — Kept  up  a  corre- 
spondence with  Canadian  friends  until  within  a  short  time  of 
her  death — Profound  regard  for  Rev.  Dr.  Scadding,  of  Toronto  -  387 

CHAPTER  XXVII. 
JOHN  BAILEY'S  MEMOIRS. 

The  author  talks  with  some  of  the  old  retainers  of  Dunkeswell  Parish 
— Kindly  words  of  the  Simcoes  from  tenants — Something  about 
Bailey 390 

CHAPTER  XXVIII. 

BAILEY'S  OPINION  OF  THE  SIMCOE  FAMILY. 

Tells  of  incidents  in  the  daily  life  at  Wolford — Pleasurable  outings — 
Catastrophe  at  the  "  Old  Passage  " — Bailey  a  man  well  versed  in 
Bible  knowledge — The  Simcoes  as  early  risers — The  improve- 
ments on  the  estate  at  Wolford — Visit  of  Mrs.  Simcoe  to  her  son, 
Henry  Addington  Simcoe  at  Penheale — North  Wales  a  favorite 
touring  place — Bailey's  knowledge  of  every  locality  visited  -  -  393 

CHAPTER  XXIX. 
THE  PASSING  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE. 

Describes  the  funeral  of  the  General  in  1806,  and  of  his  mistress  in 
1850 — Comments  on  death  and  the  resurrection — Bailey  tells  of 
General  Simcoe's  work  as  commander  of  the  South-Western  Dis- 
trict— Describes  a  sham  battle  near  Honiton — Training  of  volun- 
teers Simcoe's  great  care — Bailey  on  the  proposed  French 
invasion 403 

xvii 


CONTENTS 

CHAPTER  XXX. 
THE  VILLAGE  OF  DUNKESWELL.  PAGE 

Its  improvement  in  fifty  years — Improvements  at  Wolford — Estate 
and  military  discipline — Bailey  again  gives  opinion  on  the 
chances  of  a  war  with  Prance — Dinner  parties  at  the  Manor 
House — Death  of  the  General — Bailey's  high  opinion  of  the 
Misses  Simcoe 409 

CHAPTER  XXXI. 
INCIDENT  AND  COMMENT. 

His  recollections  of  the  General — Bailey  intersperses  comment  of  a 
religious  character  in  relating  his  story — As  a  small  boy  in  the 
butler's  pantry — Curious  incident  concerning  a  distinguished 
Frenchman — Journey  to  Bath — A  runaway  -  -  -  415 

CHAPTER  XXXII. 
MANY  JOURNEYS  WITH  MBS.  SIMCOE. 

Places  and  scenes — Comparisons  by  Bailey — Musings — Courtesy  and 

Liberality  of  the  General — Always  progressing      ....    422 

CHAPTER  XXXIII. 
TRIBUTE  BY  BAILEY. 

Wolford  a  great  social  centre  in  Devon — The  General  appointed  to 
India — The  Scadding  family  in  Devon  and  Canada — Bailey  quotes 
Scripture — Likens  Governor  Simcoe  to  Biblical  characters  -  -  426 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


PAGE 

MBS.  JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE       ....                 .  Frontispiece 

JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE, Frontispiece 

"  OLD  COURT,"  NEAR  Ross,  HEREFORDSHIRE        -        -  '    -        -        -        -        1 
(From  a  drawing-   in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

COLONEL  GWILLIM -    ...        2 

(From  the  plaster  bust  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

THE  OLD  CHURCH  OF  WHITCHURCH  BEFORE  RESTORATION  3 

(From    a   drawing    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the   J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection. ) 

ARMS  OF  GWILLIM 4 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  College  of  Arms,  London,  England.) 

THE  GWILLIM  TOMB  AT  WHITCHURCH 6 

(From,  a  drawing   in  the  J.   Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

COLONEL  GWILLIM 8 

(From  a  drawing   in   the   J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

THE  RESIDENCE  KNOWN  AS  HEMBURY  FORT 9 

(From  a  drawing   in   the  J.   Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

MRS.  SIMCOE  IN  WELSH  DRESS  10 

(From  a  miniature  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

BROCADE  SKIRT  OF  GOWN  WORN  BY  MRS.  SIMCOE 11 

(From  the  original  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

GATE  OF  BEESTON  CASTLE,  NEAR  BUNBURY,  CHESHIRE      -        -        -        -      13 
(From    a    drawing    made    in    1818,    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

ARMS  OF  JOHN  SIMCOE,  R.N. 15 

From  a  drawing  in  College  of  Arms,  London,  England.) 

CAPTAIN  JAMES  COOK         ....  15 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SIB  WILLIAM  HOWE 16 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

HON.  JAMES  BABY      -        -        -  21 

(From  a  drawing   in  the  J.   Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

NAVY  HALL,  NIAGARA,  1792 -         Face    22 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  In  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,   London.) 

BUCKERALL   PARISH    ClIUBCH,    NEAR   HoNITON,    DEVON  29 

(From  a  drawing   in   the  J.    Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

BUCKERALL  PARISH  CHURCH,  INTERIOR 30 

(From  a  drawing   in   the  J.   Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

THE  SIMCOE  MARRIAGE  CERTIFICATE 31 

(From  register  of  Buckerall   Parish  Church.) 

SIMCOE-GWILLIM   ARMS,   1782 -      32 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  College  of  Arms,  London,  England.) 

SIMCOE-GWILLIM   ARMS,   1792 32 

(From  a  drawing  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

xix 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

WOLFOHD,    NEAR    HoNITON,    DEVON 33 

(From  a  drawing-   in  the  J.   Ross   Robertson  collection.) 

NOBTH  VIEW  OF  WEYMOUTH,  1788 35 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  Broadley  collection,  Brldport,  Dorset.) 
GEOBGE  III. 36 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 
A  REEVE  STAFF 38 

(From  a  drawing  by  B.  O.  Pearce,  ex-Reeve  of  Portland.) 
VIEW  OF  WEYMOUTH,  LOOKING  WEST,  1791 39 

(From    a    water-color     by    Wm.     Delamotte,     in     the    Broadley 
collection,  Bridport.) 

BARON  GBENVILLE 39 

(From  an  engraving-  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

BABON  THURLOW 40 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

PRINCESS  OF  WTJRTEMBURG 40 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

LADY  POULETT 41 

(From  a  miniature  owned  by  the  late  Miss  Gwynne,  Toronto.) 

SIR  GEOBGE  MURRAY 41 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SIR  WILLIAM  SYDNEY  SMITH 41 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

EARL  ST.  VINCENT 42 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SIR  CHARLES  GREY 43 

(From   a   portrait   in    possession   of   His    Excellency   Earl   Grey, 
Governor-General   of  Canada). 

A  SNOW  BIRD 47 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  on  board  H.  M.  S.   "  Triton.") 

A  CROSSBILL 47 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  on  board  H.  M.  S.   "Triton.") 

ISLAND  OF  ENTRY,  1791 49 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  on  board  H.  M.  S.   "  Triton.") 

THE  "  LIBERTY  " 50 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  on  board  H.  M.  S.   "Triton.") 

LORD  DORCHESTER 50 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

ISLAND  OF  ANTICOSTI 51 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  on  board  H.  M.  S.   "  Triton.") 

J.  F.  WALLET  DES  BARBES ---62 

(From  a  portrait  in  possession  of  Rev.  C.  "W.  Vernon,  Halifax,  N.S.) 

BRANDY  POTS  ISLANDS,  1791 52 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simooe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

SIB  ALURED  CLARKE 53 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Public  Library,  Toronto.) 

PRINCE  EDWARD 54 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

THE  RECOLLET  CHURCH 55 

(From   a  drawing   of  interior   of  the  church,   restored  after  the 
siege  of  Quebec.) 

JUDGE  ADAM  MABANE. 56 

(From  an  engraving  in   the  Legislative  Library,  Quebec.) 

XX 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

THE  RESIDENCE  KNOWN  AS  "  SAMOS  " 57 

(From  a  drawing  in  possession  of  P.  B.  Casgrain,  K.C.,  Quebec.) 

SURVEYOR-GENERAL  SAMUEL  HOLLAND 67 

(From   a   miniature   in   possession  of  his   great-grandson,   A.    El 
Holland,  St.  Eleanor's,  Prince  Edward  Island.) 

CANADIAN  CARRIOLE 58 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

BELMONT,  NEAR  QUEBEC 59 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

OFFICERS'  CARRIOLE 60 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

RUINS  OF  INTENDANT'S  PALACE,  QUEBEC,  1791    - 60 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

THE    FORT    AND    CHATEAU    ST.    Louis,    QUEBEC — RECONSTRUCTED    BY 

FRONTENAC,  1694-8 61 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

THE  OLD  CHATEAU  STONE          - 62 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

HALDIMAND  CASTLE,  QUEBEC Face      62 

(From   a   water-color   by  H.    Bunnell,    1887.) 

COLONEL  THOMAS  TALBOT -65 

(From    a   water-color    by    J.    B.    Wandesforde,    in    possession    of 
Mrs.  George  Macbeth,  London,  Ontario.) 

COLONEL  TALBOT'S  RESIDENCE,  PORT  TALBOT 65 

(From  a  sketch  sent  to  England  in  1806,  copied  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

MGR.  HUBERT 66 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Legislative  Library,  Quebec.) 

CONVENT  OF  THE  URSULINES,  QUEBEC 67 

(From   a   drawing  by   Richard   Short,    1761,   engraved   by   James 
Mason. ) 

THE  GENERAL  HOSPITAL,  QUEBEC 68 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

THE  CATHEDRAL,  QUEBEC,  AS  RESTORED  69 

(From   Routhier's   "Quebec.") 

ST.  Louis  GATE,  QUEBEC,  1791 70 

(From  a  drawing  In  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

MONS.   GRAVfe   DE  LA   RlVE    -  71 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

COLONEL  JOHN  BUTLER 71 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

GENERAL  ST.  CLAIR --72 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

BISHOP  PLESSIS 73 

(From    a    portrait    in    possession    of    L.    P.    Sylvain,    Assistant 
Librarian,  Library  of  Parliament,  Ottawa.) 

SIR  FREDERICK  HALDIMAND,  BART. 75 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

CHIEF  JUSTICE  WILLIAM  SMITH 76 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

THE  PROVISION  STORE,  QUEBEC 76 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

HON.  FRANQOIS  BABY 77 

(From  a    portrait   in   the   Dominion   Archives,    Ottawa.) 

xxi 


ILLUSTEATIONS 

PAGE 

M.ONS.  IGNACE  DE  SALABERBY 78 

(From   a   silhouette   in   possession   of   Mons.    Hertel   la   Rocque, 
Montreal.) 

MADAME  DE  SALABEBBY 78 

(From  a   silhouette  in    possession    of   Mons.    Hertel   la   Rocque, 
Montreal.) 

FATHEB  P.  FELIX  DE  BEBEY 78 

(From    a    portrait    in    possession    of    L.    P.    Sylvain,    Assistant 
Librarian,    Library    of    Parliament,    Ottawa.) 

MONS.  IGNACE  DE  SALABEBBY 78 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  Chateau  de  Ramezay,  Montreal.) 

COLONEL  ^NEAS  SHAW 79 

(From  a  portrait  from  life  in  possession  of  his  grandson,  Colonel 
George  Shaw,  Toronto.) 

HON.  JAMES  McGiLL,  MONTBEAL 80 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  David  Ross  McCord  collection,  Montreal.) 

HON.  ISAAC  OGDEN 81 

(From    a    portrait    in    possession    of    L.    P.    Sylvain,    Assistant 
Librarian,  Library  of  Parliament,  Ottawa.) 

MAJOB-GENEBAL  JAMES  WOLFE  -  82 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

BY  THE  RIVEB,  QUEBEC,  1792 83 

-  (From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

CASCADE  NEAB  WOLFE'S  COVE,  QUEBEC,  1792 84 

(From  a  drawing1  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

HON.  PAUL  ROCQUE  DE  ST.  OUBS 84 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

CHIEF  JUSTICE  WILLIAM  OSGOOUE 85 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

HON.  "PETEB  RUSSELL 86 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

NEAB  FALLS  OF  MONTMOBENCY,  QUEBEC,  1792    -  Face      86 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

JOHN  McCoBD,  JB. 91 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  David  Ross  McCord  collection,  Montreal.) 

Sue  E.  BAKEB  BAKEB,  BABT.   (MAJOB  E.  B.  LITTLEHALES)  93 

(From  a  portrait   from   life   in  possession  of   his   grandson,   Sir 
Randolph  Littlehales  Baker,   Bart.,   Dorset,  England.) 

CHAMBLY,  ON  THE  ST.  LAWBENCE,  1792 94 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

VABENNES,  ON  THE  ST.  LAWBENCE,  1792 94 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

JOSEPH  FBOBISHEB •»    -  • 94 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  David  Ross  McCord  collection,  Montreal.) 

GOVEBNMENT  HOUSE CHATEAU  DE  RAMEZAY,  MONTBEAL  95 

(From  an  engraving  in  "  Hochelaga  Depicta,"  1839.) 

MONKLANDS,   A   FOBMEB  GOVEBNMENT  HOUSE,   MONTBEAL  96 

(From  "Montreal  After  250  Tears,"  by  W.  D.  Lighthall,  K.C.). 

DOWAGER  BABONESS  DE  LONGUEUIL  (MARIE  FLEUBY  D'ESCHAMBAULT)    -      98 
(From  an  oil  painting  from  life  in  possession  of  Mrs.   Rushton 
Fairclough,   her   great-great-granddaughter,    Stanford   Univer- 
sity, Gal.) 

HON.  WM.  GRANT        -... gg 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

xxii 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

FOURTH  BARONESS  DE  LONGUEUIL  (MABIE  CHARLES  JOSEPH  LE  MOYNE)  -      98 

(From  an   oil   painting:  from   life  in   possession  of  Mrs.   Arklay 

Fergusson,  her  great-granddaughter,  Ethiebeaton,  Scotland.) 

POINTE   AU   BODET,    1792 Face      100 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

HON.  JOHN  MUNRO 103 

(From  an  engraving-  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

CAREY'S  HOUSE,  GANANOQUE,  1792 106 

(From   a    drawing-    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

VIEW    NEAR    THE    THOUSAND    ISLANDS,    1792          ....  FOC6      106 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

VIEW  NEAR  GANANOQUE,  1792 109 

(From    a    drawing-    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in   the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

CATABAQUI  (KINGSTON),  SOUTH-EAST  VIEW      ....        Face    112 
(From    a    drawing-    by    James    Peachey,    1783,    in    the    J.  Ross 
Robertson  collection.) 

A  DISTANT  VIEW  OF  KINGSTON,  IN  1792    -------    115 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

DB.  JAMES  MACAULAY 118 

(From  an   oil   painting   from   life,    in   possession   of   his    grand- 
daughters,   the    Misses    Macaulay,    Exmouth,    Devon.) 

MRS.  MACAULAY 118 

(From   an    oil    painting   from    life,    in    possession    of    the    Misses 
Macaulay,  Exmouth,  Devon.) 

REV.  JOHN  STUART *-        -        -        -    119 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  David  Ross  McCord  collection,  Montreal.) 

ONLY  REMAINING  BUILDING  OF  NAVY  HALL  GROUP    -        -        -  -    122 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

NAVY  HALL,  NIAGARA,  FROM  THE  RIVER,  1792    -        -        -        -         Face    122 
(From    a   drawing    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

HON.  ROBERT  HAMILTON 126 

(From  a  miniature  in  possession  of  his  grandson,  Clark  Hamilton, 
of  Kingston,  Ontario.) 

RESIDENCE  OF  HON.  ROBERT  HAMILTON,  NIAGARA  RIVER  ROAD,  1792        -    127 
(From    a    drawing    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the   J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

NIAGARA  FALLS  FROM  CANADIAN  SIDE,  1792  -        -        -         Face    128 

(From  a  water-color  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

COLONEL  JOHN  ASKIN 132 

(From  a  silhouette  in  possession  of  his  grandson,  A.  H.  Askin, 
Walkerville,   Ontario.) 

QUEENSTOWN,  OR  THE  LOWER  LANDING,  1792        -  FttC6      132 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

NIAGARA  RIVER  AT  QUEENSTOWN,  1792 135 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

VISCOUNT  GEORGE  GARLIES 136 

(From  a  portrait  at  Newton-Stewart,   Scotland.) 

QUEEN'S  RANGERS'  HUTS  AT  QUEENSTOWN,  1792        -        -        -         Face    136 
(From   a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe   in   the    J.    Ross   Robertson 
collection.) 

COLONEL  JOSEPH  BOUCHETTE 140 

(From  an  engraving  in  possession  of  Errol  Bouchette,  F.R.S.C., 
Ottawa.) 

xxiii 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

THATENDANEGEA  (JOSEPH  BBANT)      ----.... 
(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  Masonic  collection.) 

BBANT  HOUSE,  RESIDENCE  OF  JOSEPH  BRANT,  AT  BURLINGTON,  ONT. 
(From  a  drawing  in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson   collection.) 

MAP  OF  NIAGARA  RIVER,  SHOWING  SITES  OF  FIRST  AND  SECOND  FORTS 
LITTLE  NIAGARA,  1745-51      ........ 

(From  a  drawing  by  Peter  A.  Porter,  of  Niagara  Falls,  N.  T.) 

REMAINS  NEAR  FORT  SCHLOSSER       ....... 

(From  a  drawing-  by  the  late  Col.   Peter  A.  Porter,  of  Niagara 
Falls,  N.  Y. 

OUTLINE  OF  GOVERNOR  SIMCOE'S  ROUTE  FROM  NIAGARA  TO  DETROIT,  1793     147 
(From  a  drawing  by  Lieut.  Pilkington,  copied  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

THE  MOHAWK  VILLAGE,  GRAND  RIVER,  NEAR  BRANTFORD,  SHOWING  INDIAN 
COUNCIL  HOUSE  AND  CHURCH,  1793     .....         Face 
(From  a  drawing  in  the  Royal  Library,  British  Museum,  made 
by   Lieut.    Pilkington,    and   copied   by   Mrs.    Simcoe.) 


PAGE 
142 


-     142 


-     144 


-     145 


148 


Miss  RACHEL  CROOKSHANK       ......... 

(From    a    silhouette    in    possession    of   her    niece,    Mrs.    Stephen 
Howard,  Toronto.) 


152 


Face    152 


Face  158 
162 
164 
164 


LOG  HUTS  OR  BARRACKS  AT  QUEENSTOWN,  1793  - 

(From  a  drawing  by  "Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

AT  THE  WHIRLPOOL  RAPIDS,  NIAGARA,  1793      .... 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

"THE  CASTLE,"  FORT  NIAGARA,  N.Y. 

(From  a  drawing  made  in  1830,  copied  by  Mrs.   Simcoe.) 

GENERAL  BENJAMIN  LINCOLN 

(From   an   engraving   in  the  J.    Ross   Robertson   collection.) 

JOHN   RANDOLPH 

(From   an   engraving   in   the   J.    Ross   Robertson   collection.) 

TIMOTHY  PICKERING     ...........    165 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON,  BART.     .........    167 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

LADY  JOHNSON,  WIFE  OF  SIR  JOHN  JOHNSON     ......    167 

(From  a  portrait  from  life  in  possession  of  Sir  Gordon  Johnson, 
Bart,  Montreal.) 

SIR  JOHN  JOHNSON,  BART.        .......        -  168 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  David  Ross  McCord  collection,  Montreal.) 

COLONEL  GUY  JOHNSON      ..........    168 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Chateau  de  Ramezay,   Montreal.) 

TENTS  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE  IN  CAMP  NEAR  QUEENSTOWN,  1793      -         Face    168 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

HON.   ALEXANDER   GRANT  ..........    171 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life  in  possession  of  Grant  of  Glen- 
moriston,  Inverness-shire,  Scotland.) 

NIAGARA  FALLS  FROM  CANADIAN  SIDE,  1793      -        ...         Face    172 
(From  a  water-color   by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

YORK  (TORONTO)  HARBOR,  1793  .......         Face    176 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

CASCADE  ON  THE  SEVERN  —  MCDONALD'S  RAPIDS,  BETWEEN  SPARROW  LAKE 

AND  RAGGED  RAPIDS      ........         Face    180 

(From  a  drawing  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied  by  Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,   British    Museum,    London.) 

xxiv 


ILLUSTKATIONS 

PAGE 

ON  THE  SEVERN — MCLEAN'S  BAY,  AT  OUTLET  TO  SPARROW  LAKE       Face    184 
(From  a  drawing-  by  Lieut.   Pilkingrton,   copied  by  Mrs.    Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,   British   Museum,   London.) 

SIR  D.  W.  SMITH,  BART.,  FIRST  SURVEYOR-GENERAL  OF  UPPER  CANADA    -     187 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

CANISE,  INDIAN  CHIEF,  KNOWN  ALSO  AS  "  GREAT  SAIL  "    -        -        -        -    188 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

L'ABBfi  PHILIPPE  Louis  DESJARDINS 188 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  Ursuline  Convent,  Quebec.) 

ON  THE  SEVERN  RIVER — THE  LITTLE  CHUTE,  NEAR  THE  ENTRANCE  TO 

GLOUCESTER  POOL Face    188 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,   copied   by   Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,    British    Museum,   London.) 

ON  THE  SEVERN — HEAD  OF  BIG  CHUTE,  NEAR  GLOUCESTER  POOL         Face     192 
(From  a  drawing:  by   Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied   by   Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,   British   Museum,    London.) 

FIRST  OFFICIAL  PLAN  OF  YORK  (TORONTO),  1793 195 

(From    the    original    in    Public    Record    Office,    Chancery    Lane, 
London,    England.) 

SPARROW  LAKE  CHUTE — ON  SEVERN  RIVER,  BELOW  MCLEAN'S  BAY     Face    196 
(From  a  drawing-  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied  by   Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,   British    Museum,   London.) 

"  BY  GLOUCESTER  POOL,"  ON  THE  SEVERN  RIVER  -  Face    200 

(From  a  drawing  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied   by  Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in   the   Royal   Library,   British    Museum,   London.) 

MODERN  PLAN  SHOWING  SITE  OF  CASTLE  FRANK 204 

(From  a  plan  in  the  Crown  Lands  Department,  Toronto.) 

CASTLE  FRANK,  1794 Face    204 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

NEAR  CASTLE  FRANK  208 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

H.  M.  SCHOONER  "  ONONDAGA  " 211 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

EDWARD  GRAVES  SIMCOE  WRIGHT 212 

(From  an  oil   painting  from  life  in  possession  of  his  grandson, 
Edward  H.  Rodden,  Toronto.) 

ADMIRAL  ALAN  GARDNER 212 

(From   an   engraving   in   the   J.    Ross   Robertson   collection.) 

QUEEN  CHARLOTTE 213 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

JOHN  SCADDING'S  DWELLING,  EAST  SIDE  OF  DON  RIVER,  1793  -        -        -    214 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

JOHN  SCADDING,  JR. 215 

(From    an    oil    painting    from    life    in    possession   of    his    grand- 
nephew,    Dr.    H.    Crawford    Scadding,    Toronto.) 

REV.  DR.  HENRY  SCADDING  AT  TWENTY-EIGHT 215 

(From    a   portrait    in    possession    of   his    daughter,    Mrs.    Robert 
Sullivan,    Toronto. ) 

REV.  DR.  HENRY  SCADDING  AT  FIFTY-SIX  YEARS 215 

(From    a    portrait   in    possession    of    his    daughter,    Mrs.    Robert 
Sullivan,  Toronto.) 

A  VIEW  ON  THE  MIAMI  RIVER,  1794 217 

(From  a  drawing  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied   by   Mrs.   Simcoe, 
at  Wolford,  Devon.) 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

SITE  OF  FORT  MIAMI  (MAUMEE)  ' 218 

(Prom    a    drawing:    made    in    1910,    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection. ) 

SOUTH  SHORE  OF  LAKE  ONTARIO  FROM  NIAGARA  TO  THE  "  FORTY,"  1794    -    222 
(From  a  drawing:  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

WATERFALL  NEAR  BURLINGTON  BAY,  1794 Face    222 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

TWENTY  MILE  CREEK  (JORDAN,  ONT.),  1794 225 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

RESIDENCE  OF  D.  W.  SMITH,  NIAGARA,  1794       -        -  -        -        -    226 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

THE  SERVOS  HOUSE,  NIAGARA,  1783-1911 230 

(From  a  drawing  by  Owen  Staples,  O.S.A.,  of  Toronto,  in  1911, 
in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection,  Public  Library,  Toronto.) 

THE  FIFTEEN  MILE  CREEK,  1794 Face    230 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

INTERIOR  VIEW  OF  SERVOS  HOUSE 233 

(From  a  drawing  by  Owen  Staples,  O.S.A.,  of  Toronto,  in  1911, 
in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection,  Public  Library,  Toronto.) 

THE  GORGE  NEAR  FORTY  MILE  CREEK  (GRIMSBY),  1794     -        -         Face    234 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

BISHOP   MOUNTAIN    -  238 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SPRAY  OF  THE  FALLS  OF  NIAGARA,  AS  SEEN  FROM  CHIPPAWA  RIVER    Face    238 
(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

LIEUT.-GENERAL  DAVID  SHANK 241 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life,  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

GENERAL  SIR  ROGER  HALE  SHEAFFE,  BART. 241 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,   Ottawa.) 

GENERAL  ANTHONY  WAYNE 242 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

SIR  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE -    243 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

KINGSTON,  U.  C.,  IN  1794 -        -        -         Face    244 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

COLONEL  JOEL  STONE 249 

(From     a     portrait     in     possession     of     his     grandson,     Charles 
Macdonald,   Gananoque. ) 

HOUSE  AND  MILL  NEAR  GANANOQUE,  1794 250 

(From    a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

FAIRFIELD  HOUSE  AND  MILL,  NEAR  GANANOQUE,  1794        -        ...    252 
(From    a   drawing    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

VIEW  FROM  FAIRFIELD'S  HOUSE         -        -        - 252 

(From   a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross    Robertson 
collection.) 

MONTREAL  EAST  TO  POINT  DU  LAC,  1794         -        -        -        -        -        -    256 

(From    a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe   in    the   J.    Ross     Robertson 
collection.) 

MAP  OF  ROUTE  FROM  THREE  RIVERS  TO  QUEBEC,  1794        -  257 

(From    a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe   in    the   J.    Ross     Robertson 
collection.)" 

xxvi 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

LADY  DORCHESTER 260 

(From  a  copy  of  a  miniature  in  England.) 

HERMAN  WITSIUS  RYLAND -    263 

(Prom  a  portrait  in  possession  of  his  granddaughter,  Mrs.  Henry 
J.    Low,   Montreal.) 

GOVERNMENT  MILL  ON  THE  APPANEE  RIVER,  1795       -        -        -         Face    270 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

DUKE  DE  LA  ROCHEFOUCAULD-LIANCOURT  277 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

MRS.  TICE'S  HOUSE  NEAR  QUEENSTOWN Face    278 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

CHIEF  JUSTICE  WILLIAM  DUMMER  POWELL       -        -  ...    281 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life,  in  possession  of  ^milius  Jarvis, 
Toronto.) 

MRS.  POWELL 281 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life,  in  possession  of  ^milius  Jarvis, 
Toronto. ) 

CAPTAIN  JAMES  MATHEW  HAMILTON 282 

(From    a    portrait    in    possession    of    his    grandson,    Basil     G. 
Hamilton,   Wilmer,   B.C.) 

MRS.  HAMILTON 282 

(From    a    portrait    in    possession    of    his    grandson,    Basil    G. 
Hamilton,   Wilmer,  B.C.) 

FORT  CHIPPAWA,  ON  THE  WELLAND  RIVER,  1795          -        -        -         Face    282 
(From  a  drawing"  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

MOUTH  OF  THE  WELLAND  RIVER  AT  CHIPPAWA,  1795  -        -        -         Face     286 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

A  GLIMPSE  OF  THE  LAKE  AND  BEACH  NEAR  FORT  ERIE     -        -         Face    290 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum.  London.) 

BASS  ISLAND,  WEST  END  OF  LAKE  ERIE,  1795    -  Face    294 

(From  a  drawing  by   Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied  by   Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in  the  Royal  Library,  British  Museum,   London.) 

SITE  OF  CHARLOTTEVILLE,  AT  LONG  POINT,  1795  -  Face    298 

(From  a  drawing  by  Lieut.   Pilkington,  copied   by  Mrs.   Simcoe, 
in  the   Royal   Library,   British    Museum,   London.) 

SKINNER'S  MILL,  EAST  BANK  OF  DON  RTVEB 301 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

LIEUTENANT  JAMES  GIVINS 304 

(From    an    oil    painting    in    possession   of    his    grandson,    Robert 
C.  Givins,  Chicago,  111.) 

CAPTAIN  ANDREWS 304 

(From    a    miniature    in    possession    of    his    great-granddaughter, 
Miss   Maude  A.   A.   Givins,   Toronto.) 

ORIGINAL  ENTRANCE  TO  BURLINGTON  BAY,  1795  -  Face    304 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,   London.) 

WILLIAM  JARVIS *-    311 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life,  in  possession  of  his  grandson, 
^Emilius  Jarvis,  Toronto.) 

MRS.  JARVIS      , 311 

(From  an  oil  painting  from  life,  in  possession  of  her  grandson, 
^Emilius  Jarvis,  Toronto.) 

CHIEF  JUSTICE  JAY 312 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.)  . 

xxvii 


ILLUSTBATIONS 

PAGE 

THE  TWENTY  MILE  CREEK  (JORDAN,  ONT.),  1796      -        -        -         Face     312 
(From  a  drawing:  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London.) 

FRANCIS  GWILLIM   SIMCOE -        -        -     315 

(From  a  drawing  from  life  by  Lieut.  Pilkingrton.) 

JOHN  GREEN'S  DWELLING  AT  THE  "  FORTY  " -    316 

(From  a  drawing  by  Win.   Forbes,  Grimsby,  Ont.,  in  the  J.  Ross 
Robertson   collection.) 

VIEW  FROM  THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN,  1796 Face     316 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,   London.) 

THE  HEAD  OF  LAKE  ONTARIO,  1796 320 

(From  a  drawing;  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

COOTE'S  PARADISE,  NEAR  BURLINGTON  BAY,  1796        -        -        -         Face    320 
(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,    London. ) 

THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN,  BURLINGTON  BAY,  1796 323 

(From    a    drawing-    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.    Ross     Robertson 
collection.) 

KING'S  HEAD  INN,  FROM  THE  SOUTH-EAST 324 

(From    a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe   in    the    J.    Ross     Robertson 
collection.) 

LAKE  ONTARIO  AND  ORIGINAL  ENTRANCE  TO  BURLINGTON  BAY,  1796     Face    324 
(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

THE  SHORE  AT  THE  "  HEAD  OF  THE  LAKE  " 327 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

THE  RIVER  CREDIT,  NEAR  YORK,  1796 Face     328 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

THE  BEACH  NEAR  THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN,  1796 331 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

THE  GARRISON  AT  YORK  (TORONTO),  1796,  SHOWING  FIRST  HOUSES  IN 

FORT  AND  MAGAZINE  ON  SHORE Face    332 

(From  a  drawing-  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal   Library,  British 
Museum,   London.) 

MRS.  SIMCOE'S  SPINNING  WHEEL 336 

(A    photograph    of    the    wheel    in    possession    of    Mrs.    Stephen 
Heward,    Toronto.) 

PLAYTER'S  BRIDGE  OVER  THE  DON  RIVER  AT  YORK,  1794      -        -         Face  336 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,   London.) 

CASTLE  FRANK  IN  THE  SUMMER  OF  1796 339 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

KINGSTON,  FROM  THE  HARBOR,  1796 340 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

BRIDGE  OVER  THE  DON  AT  YORK,  1796 Face    340 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  in  the  Royal  Library,  British 
Museum,  London.) 

POINT  IROQUOIS,  DUNDAS  COUNTY,  1796 343 

(From    a   drawing   by    Mrs.    Simcoe   in    the   J.    Ross     Robertson 
collection.) 

THE  RIVER  BELOW  POINT  IROQUOIS 343 

(From    a    drawing    by    Mrs.    Simcoe    in    the    J.     Ross     Robertson 
collection.) 

A  BEND  IN  THE  RIVER  ST.  LAWRENCE 344 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

xxviii 


ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

ISLE  Aux  SOEUKS,  NOW  NUN'S  ISLAND 345 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

GENERAL  GABRIEL  CHRISTIE 347 

(From  a  portrait  in  the  Chateau  de  Ramezay,  Montreal.) 

THE  RECOLLET  CHURCH,  QUEBEC — EXTERIOB  352 

(From  an  engraving:  on  the  spot  by  Richard  Short,  1761,  in  the 
J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

JOSHUA  BARNEY 355 

(From  an  engraving  in  the  J.   Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

REV.  H.  A.  SIMCOE,  THIRD  SON  OF  GOVERNOR  AND  MRS.  SIMCOE      -        -    364 
(From   a   photograph   at   Wolford,    Devon.) 

MOTHER  EMILY  CLARE,  DAUGHTER  OF  REV.  H.  A.  SIMCOE         -        -        -    364 
(From  a  photograph  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

PENHEALE  MANOR,   NEAR  LAUNCESTON,  CORNWALL          ....    354 

(From  a  picture  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

DUNKESWELL  ABBEY  CHURCH — HOLY  TRINITY 365 

(From  a  drawing  by  Miss  Harriet  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

A  RESTFUL  SPOT  AT  PENHEALE 366 

(From  a  picture  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

CAPTAIN  J.  KENNAWAY  SIMCOE,  R.N.,  SECOND  SON  OF  REV.  H.  A.  SIMCOE     368 

(From  a  photograph  at  Wolford,   Devon.) 

MRS.  SIMCOE — THE  LADY  OF  THE  MANOR,  WOLFORD 368 

(From  a  photograph  at  Wolford,   Devon,    1908.) 

DUNKESWELL  PARISH  CHURCH,  BEFORE  RESTORATION — EXTERIOR      -        -    370 
(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.   Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

DUNKESWELL  PARISH  CHURCH,  BEFORE  RESTORATION — INTERIOR      -        -    371 
(From  a  drawing  by  Miss  Harriet  Simcoe  at  Wolford,  Devon.) 

DUNKESWELL  PARISH  CHURCH,  AS  RESTORED  IN  1867      -        -        -        -    376 
(From   a   picture   in   the   J.    Ross   Robertson   collection.) 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


CHAPTER    I. 
MRS.   SIMCOE— HER   ANCESTORS. 

The  personal  character  of  Mrs.  John  Graves  Simcoe,  the  wife 
of  the  first  Governor  of  Upper  Canada,  may  be  written  in  a  few 
brief  sentences.  The  records  that  have  been  handed  down  to  us 
from  her  own  pen  and  from  the  pen  of  others  who  were  contem- 
porary with  her,  all  testify  to  her  worth  as  woman,  wife  and  mother. 
Mrs.  Simcoe  had  not  all  the  advantages  that  in  natural  course  come 
to  a  daughter  in  girlhood  days.  She  never  saw  her  father,  and  in 


"OLD  COURT/'  NEAR  Ross,  HEREFORDSHIRE. 

(From  a  Dramng  in  the  J.  Rogg  Robertson  collection.) 

the  first  twenty-four  hours  of  her  life  she  lost  her  mother.  Bereft 
of  those  she  would  have  loved,  it  fell  to  other  than  the  gentle  hands 
of  father  and  mother  to  care  for  her  as  she  grew  to  girlhood. 

Elizabeth  Posthuma  Gwillim  was  born  in  1766  at  Whitchurch, 

in  Herefordshire,  at  the  mansion  known  as  "Old  Court"  near  the 

town  of  Ross,  the  home  of  her  mother,  Elizabeth  Spinckes,  widow  of 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Thomas  Gwillim.    Her  father  died  seven  months 

1  1 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

before  she  was  born,  while  her  mother  died  a  few  hours  after  giving 
birth  to  this  daughter — her  only  child.  She  was  named  Elizabeth 
after  her  mother  and  Posthuma  to  commemorate  the  circumstances 
of  her  birth.  Her  father  was  an  officer  in  the  army,  attaining  the 
rank  of  colonel  a  few  years  before  his  death.  He  served  in  Canada 
and  was  one  of  the  three  Majors  of  Brigade  of  General  Wolfe  at 
Quebec  in  1759,  and  died  in  1766  while  his  regiment  was  stationed 
at  Gibraltar.  The  marble  bust  of  General  Wolfe,  now  in  the  saloon 
at  Wolford,  was  presented  to  Colonel  Gwillim  by  the  General,  and  a 
plaster  bust  of  Colonel  Gwillim  from  which  the 
picture  is  taken  is  in  the  drawing-room  of  the 
old  mansion.  On  the  death  of  her  mother  and 
father  the  infant  Elizabeth  inherited  "  Old 
Court"  and  all  that  it  contained.  Mrs.  Simcoe's 
mother  was  a  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Elmes 
Spinckes,  Esq.,  of  Aldwinkle  in  North  North- 
amptonshire, who  died  there  in  1762.  She  suc- 
ceeded to  the  fortune  left  by  her  mother  and 
grandmother,  both  of  whom  were  heiresses  in 
their  own  right. 

"The  old  Church  of  Whitchurch  on  the  Wye" 
was  erected  some  hundreds  of  years  ago,  and  was 
COLONEL  GWILLIM.  the  church  which  the  Gwillim  family  attended 
from  the  time  of  its  erection.  The  registers  show 
baptisms  in  connection  with  the  family  as  early  as  1754  and  burials 
from  1766.  The  family  tomb  of  the  Gwillims  is  in  the  churchyard. 
In  alter  years  Mrs.  Simcoe  often  visited  Whitchurch  and  made 
sketches  of  spots  so  well  known  to  her  mother.  Amongst  them  was 
the  old  church. 

The  Gwillims  came  of  noble  lineage.  Among  the  Archives  at 
Wolford  is  an  elaborate  pedigree  of  the  family,  which  is  a  very  ancient 
one,  the  genealogy  being  traceable  in  a  straight  line  from  the  early 
kings  of  North  and  South  Wales.  To  this  family  belonged  the 
celebrated  Herald  Gwillim,  Rouge  Croix  Pursuivant-at-arms,  1618. 
Several  pedigrees  of  the  family  have  been  drawn  from  time  to 
time  at  the  different  visitations  or  investigations  by  a  high  heraldic 
officer  whose  duty  is  to  examine  into  the  pedigrees  and  inter-marriages 
of  a  family  or  the  families  of  a  district,  with  the  view  of  ascertaining 
whether  the  arms  borne  by  any  person  or  persons  living  in  that 
district  are  incorrect  or  unwarrantably  assumed.  Of  the  later  ones 
entered  at  the  College  of  Arms,  one  was  drawn  in  1569,  another 
in  1683,  and  another  was  drawn  for  the  subject  of  this  biography  by 
Francis  Townsend,  Windsor  Herald,  in  1806.  It  is  a  most  elaborate 
document,  being  eighteen  feet  in  length  and  forty-eight  inches  wide, 
and  contains  about  four  hundred  quarterings  of  arms  in  colors,  the 
work  of  a  skilled  artist,  and  forty-four  feet  of  illuminated  border. 
The  penwork  in  which  the  names  are  written  gives  the  document  rank 
as  an  example  of  the  best  in  heraldic  art,  and  is  said  to  have  cost  £300. 

2 


THE  FAMILY  OF  GWILLIM 

The  Gwillims  on  the  paternal  side  were  originally  from  Brecon- 
shire,  having  been  Lords  of  Brecon  before  the  Conquest.  At  a 
somewhat  later  date  their  ancestral  home  was  at  Brayne  Court, 
Herefordshire,  where  they  were  domiciled  before  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury and  again  early  in  the  sixteenth  century  at  Fawley  Court, 
Langstone  Court  and  Whitchurch  Court,  and  later  at  the  Hunt 
House,  Clodock,  all  in  the  county  of  Hereford.  They  married  into 
many  notable  families  and  possessed  at  different  periods  vast  landed 
estates,  principally  in  the  counties  of  Brecon,  Hereford  and  Mon- 
mouth. 


THE  OLD  CHURCH  OF  WHITCHURCH,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simeoe  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

During  the  troublous  times  of  the  Conquest,  and  for  some 
centuries  after,  the  Gwillims  were  actively  engaged  in  warfare,  some- 
times holding  their  commissions  from  the  Welsh  princes  and  some- 
times from  the  English  kings.  At  the  Wigga,  Rowleston,  Hereford- 
shire, there  are  papers  relating  to  farms  that  had  been  given  to 
Gwillims  more  than  eight  hundred  years  ago  for  their  services  in 
the  army. 

The  history  of  the  family  entwines  with  the  well-known  and 
historical  Herbert  family,  of  which  the  Gwillims  are  a  branch,  both 
paternally  and  maternally.  William,  eldest  son  of  Howel-ap- 
Thomas,  Lord  of  Perthhir,  was  the  first  of  the  family  to  adopt  a 

3 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


surname,  in  conformity  with  the  English  law,  and  the  first  pat- 
ronymic of  Ap-Howel  became  corrupted  with  Powell.  Gwillim 
Dhu  (William  Herbert),  Earl  of  Pembroke  (beheaded  at  Banbury  in 
1469),  was  commanded  by  the  King,  Edward  IV.,  to  take  the  surname 
of  "Herbert"  in  memory  of  his  illustrious  ancestor  Henry  Fitz 
Herbert,  Chamberlain  to  King  Henry  I.  The  Gwillims  seem  to  have 
adopted  "Gwillim"  as  a  surname  about  the  same  timo,  one  Robert 
tjrwillim,  son  of  Gwillim  ap  Thomas  and  Margaret,  daughter  and  heir 
-of  Sir  James  Abrahall,  Knt.  of  Ingestone,  'County  Hereford,  being 
according  to  Francis  Townsend,  Windsor  Herald  in  1806,  the  first  to 
do  so.  Prior  to  the  edict  of  Edward  IV.  it  had  always  been  "the  Welsh 
custom  to  change  the  surname  at  every  descent."  Hence  the 
Welsh  were  always  most  careful  to  preserve 
authentic  evidence  of  their  family  records. 

The  writings  on  this  interesting  document 
have  been  summarized  from  its  beginning.  It 
will  be  noted  that  the  name  of  Gwillim  first 
appears  about  the  time  of  Edward  IV.  This 
summary  shows  an  unbroken  line  back  to  Wil- 
liam I.,  of  England,  commonly  called  the 
Conqueror,  and  also  to  the  ancient  kings  of 
Xorth  and  South  Wales. 

The  arms  granted  to  the  Gwillim  family  are 
here  given: — 

Argent  a  lion  rampant  Ermines,  collared  Or. 
Crest — A  dexter  arm  embowed  in  armour  proper 
grasping  a  broken  sword  argent. 

The  introductory  paragraph  or  preamble  as 
written  by  the  Windsor  Herald  reads : — 

GWILLIM. 

"The  Genealogy  of  the  ancient  family  of 
Gwillim  deduced  to  Mrs.  Elizabeth  P.  Simcoe, 
wife  of  Lieut.-General  John  Graves  Simcoe.  Tracing  her  descent 
paternally  from  the  ancient  British  Lords  of  Brecon — from  Henry 
Fitz  Herbert,  who  was  Chamberlain  to  King  Henry  the  First  and 
from  King  William  the  Conqueror;  and  paternally  and  maternally 
through  Sir  Giles  de  Brewes — or  De  Braisosa,  Lord  of  Buckingham 
in  the  time  of  King-  Edward  the  First,  from  William  de  Braisosa, 
one  of  the  Conqueror's  companions — whose  posterity  were  Lords  of 
Brembre,  Brecon,  and  Gower  and  from  the  ancient  Earls  of  Clare, 
Gloucester,  Pembroke,  Hereford  and  Derby  and  other  of  the  most 
noble  and  illustrious  families  of  England  and  Wales,  compiled  from 
public  records  and  other  authentic  evidences  by  me,  Francis ;  Town- 
send,  Windsor  Herald,  MDCCCVI." 

Then  follows  the  line  of  descent : — 

Gundreda,  daughter  of  William  the  Conqueror,  married  William, 
Earl  of  Warren  and  Surrey.  She  died  in  1085  and  was  followed 

4 


ABMS  OF  GWILLIM. 


THE  FAMILY  OF  GWILLIM 

in  1088  by  her  husband,  who,  the  records  show,  was  buried  in  Lewis 
Priory. 

The  line  is  continued  through  Maynarch,  Lord  of  Brecon,  through 
whom  also  is  traced  the  descent  from  the  Welsh  kings,  he  being  the 
fourteenth  in  descent  from  Kariadoe  Vrachfras  and  the  daughter  and 
heir  of  Pelinor,  King  of  North  Wales. 

Maynarch  married  Ellen,  daughter  of  Eynon  ap  Selif,  Lord  of 
Cwminwd,  and  their  second  son  was  Blethyn  ap  Maynarch,  Lord  of 
Brecon,  who  married  Elinor,  daughter  of  Twdwr  Mawr,  King  of 
South  Wales,  1077  to  1091,  and  sister  of  Prince  Rhys. 

In  1090  A.D.,  Blethyn  was  slain  by  Bernard  Newmarch,  who 
became  Lord  of  Brecon.  Blethyn's  second  son,  Gwrgan  ap  Blethyn, 
appears  in  the  records  as  Lord  of  Llangorse. 

Gwrgan  ap  Blethyn  married  Gwenllian,  daughter  and  sole  heir 
of  Philip  Gwy?,  Lord  of  Wilton.  Their  second  son,  Traharne  ap 
Gwrgan,  was  the  next  Lord  of  Llangorse  and  married  Joan, 
daughter  of  Sir  Aaron  ap  Bledry,  Kn't. 

Howel  ap  Traharne  succeeded  his  father  and  married  Gwenllian, 
(laughter  and  heir  of  Griffith  ap  Eynon  of  Senighenith  in  County 
Glamorgan.  During  his  lifetime  he  waged  prolonged  but  unsuc- 
cessful wars  against  the  Lord  of  Brecon  in  an  attempt  to  win  back 
the  ancient  seat  of  his  family. 

At  his  death,  Howell  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Rees  ap  Howell, 
also  known  as  Henry  II L,  of  Aberllfni,  who  married  Katherine, 
daughter  of  Griffith  Gwyre. 

The  line  then  comes  through  a  cadet  branch  of  the  family, 
descended  from  Eynon  Says  ap  Rees  ap  Howell,  third  son  of  Rees 
ap  Howell,  who  succeeded  to  the  family  estate  of  Lywell,  County  of 
Brecon.  The  family  burying-place  was  at  Crych-Einon.  The  family 
arms  are  given  as  "Argent,  3  cocks  gules." 

Eynon  Says  ap  Rees  ap  Howell  married  Joan,  daughter  and 
heir  of  Howell  ap  Meredith  ap  Cradock  ap  Justin,  her  mother  being 
Ann,  daughter  of  Gwilliin  of  Llewellyn-Lagar  ap  Ivor  ap  Einon. 
Their  son  was  named  Howell  ap  Eynon. 

Howell  ap  Eynon  married  Llelles  Lettice,  daughter  and  sole  heir 
of  Cadwallader  ap  Gruff  ap  Sitsile,  Lord  of  Gwent,  and  had  for 
heir  Howell  Vychan  ap  Howell,  who  took  for  his  arms  "a  fees 
between  two  arming  swords." 

Howell  Vychan  married  Ellen,  daughter  and  heir  of  Llewellyn 
ap  Howell-hen. 

Their  third  son,  Llewellyn  ap  Howell  Vychan,  married  Malltion, 
daughter  and  co-heir  of  Jevau  ap  Rees  ap  Jevan.  The  family  arms 
were  "A  lion  rampant,  sable  armed,  or." 

Thomas  ap  Lin  ap  Howell,  eighth  son  of  Llewellyn  and  Malltion, 
succeeded  to  the  family  arms,  which  are  given  during  his  generation 
as  "Argent,  a  lion  rampant,  sable  armed,  or."  He  married  Mar- 
garet, daughter  and  co-heir  of  Philip  ap  Adam  of  Llanvair,  Gelgedyn. 

5 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


The  name  Gvvillim,  which  afterwards  became  the  family  name, 
first  appears  as  the  given  name  of  the  son  of  Thomas  ap  Lin  and 
Margaret — Gwillim  ap  Thomas,  who  is  the  next  in  line  and  who 
married  Margaret,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  John  Ahrahall,  Knight 
of  Ingestone,  Co.  Hereford. ' 

Robert,  son  of  Gwillim  ap  Thomas  and  Margaret,  took  his  father's 
name  as  a  surname  and  was  known  as  Robert  Gwillim  of  Treken- 


THE  GWILLIM  TOMB  AT  WHITCHURCH. 

(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

keved.     All  the  information  given  as  to  his  wife  is  that  she  was  the 
"Daughter  of  Egerton." 

Thomas  Gvvillim  succeeded  his  father  Robert  and  is  known  in 
the  records  as  Thomas  Gvvillim  of  Llangonoke.  His  wife  was  the 
"Daughter  of  Milbourne,"  and  their  sons  were:  (1)  John  Gwillim 
of  Trerise,  who  died  unmarried  in  1600,  and  (2)  William  Gwillim, 
of  Trekenkeved. 


SIMCOE-GWILLIM  CONNECTION 

William  Gwillim  married  Margery,  daughter  of  Thomas  Vaughan 
of  Trevervyn,  and  the  line  to  Mrs.  Simcoe  is  continued  through  his 
third  son,  Thomas  Gwillim,  of  Whitchurch. 

Thomas  Gwillim  married  Barbara,  daughter  and  co-heir  of 
Walter  Powell  of  Whitchurch,  who  was  descended  in  a  direct  line 
from  Robert  Corbet,  to  whom  King  Henry  I.  gave  the  town  of 
Alcester  ("In  Com.  Warn.").  Corbet's  daughter,  Lucy,  married 
Henry  Fitz  Herbert,  the  famous  Chamberlain  of  King  Henry  I.,  and 
it  was  from  this  marriage  that  the  family  sprang  of  which  Barbara 
Powell  was  a  descendant. 

-  Thomas  Gwillim  was  succeeded  in  1634  by  his  son  Rudhall 
Gwillim,  of  AVhitchurch,  who  married  Jane,  daughter  of  Edmund 
Fox,  of  Leighton  Court  ("aforesaid").  They  had  two  sons:  (1) 
Thomas,  who  died  unmarried,  and  (2)  Eichard  Gwillim. 

Richard  Gwillim  of  Whitchurch,  who  succeeded  to  the  estate 
in  1683  at  the  age  of  54,  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Charles 
Price,  of  Llanfoist  in  the  County  of  Monmouth. 

Then  their  son,  Thomas  Gwillim  of  Whitchurch  Court,  married 
Sophia,  daughter  of  Selwyn  of  Matson,  County  of  Gloucester. 

Thomas  and  Sophia  had  two  sons,  Selwyu  who  died  unmarried, 
and  Thomas  Gwillim  who  succeeded  his  father  and  married  Elizabeth, 
daughter  and  co-heir  of  Elmes  Stuart  of  Cotterstock,  High  Sheriff 
of  the  County  of  Northampton. 

The  children  of  Thomas  Gwillim  and  Elizabeth  Stuart  were 
Jasper  and  Elmes,  who  died  without  issue,  Henrietta  Maria  and 
Sophia,  two  daughters  who  died  unmarried  and  were  buried  at 
Whitchurch,  and  Thomas  Gwillim  who  succeeded  to  the  estate. 

This  Thomas  Gwillim  of  Whitchurch  Court  was  a  lieutenant- 
colonel  in  the  Army  and  died  in  1766  and  was  buried  in  Gibraltar. 
His  wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Elmes  Spinckes,  who 
died  at  Aldwinkle,  Sept.  22nd,  1762,  and  is  buried  there. 

Thomas  and  Elizabeth  were  cousins  on  the  maternal  side.  Mrs. 
Gwillim  died  in  1766.  The  only  child  of  this  marriage  was 
Elizabeth  Posthuma,  so  culled  because  she  was  born  subsequent  to 
the  death  of  her  father.  She  married  John  Graves  Simcoe  of  Wol- 
ford  on  December  30th,  1782,  and  died  at  Wolford,  January  17th, 
1850. 

The  Simcoes  were  related  to  the  Creed  family  of  Northampton- 
shire, through  the  Gwillims.  The  connection  is  shown  as  follows: — 

Sir  Edward  Montague,  Knt.,  created  Earl  of  Sandwich,  July 
12th,  1661,  and  from  present  Earl,  1806. 

Nicholas  Stuart  of  Pattishull,  aforesaid,  J.  P.  for  County,  living 
1682,  aged  57,  married  Susanna,  daughter  of  Anthony  Elmes  and  at 
length  co-heir,  living  1681. 

Sir  Thomas  Elmes,  Knt.  (bro.  of  Susanna)  of  Lilford,  High 
Sheriff  of  said  County,  1670,  died  without  issue. 

7 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Sir  Sydney  Montague,  Knt.  Master  of  the  Requests  (living  1G18) 
married  Paulina,  daughter  of  John  Pepys  of  Cottenham,  Co.  of 
Cambridge. 

Elizabeth,,  daughter  of  Sir  Sydney  Montague,  Knt.,  married  Sir 
Gilbert  Pickering  of  Tichmarsh,  County  of  Northampton,  Bart,  of 
Nova  Scotia. 

John  Creed  of  Oundle,  County  Northampton,  Gent.,  married  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  Sir  Gilbert  Pickering,  Bart,  of  Nova  Scotia. 

Elizabeth,  daughter  of  John  Creed,  Esquire,  born  1672,  married 
1692,  died  1742,  buried  at  Whitchurch — married  Elmes  Stuart  of 
Cotterstock,  County  Northampton,  High  Sheriff  of  said  County,  Ano. 
12,  Wm.  III.,  aged  26  years,  1682,  living  1710. 

Anne,  daughter  and  co-heir,  died  unmarried  and  was  buried  at 
Whitclmrch. 

Jemima,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Elmes  Stuart  of  Cotterstock, 
aforesaid,  Esq.,  died  at  Aldwinkle,  26th  May,  1763;  married  Elmes 
Spinckes,  Esq.,  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Warrington,  County  Northamp- 
ton, died  at  Kidwarke.  The  issue  of  the  marriage  was  a  daughter  who 
married  Thomas  Gwillim,  the  father  of  Mrs.  John  Graves  Simcoe. 
This  closes  the  summary. 
Thomas  Gwillim,  as  before  stated,  died  at  Gibraltar  in  1766,  seven 

months  before  the  birth  of  his  daughter,  and  his 

widow  died  a  few  hours  after  the  birth. 

The  child  thus  born  was  named  Elizabeth 
Posthuma.  She  married  Lieutenant-Colonel  John 
Graves  Simcoe,  who  was  born  in  1752  at  Cotter- 
stock  in  Northamptonshire,  the  ceremony  being 
performed  in  SS.  Mary  and  Giles,  the  Church 
of  Buckerall  parish  in  Devon  in  1782.  Colonel 
Simcoe,  afterwards  a  general  and  the  first  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of  Upper  Canada,  died  in  1806 
in  Exeter.  Mrs.  Simcoe,  his  widow,  died  in 
1850.  Both  husband  and  wife  are  buried  in  the 
COLONEL  GWILLIM.  east  end  of  the  private  chapel  erected  by  the 
General  on  the  estate  of  Wolf  ord.  General  Simcoe 
was  the  only  surviving  son  of  Captain  John  Simcoe,  R.N.,  of  Cotter- 
stock,  who  married  Catherine  Stamford  on  8th  August,  1747.  The 
marriage  took  place  in  Bath  Abbey.  At  the  time  Captain  Simcoe 
was  in  command  of  the  "Prince  Edward."  Afterwards  he  was  pro- 
moted to  H.M.S.  "Pembroke"  and  died  of  pneumonia  while  his  ship 
was  off  the  island  of  Anticosti  in  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  on  15th 
May,  1759,  four  months  before  the  capitulation  of  Quebec. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  Registers  of  the  Abbey 
Church  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  Bath,  regarding  the  marriage  of  Cap- 
tain Simcoe: — 

"1747,  August  8th, — John  Simcoe,  Esqr.,  commander  of  His 
Majesties  ship  Prince  Edward  and  Catherine  Stamford,  spinster,  of 
Walcott,  were  married  by  License." 


EARLY  HOME  OF  ELIZABETH  GWILLIM 

Part  of  the  city  of  Bath  is  now  in  the  parish  of  Walcott,  and 
although  search  has  been  made  in  the  registers  of  the  parish  church, 
which  date  from  1694,  no  trace  can  be  found  of  the  name  of  Stamford. 

After  the  death  of  Mrs.  Gwillim,  the  daughter  was  most  tenderly 
cared  for  by  her  aunt,  Mrs.  Graves,  a  sister  of  her  mother  and  wife 
of  Samuel  Graves  of  Hembury  Fort,  three  miles  from  Wolford  in 
Devon,  who  was  Admiral  of  the  White  in  1717.  There  is  a  monu- 
ment in  Buckerall  parish  church  to  the  memory  of  Admiral  Graves. 

To  the  west  of  Honiton  one  looks  over  a  space  of  comparatively 
flat  country,  to  the  northwest  overshadowed  by  St.  Gyres  Hill,  and 
further  north  is  the  bold  height  of  Dumpdon.  On  the  top  of  this 
hill  are  the  remains  of  an  oval  camp,  and  a  few  miles  away  the 
better  known  camp  called  Hembury  Fort.  The  Fort  stands  very 
high  and  looks  south  to  the  sea  beyond  the  vale  of  the  river  Otter, 


THE  RESIDENCE  KNOWN  AS  HEMBURY  FORT. 


(From  a  Drat 


the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 


and  west  to  Haldon  and  the  fringes  of  Dartmoor  over  Exeter.  Three 
ramparts  surround  the  fort,  which  covers  a  large  space  of  ground. 
It  is  oval  in  shape,  divided  into  two  parts  by  an  earthwork  and 
enclosed  by  a  triple  "vallum"  or  line  of  palisades.  Several  Roman 
coins  and  an  iron  "lar"  in  the  form  of  a  small  female  figure  three 
inches  high,  representing  a  goddess  who  presided  over  the  fortunes 
of  the  home,  have  been  found  there.  Past  Honiton  ran  the  great 
Roman  road  of  the  Fosseway  to  Totnes,  and  according  to  some  authori- 
ties, on  into  Cornwall.  It  is  thought  that  the  Romans,  in  making 
these  famous  roads,  usually  followed  the  line  of  the  oldest  British  ways. 
Of  Elizabeth  Gwillim's  very  early  youth  little  is  known.  Her  aunt 
was  most  affectionate  in  disposition,  a  tender,  kind  and  lovable  woman, 
who  in  a  thoroughly  Christian  spirit  accepted  the  responsibilities 

9 


DIARY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

of  watching  over  her  sister's  child.     This  much  may  be  gathered 
from  the  Graves'  correspondence. 

The  years  were  not  slow  in  passing  with  Miss  Gwillim.  As  a 
child  she  evinced  a  natural  ability  that  surprised  her  governesses. 
She  gathered  knowledge  as  eagerly  as  she  gathered  the  wild  flowers 
by  the  roadside,  of  which  she  was  so  passionately  fond. 


MRS.  SIMCOE  IN  WELSH  DRESS. 

(From,  a  Miniature  at  Wolford.) 

She  loved  to  ramble  through  the  woods,  where  she  could  repro- 
duce bits  of  landscapes  that  are  still  so  charming  all  around  Hem- 
bury  Fort.  Her  delight  as  a  girl  was  to  be  skilled  in  pencil,  pen, 
and  water-color  work;  and  be  it  said  that  some  of  her  water-colors 
that  hang  to-day  on  the  walls  at  Wolford  bear  excellent  evidence  of 

10 


GIRLHOOD  DAYS 


her  artistic  skill.  It  was  readily  admitted  by  all  who  met  her  at  Hem- 
bury  Fort  that  Mrs.  Graves  had  in  her  niece  Elizabeth  an  accom- 
plished relative. 

As  a  linguist  Miss  Gwillim  was  an  apt  pupil.  She  spoke  German 
and  French  fluently  and  ventured  occasionally  to  converse  in  Spanish 
when  opportunity  offered.  To  a  letter  from  Miss  Burgess,  a  friend 
at  Tracey,  near  Honiton,  Devonshire,  she  replied  with  one  in 
Spanish. 

She  was  fond  of  gaiety  and  outdoor  life.  To  rahirl  in  the  dance, 
to  cross  country  with  the  hounds, 
seemed  second  nature  to  her, 
while  to  tramp  through  the 
woods  and  along  the  rural  roads 
with  her  young  friends  was  one 
of  the  ordinary  enjoyments  of 
her  life.  Though  she  had  an  ex- 
cellent ear  for  music,  she  never 
sang  or  played  on  any  instru- 
ment. 

She  was  below  the  average 
height,  about  five  feet,  not  more, 
and  this  is  indicated  by  a  satin 
skirt,  thirty-seven  inches  in 
length,  which  she  wore  in  her 
married  life  when  she  was  twenty- 
five  years  of  age,  just  before 
leaving  for  Upper  Canada.  The 
waist  is  missing,  but  the  skirt 
has  been  preserved  at  Wolford. 
The  garment  was  known  as  Mrs. 
Simcoe's  "presentation  dress/' 
'and  was  worn  by  her  at  the  opening  of  the  first  Legislature  of  Upper 
Canada  at  Niagara  on  the  17th  September,  1792. 

It  was  in  the  spring  of  1782  that  Colonel  Simcoe  first  met  Miss 
Gwillim;  and  as  the  story  of  her  life  is  so  interwoven  with  that  of 
her  husband,  it  is  fitting  that  the  reader  should  have  some  knowledge 
of  the  family  of  Simcoe;  for  the  first  Governor  of  Upper  Canada 
was  a  man  of  marked  ability,  whose  name  is  to-day  a  household  word 
in  the  great  province,  the  government  of  which  he  inaugurated 
under  many  difficulties. 


BROCADE  SKIRT  WORN  BY  MBS.  SIMCOE. 

(From  the  Original  at  Wolford.) 


1  1 


CHAPTER    II. 
ANCESTORS  OF  JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE. 

It  was  only  in  the  summer  of  nineteen  hundred  and  six  that  the 
writer  finally  after  years  of  research  determined  that  the  Simcoe 
family  was  of  Cheshire  origin.  There  are  no  records  in  the  papers 
at  Wolford  in  Devon  which  give  any  trace  of  the  birthplace 
or  even  the  names  of  the  ancestors  of  the  first  Governor  of  Upper 
Canada.  Indeed,  it  was  only  after  a  continuous  personal  quest  in- 
volving a  careful  examination  of  a  score  of  parish  and  other  records 
in  villages,  towns  and  cities  of  Northumberland,  Yorkshire,  Nor- 
thamptonshire, Devonshire,  Cheshire,  and  even  north  to  the  border- 
land of  Berwickshire,  that  the  writer  was  able  to  place  his  hand  or/ 
documents  that  proved  beyond  doubt  that  the  ancestors  of  John 
Graves  Simcoe  were  born  and  bred  in  Bunbury,  a  village  and  large 
parish  in  West  Cheshire  about  three  miles  from  Tarporley  and  a 
mile  and  a  half  southeast  of  Beeston  Castle.  This  old  stronghold 
occupies  a  romantic  and  impregnable  site  on  the  summit  of  a  huge 
and  lofty  isolated  rock.  It  was  built  in  1220  by  the  fourth  Earl  of 
Chester  and  dismantled  after  surrender  to  the  Parliamentary  forces 
in  the  year  1646.  The  parish  records  date  from  the  year  1559.  Mrs. 
Simcoe  visited  the  old  ruin  on  one  occasion  but  no  date  is  given  in 
the  memoranda.  It  was  probably  about  1800-1. 

The  first  trace  of  the  name  of  Simcoe  was  found  by  the  writer 
in  the  "Cantabrigiensis  Graduati"  of  the  University  of  Cambridge, 
published  in  the  year  1800.  At  page  381  of  this  work  under  the 
letter  "S"  is  the  record  "Simcoe,  Gail.,  Christ,  A.  B.,  1675"  and 
"Simcoe,  John,  Christ,  A.  B.  1716."  The  late  Dr.  John  Peile,  the 
master  of  Christ's  College,  1887-1910,  informed  me  that  "this  Wil- 
liam Simcoe  of  1675  was  the  son  of  a  William  Simcoe,  born  at  a 
place  not  given,  in  Cheshire,  was  at  school  in  Bunbury,  and  was 
admitted  a  sizar  under  Mr.  Lovett  at  Christ's  College,  5th  April, 
1672,  aged  19."  The  parish  records  show  that  he  was  born  in  the 
parish  of  Bunbury.  At  Cambridge  University  and  Trinity  College, 
Dublin,  a  sizar  was  an  undergraduate  of  limited  means,  and  was 
allowed  free  commons  and  some  other  gratuities.  Formerly  menial 
duties  were  imposed  upon  a  sizar. 

A  memorandum  on  a  half  sheet  of  note  paper  in  the  papers  at 
Wolford  states  that  Captain  John  Simcoe,  K.N.,  father  of  General 
Simcoe,  was  born  at  Leamside  farmhouse,  some  miles  from  the  city 
of  Durham;  but  other  than  this  memorandum,  though  a  close  exam- 
ination has  been  made  of  the  property  registers  of  Durham  Uni- 
versity, at  one  time  owners  of  the  farm,  there  is  no  entry  to  be 

12 


CAPTAIN  JOHN  SIMCOE,  RN. 


found  containing  the  name  of  Simcoe.     It  should  be  stated  that  the 
University  records  in  this  regard  are  not  extant  before  1752. 

There  are  some  hundreds  of  entries  of  births,  marriages,  and 
deaths  of  persons  named  Simcoe  in  the  parish  books  of  Bunbury 
and  the  adjacent  parish  of  Acton,  the  earliest  dating  back  to  1759, 
but  there  are  so  many  entries  with  Christian  names  alike  that  it  is 
impossible  to  fix  upon  the  ancestor  of  William  Simcoe  who  entered 
Christ's  College,  in  1675.  The  opinion  prevails  at  Bunbury  that 
"William  Simcoe/'  a  churchwarden  who  died  in  1664,  was  his 
father. 


GATE  OF  BEESTON  CASTLE — CHESHIRE. 

(From  an  old  Drawing  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

The  same  difficulty  arises  in  determining  the  parentage  of  Captain 
John  Simcoe,  R.N.,  born  in  1714  and  father  of  John  Graves  Simcoe. 
Hodgson  in  his  history  of  the  parish  of  Long  Horsley  in  Northum- 
berland states  that  Captain  John  Simcoe  was  a  son  of  the  Rev. 
William  Simcoe,  vicar  of  that  parish,  who  died  in  June,  1714.  If 
this  statement  be  true  the  vicar  died  in  the  year  his  son  was  born. 

There  are  no  letters  or  documents  in  the  papers  at  Wolford  too 
help  in   a   verification   of  Hodgson's   statement.      Suffice   it  to   say 
that  Captain  Simcoe  was  a  distinguished  naval  officer.  Of  his  early 
life  nothing  is  known.     His  after  life  shows  that  he  was  a  man  of 
exemplary  habits  and  character,  highly  educated,  and  had  made  a 

13 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

special  study  of  seamanship  and  naval  tactics.  He  was  thoroughly 
earnest  in  his  work,  eager  in  the  obtaining  of  knowledge  and  with 
a  mind  most  retentive,  made  the  best  use  of  leisure  hours  in  per- 
fecting himself  so  as  to  eventually  reach  the  top  round  of  the  ladder 
in  the  profession  he  had  chosen.  He  had  an  extensive  knowledge  of 
the  classics  and  in  mathematics  he  excelled.  He  was  a  voracious 
reader  and  his  cabin  was  the  home  of  a  small  library  consisting  not 
only  of  works  on  military  and  naval  tactics  but  of  the  best  authors 
in  general  literature.  Through  the  influence  of  his  father  he  entered 
the  Royal  Navy  as  a  midshipman  in  1730.  The  name  of  the  ship 
is  not  on  record. 

In  1737  he  was  promoted  to  a  lieutenancy  and  in  1743  at  twenty- 
nine  years  of  age  he  obtained  a  captain's  commission.  In  1747  he 
was  in  command  of  H.M.  Ship  "Prince  Edward."  His  ability  was 
recognized  in  many  ways  by  the  Admiralty,  and  his  advice  was  often 
sought  in  considering  questions  of  grave  import.  He  was  one  of  the 
members  of  the  court-martial  on  the  trial  of  Admiral  Byng 
(1756-7). 

About  four  years  before  the  capitulation  of  Quebec  he  drew  up/ 
a  plan,  and  wrote  an  able  paper  suggesting  the  manner  in  which 
not  only  the  ancient  city  could  be  captured,  but  how  Canada  could 
be  possessed  by  the  British  Crown.  He  addressed  this  document  to 
Lord  Barrington,  who  was  Secretary  of  War  1755-61 ;  and  the  latter 
after  giving  the  paper  a  careful  reading  complimented  Captain  Simcoe 
on  its  excellence,  and  said  that  when  the  time  came  to  act,  his  sug- 
gestions would  have  due  consideration. 

Another  paper  entitled  "Maxims  of  Conduct,"  or,  as  it  is  also 
called,  "Rules  for  Your  Conduct,"  was  written  in  1752  by  Capt. 
Simcoe  for  the  guidance  of  young  officers  in  the  naval  and  military 
service,  and  for  the  edification  of  his  sons.  It  is  an  admirable 
paper,  unexcelled  in  stvle  and  diction,  as  worthy  of  perusal  in  these 
modern  days  as  when  it  was  penned  a  hundred  and  fifty-nine  years 
ago. 

After  his  marriage  with  Catherine  Stamford  Captain  John 
Simcoe  decided  that  he  would  make  his  home  in  Cotterstock, 
a  village  about  a  mile  from  the  old  town  of  Oundle  in  Northamp- 
tonshire: Four  children,  all  sons,  were  issue  of  this  marriage, 
Paulet  William,  John,  John  Graves,  and  Percy  William.  The  first 
and  second  sons  died  in  infancy,  and  the  fourth  was  drowned  in 
1764  at  Sandy  Point  above  the  head  of  the  river  Exe  near  Exeter. 

On  August  22nd,  1747,  Captain  John  Simcoe  was  granted  by  the 
Garter  and  Clarenceux  Kings  of  Arms,  the  arms  and  crest  here  given, 
namely: — Azure,  a  fesse  wavy  ermine,  between  two  stars  of  twelve 
points  in  chief  and  a  cannon  barwise  in  base  or,  and  for  his  crest, 
out  of  a  naval  cross  or  a  demi  sea  lion  proper  holding  in  his  fore  fin  a 
mariner's  cross  staff  erect  or  and  on  his  shoulder  a  rose  gules  seeded 
proper.  In  October,  1747,  application  was  made  by  Captain  Simcoe 
for  an  alteration  in  his  arms.  The  extract  from  the  official  document, 

14 


DEATH  OF  CAPTAIN  SIMCOE 


dated  4th  November,  1747,  regarding  the  granting  of  this  alteration, 
reads: — "The  crest  depicted  on  the  other  side  granted  to  John 
Simcoe  of  Chelsea,  in  the  County  of 
Middlesex,  Esq.,  and  his  descendants  is 
hereby  altered  from  out  of  a  naval  crown 
or  a  demi  sea  lion  proper  holding  in 
his  fore  fin  a  mariner's  cross  staff  erect 
or  and  on  his  shoulder  a  rose  gules 
seeded  proper,  to  out  of  a  naval  crown 
or  a  demi  sea  lion  proper,  holding  in 
his  fore  fin  a  dagger  erect  argent,  the 
pomel  and  hilt  gold  and  on  his  shoulder 
a  rose  gules  barbed  and  seeded  proper 
as  the  same  is  in  the  margin  hereof  more 
plainly  depicted/' 

Captain  Simcoe  joined  H.  M.  Ship 
"Pembroke,"  60  guns,  in  1757,  as  com- 
mander, with  Mr.  James  Cook  as  master, 
and  in  1759  sailed  for  Canada  with  the 
fleet  under  Admiral  Saunders.  Mr.  Cook 
was  afterwards  the  celebrated  navigator 
who  in  1768  circumnavigated  the  globe 
in  the  "Endeavor";  and  in  later  years  he 
declared  that  he  was  under  many  obliga- 
tions to  Captain  Simcoe,  for  from  him  he 
had  received  a  great  part  of  his  training 
in  "navigation  and  seamanship."  Captain 
Simcoe,  however,  was  never  to  reap  the 
reward  of  his  years  of  study  in  naval  work, 
for  on  Tuesday,  May  15th,  1759,  while  the  "Pembroke"  was  near- 
ing  the  island  of  Anticosti  he  died  of  pneumonia  and  was  buried 
at  sea  at  six  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  the 
17th. 

Mrs.  Simcoe,  on  receiving  the  sad  news  of  the 
death  of  her  husband  on  the  "Pembroke,"  decided 
to  leave  Cotterstock,  where  she  had  spent  many 
happy  years,  and  remove  to  Exeter.  She  had 
friends  in  Devon,  several  of  whom  resided  in 
Exeter,  and  she  felt  that  the  advantages  for  the 
education  of  her  children  would  be  much  greater 
in  a  city,  possessing  better  schools  than  Oundle/ 
She  accordingly  rented  a  dwelling  in  the  Cathedral 
City  and  determined  that  her  life's  aim  should  be 
the  care  and  education  of  her  boys. 

But  her  cup  of  sorrow  was  not  yet  full.     The    CAPT.  JAMES  COOK. 
death  by  drowning  of  her  fourth  son,  Percy,  sad- 
dened Mrs.  Simcoe's  heart  for  years ;  however,  with  an  affection  that 
was  intensified  by  her  affliction,  she  devoted  her  life  to  her  surviving 

15 


ARMS  OF  JOHN  SIMCOE. 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

son  and  to  a  certain  extent  outlived  the  last  great  sorrow  that  fell  to 
her  lot. 

The  future  Governor  of  Upper  Canada  was  an  apt  pupil.  He 
received  his  primary  education  at  the  Free  Grammar  School  in 
Exeter  and  in  1766,  in  his  fourteenth  year,  he  was  sent  to  Eton. 
On  4th  February,  1769,  while  in  his  sixteenth  year,  he  entered 
Merton  College,  Oxford,  and  matriculated.  There  is  no  record  of 
his  graduation.  It  is  said  that  owing  to  ill-health  he  was  compelled 
to  withdraw  from  college  at  the  end  of  his  first  year.  He  accord- 
ingly returned  to  his  mother's  home  in  Exeter  and  with  the  assist- 
ance of  a  tutor  he  devoted  the  years  1770-1  to  the  acquiring  of 
general  knowledge  and  especially  to  the  subject  of  military  tactics, 
for  he  had  the  promise  of  an  ensign's  commission  from  friends  of  his 
mother  in  the  War  Office. 

In  1771  at  the  age  of  nineteen  he  entered  the  army  as  an  ensign 
in  the  35th  Regiment  of  Foot.  He  sailed  on  the  outbreak  of  the 
war  of  the  American  Eevolution  for  New  England  and  joined  his 
regiment  in  June  at  Boston  a  few  days  after  the  historic  battle 
of  Bunker  Hill,  or  rather  Breed's  Hill;  for  that  is  where  tb£  battle 
took  place  on  the  17th  of  June,  1775. 

His  anxiety  to  be  of  service  to  the  Crown  was  shown  by  his  offer 
to  raise  a  corps  of  negroes  for  service  in  New  England;  but  not- 
withstanding the  strong  influence  of  Admiral  Graves,  his  godfather, 
who  was  in  command  of  the  fleet,  his  offer  was  declined  by  General 
Gage,  who  was  in  command  of  the  forces.  While  his  regiment  was 
stationed  in  Boston  he  acted  as  adjutant,  but  there  is  no  record  of 
his  appointment.  At  the  evacuation  of  Boston  in  March,  1776,  he 
embarked  with  General  Howe's  army  for  Halifax. 

During  his  stay  in  Halifax  he  purchased  a  captaincy  in  the 
grenadier  company  of  the  40th  Eegiment,  and  when  New  York  was 
threatened  with  attack  he  sailed  with  the  forces 
early  in  June  for  Staten  Island  and  disembarked 
with  the  army  on  3rd  July,  1776.  He  took  an 
active  part  in  the  military  operations  in  Long 
Island  and  the  Jerseys  during  the  summer  and 
won  commendation  for  his  services. 

While  at  winter  quarters  at  Brunswick  in  1776 
he  went  to  New  York  to  see  Sir  William  Howe 
and  ask  for  the  command  of  the  Queen's  Eangers, 
which  was  then  vacant.  But  driven  by  stress  of 
weather  out  of  its  course,  the  boat  in  -which  he 

sailed  was  delayed  and  he  arrived  at  headquarters 

QTT,  WTTT  *    some  hours  too  late,  for  the  position  had  been 

o!  U     W  1LL.IAM    JlOW.h.       r»-n      -i  -r          11  n     -i  i -i-i     i 

filled.  In  the  summer  of  1777,  still  bent  on  an 
independent  command,  he  wrote  to  General  Grant,  under  whom  he 
had  served,  requesting  his  influence  in  the  securing  of  a  "command 
similar  to  that  of  the  Queen's  Eangers;  but  there  were  no  vacancies, 
and  once  more  he  was  disappointed.  The  Queen's  Eangers  were  at 

16 


JOHN  GRAVES  SIMCOE 

that  time  commanded  by  Major  Weymess.  Shortly  afterwards,  on 
the  llth  September,  was  fought  the  battle  of  the  Brandywine.  Simcoe 
led  his  company  of  the  40th  Regiment  and  received  a  wound,  from 
which  he  never  fully  recovered,  although  he  was  able  to  resume  his 
duties. 

At  last  his  ambitions  were  realized,  for  on  the  15th  of  October, 
1777,  Captain  Simcoe  was  nominated  major  commander  of  the  cele- 
brated Provincial  regiment  known  as  the  Queen's  Rangers,  which 
became  under  him  one  of  the  most  efficient  and  gallant  corps  .that 
took  part  in  the  War  of  the  Revolution.  It  was  at  this  time  encamped 
with  the  army  in  the  vicinity  of  Germantown,  near  Philadelphia. 

In  June,  1778,  he  received  from  Sir  Henry  Clinton  the  local 
rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Rangers.  In  an  action  in  1779 
he  had  a  narrow  escape  for  his  life  and  was  taken  prisoner.  He 
obtained  his  release  on  the  31st  of  December,  1779,  and  returned 
to  his  regiment.  His  Majesty  on  the  19th  of  December,  1781,  was 
pleased  to  confer  upon  him  the  rank  of  a  lieutenant-colonel  in  the 
army,  the  duties  of  which  he  had  fulfilled  from  the  year  1778.  His 
regiment  was  amongst  the  troops  which  were  included  in  the  •  sur- 
render by  General  Cornwallis  at  Gloucester  Point  on  the  19th  of 
October,  1781. 

The  story  of  his  part  in  the  campaign  as  colonel  of  the  Queen's 
Rangers,  as  told  in  his  journal,  will  be  found  in  another  volume. 
His  journal  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  books  of  its  kind.  It  was 
published  in  Exeter  at  the  close  of  the  war,  and  was  .received  most 
favorably  by  the  press  and  highly  commended  by  the  leading  military 
writers  of  England.  Simcoe  returned  to  England  in  December,  1781, 
at  the  close  of  the  war,  married  Miss  Gwillim  in  1782,  and  from 
1783-7  he  resided  in  the  Cathedral  City. 

In  1784,  the  estate  of  Wolford,  four  miles  from  Honiton,  in 
the  parish  of  Dunkeswell,  Devon,  was  purchased  by  Mrs.  Simcoe. 
Although  there  was  an  old  farmhouse  on  the  property,  a  new  resi- 
dence was  built;  the  estate  was  considerably  improved  during  the 
years  1786-7,  and  in  1788  Colonel  Simcoe  and  his  family  left  Exeter 
and  took  up  their  residence  at  Wolford.  He  held  the  rank  of 
colonel  in  the  army  from  the  18th  of  November,  1790,  and  in  the 
same  year  he  was  elected  to  Parliament  for  the  borough  of  St.  Maw's 
in  Cornwall.  His  political  career,  however,  was  of  short  duration, 
for  in.  1791  he  received  his  commission  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
new  province  of  Upper  Canada  and  sailed  from  Weymouth  for  Quebec 
on  the  26th  of  September  in  the  ship  "  Triton,"  21  guns,  accompanied 
by  his  wife  and  two  of  his  children  and  Lieutenant  Talbot. 

In  a  despatch  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  Lord  Dorchester  had 
.previously  recommended  Sir  John  Johnson  as  first  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  Upper  Canada.  Sir  John  Johnson  had  rendered  valuable 
services,  and  in  the  matter  of  claim  was  entitled  to  consideration. 
On  the  other  hand,  his  appointment  was  undesirable,  not  only  on 
.account  of  his  large  property  holdings  in  the  new  province,  and 
2  17 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

consequent  local  interests,  but  also  from  the  fact  that  the  policy  of 
the  British  Government  did  not  allow  the  appointment  of  residents 
of  colonies  in  the  government  of  the  same. 

The  "Triton"  arrived  in  Quebec  on  the  llth  of  November.  Lord 
Dorchester,  the  Governor-General,  was  on  leave  of  absence  in  Eng- 
land and  Major-General  Alured  Clarke,  who  by  the  way  was  a 
Devonian,  was  acting  as  administrator.  Simcoe  had  been  entrusted 
with  the  commission  of  and  instructions  to  the  Governor- General 
which  were  to  be  issued  on  the  division  of  the  province  into  Upper 
and  Lower  Canada,  together  with  the  commission  of  Sir  John 
Johnson,  Bart.,  as  Superintendent-General  of  Indian  affairs,  and  the 
commission  of  Major-General  Alured  Clarke  as  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  new  Province  of  Lower  Canada.  All  these  documents  were  duly 
delivered  on  the  day  following  his  arrival. 

Simcoe  presented  also  a  personal  letter  from  the  King  to  H.R.H. 
Prince  Edward,  Duke  of  Kent,  the  father  of  Queen  Victoria,  in 
which  His  Majesty  commended  the  newly  appointed  Governor  io  his 
son,  who  was  in  command  of  the  7th  Fusiliers,  stationed  at  Quebec. 
It  should  be  stated  that  Governor  Simcoe  was  offered  by  the  War 
Office  before  his  departure  for  Canada  the  rank  of  Brigadier-General ; 
but  he  declined  the  promotion  because  he  foresaw  that  unless  His 
Royal  Highness  should  be  promoted  at  the  same  time,  his  acceptance 
would  place  him  above  the  King's  son. 

Moreover,  Governor  Simcoe  understood  that  such  promotion 
was  not  desired  by  Prince  Edward,  and  from  general  belief  it  was 
also  not  his  Majesty's  intention  to  confer  it.  Governor  Simcoe  had 
always  a  dislike  to  nominal  rank.  His  local  Provincial  rank  in 
America  was  senior  to  that  of  Major-General  Alured  Clarke,  for 
early  in  1778  Simcoe  had  been  gazetted  a  lieutenant-colonel,  though 
of  course  ranking  as  the  youngest  of  the  service. 

The  Governor  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Dundas  on  the  6th  September, 
1791,  said:  "I  by  no  means  wish  to  command  or  to  wound  the 
feelings  of  a  senior  officer,  much  less  to  interfere  with  the  just  pre- 
tensions of  the  son  of  my  Sovereign." 

The  official  proclamation  and  the  text  of  the  Act  dividing  the 
old  province  of  Canada  into  two  provinces  was  issued  on  18th  No- 
vember, 1791,  a  week  after  the  Governor's  arrival  in  Quebec,  and 
was  published  in  the  Quebec  Gazette  of  December  1st,  1791.  The 
natal  day  of  the  new  provinces  was  fixed  for  the  26th  of  December. 

General  Alured  Clarke  was  duly  sworn  in  as  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  Province  of  Lower  Canada,  but  being  administrator  in  the 
absence  of  the  Governor- General  he  occupied  a  different  position  from 
that  of  Governor  Simcoe.  When  the  proclamation  was  issued  for 
the  division  of  the  province,  Lieutenant-Governor  Clarke  had  full 
powers  as  regards  his  own  government,  but  he  had  no  authority  to 
deal  in  any  way  with  the  affairs  of  the  civil  government  of  the  Prov- 
ince of  Upper  Canada.  But,  at  the  same  time,  acting  as  administrator, 

18 


APPOINTMENT  AS  LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR 

he  could  exercise  all  the  prerogatives  and  powers  of  the  Governor-in- 
Chief  in  either  province. 

The  Act  of  1791  making  further  provision  for  the  government  of 
the  province  of  Quebec  is  familiarly  known  as  the  Act  for  dividing 
the  province  of  Quebec  into  the  provinces  of  Upper  and  Lower  Canada. 
But  Mr.  Avern  Pardoe  in  his  excellent  paper  on  "The  First  Chapter 
of  Upper  Canada  History"  (Ontario  Historical  Society  Transactions, 
Vol.  VII.)  points  out,  the  creation  of  the  new  provinces  was  an  Act 
of  the  King  under  his  royal  prerogative.  The  Crown  divided 
Quebec  by  proclamation  and  Parliament's  duty  and  privilege  in  the 
matter  was  to  provide  a  constitution  for  them. 

The  statute  quoted  enacts  that  these  provinces  which  the  King  has 
created  shall  have  a  Legislative  Council  and  Assembly  and  that  these 
shall  be  assembled  by  the  Governor  or  Lieutenant- Governor.  But 
there  is  nothing  in  the  Act  authorizing  the  appointment  of  a  Gov- 
ernor or  Lieutenant-Governor.  That  is  another  prerogative  of  the 
Crown — in  these  days  exercised  on  advice  but  hardly  so  in  the  days 
of  George  III.  Nor  does  the  Act  contain  any  information  as  to  the 
extent  of  the  powers  conferred  upon  the  Governor  or  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  Province.  That  is  yet  another  prerogative  of  the 
Crown.  The  powers  of  the  Governor  and  Lieutenant-Governor  are 
those  conferred  upon  them  by  their  commissions  and  instructions. 

Lieutenant-Governor  Simcoe  seems  to  have  been  from  the  first  at  a 
loss  to  know  his  exact  relations  to  the  Governor-General,  Lord  Dor- 
chester. The  commission  of  and  instructions  to  Lord  Dorchester 
as  Governor-in-Chief  and  Captain-General  over  the  provinces  of 
Upper  and  Lower  Canada  issued  on  the  division  of  the  province,  were 
brought  out  by  Simcoe  as  before  said,  and  Simcoe's  own  instruc- 
tions directed  him  to  read  Dorchester's  instructions  and  conduct 
himself  accordingly. 

The  power  of  the  Governor-General  was  almost  unlimited.  The 
whole  duty  of  the  Lieutenant-Governor  was  to  follow  out  the  instruc- 
tions of  the  Governor-in-Chief.  There  were  no  instructions  issued 
to  Governor  Simcoe  other  than  his  commission  and  the  injunction 
to  regard  Dorchester's  instructions,  neither  is  there  record  of  any  in- 
structions having  been  addressed  to  Simcoe.  His  commission,  which 
was  simply  a  few  hundred  words  appointing  him  as  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  contained  nothing  that  would  throw  light  on  the  extent  of 
the  powers  the  Lieutenant-Governor  should  exercise. 

Simcoe  felt  that  in  accepting  office  he  should  in  the  main  have 
been  free  to  administer  the  affairs  of  the  province  as  one  endowed 
with  authority,  and  that  he  should  not  be  hampered  with  edicts 
and  instructions  from  Quebec,  but  should  have  the  right  to  com- 
municate direct  with  the  home  authorities.  As  a  matter  of  fact 
he  did  so  communicate. 

In  the  Simcoe  correspondence  there  is  a  letter  from  Sir  George 
Yonge  in  connection  with  the  military  force,  giving  an  "extract  from 
the  instructions  given  to  the  civil  Governor." 

19 


DJAKY  OF  MKS.  S1MCOE 

These  instructions  show  that,  where  no  specific  orders  have  been 
given  by  the  Commander-in-Chief  or  by  the  General  commanding 
the  district,  the  civil  Governor-in-Council  may  give  orders  for  the 
inarching  of  troops  and  other  military  services;  but  such  order  must 
be  repeated  to  the  Commander-in-Chief,  and  that  the  Civil  Governor 
must  not  interfere  with  the  detail  of  the  military  regimental  duty. 

The  complexity  of  the  situation  and  the  delay  in  getting  his 
government  formed  was  galling  to  Simcoe.  He  foresaw  that  he  would 
be  virtually  cribbed,  cabined,  and  confined  in  Quebec  for  the  winter, 
and  that  he  was  absolutely  powerless  to  make  any  immediate  move 
in  the  direction  of  occupying  his  seat  of  government. 

Meanwhile  he  occupied  his  time  with  various  matters  that  con- 
cerned the  new  province.  Many  months  before  his  departure  from 
England,  indeed  before  the  Canada  Act  of  May,  1791,  was  passed, 
he  had  considered  the  policy  he  would  pursue  in  conducting  his  new 
government;  for,  of  course,  he  knew  at  that  time  his  appointment 
was  assured. 

One  of  Simcoe's  first  suggestions  was  the  raising  of  a  military 
force  for  service  within  the  limits  of  the  province.  This  suggestion 
Avas  assented  to  in  August  of  1791,  the  corps  being  known  as  the 
Queen's  Eangers.  Another  was  that  he  should  be  permitted  to  visit 
Philadelphia,  where  the  United  States  Congress  was  sitting,  to 
discuss  and  mediate  on  the  Indian  question.  But  this  suggestion 
was  not  acted  upon. 

Even  in  regard  to  the  administration  of  justice  in  Upper  Canada 
the  Governor's  hands  were  tied ;  for,  as  there  was  no  majority  of  his 
Council  in  Canada,  the  oaths  could  not  be  administered.  He,  there- 
fore, had  no  power  to  issue  a  proclamation.  This  was  after  the 
division  of  the  provinces  was  proclaimed.  Major-General  Alured 
Clarke  could  act  for  Lower  Canada,  but  Governor  Simcoe,  until  he 
had  taken  the  oath,  had  no  legal  power.  This  difficulty  might  have 
affected  the  organization  of  courts  in  Upper  Canada,  but  when  Judge 
Powell  was  appointed  to  hold  court  in  Kingston  in  December,  the 
difficulty  was  overcome  by  him,  as,  on  the  advice  of  Chief  Justice 
Smith,  he  did  not  raise  the  question  of  authority  to  hold  court  in  the 
new  province. 

Simcoe  now  occupied  a  singular  position.  By  virtue  of  his  com- 
mission he  was  the  Governor  of  the  new  province  of  Upper  Canada, 
but,  notwithstanding,  had  no  military  command ;  and  as  regards  his 
own  military  rank,  he  could  not  avail  himself  of  his  colonelcy  until 
the  corps — the  Queen's  Eangers,  of  which  he  was  Commander — 
or  part  of  it,  was  actually  on  service  under  him.  This  restriction 
was  specifically  set  forth  to  Governor  Simcoe  in  a  letter  from  Sir 
George  Yonge,  the  Secretary  of  State,  on  September  21st,  1791. 
Simcoe  knew  that  the  Rangers  would  not  arrive  until  the  summer 
of  1792  and  keenly  resented  the  inevitable  delay  in  the  recognition 
of  his  rank. 

20 


TAKES  OATHS  OF  OFFICE 

Furthermore,  his  civil  powers'  as  Lieutenant-Governor  were  not 
operative  until  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Council  had  been  convened 
and  the  oaths  of  office  administered.  Four  members  of  this  body 
had  been  nominated  by  the  authorities  in  London,  namely,  William 
Osgoode,  William  Robertson,  Alexander  Grant  and  Peter  Russell. 
Mr.  Grant  was  the  only  member  who  had  arrived  in  Canada.  Thus,, 
in  the  absence  of  a  majority  of  his  Council,  the  Governor  had 
practically  to  mark  time  and  await  their  arrival. 

Simcoe  saw  clearly  the  situation  and  at  once  applied  to  England 
for  permission  to  nominate  James  Baby,  of   Detroit,  as   one   of   the 
three  Councillors  required  and  asked  permission 
to  appoint  two  more  so  that  the  seven  members 
required  by  the  act  would  meet  and  initiate  the 
business    of   organizing   the   government    of    the 
new  province.     In  June,  however,   Osgcode  and 
Russell  arrived,  and  with  Baby  made  a  quorum. 
The  appointment   followed   of   John   Munro,   of 
Matilda,  in  January,  1792,  and  later  of  Richard 
Cartwright,  jr.,  of  Kingston,  Robert   Hamilton, 
of  Niagara  and  Richard  Duncan,  of   Rapid   du 
Plat.     The  Council  was  now  complete.     William     H       JAMES  BABY 
Robertson,  however,  never  came  to   Canada   but 
resigned,  his  place  being  filled  in  June,  1793.  by  the  appointment  of 
Aeneas  Shaw. 

All  this  delay  was  vexatious  to  Simcoe.  True,  he  and  his  wife 
were  the  recipients  of  unbounded  hospitality  from  the  military,  civil, 
and  social  leaders  of  the  old  capital,  but  the  Governor  was  a  man  of 
active  habit  and  eager  to  journey  to  his  new  province. 

At  the  end  of  May  and  in  the  second  week  of  June  two  divisions 
of  the  Queen's  Rangers  arrived  at  Quebec,  and  some  weeks  later 
reached  the  new  province. 

Governor  Simcoe  had  paid  a  short  visit  to  Montreal  in  December/ 
1791,  but  did  not  go  further  west.  On  the  8th  June,  1792,  with  his. 
family  and  Lieutenants  Grey  and  Talbot  he  left  Quebec  for  Kingston 
in  bateaux,  arriving  in  Montreal  on  the  17th,  leaving  there  on  the 
27th  and  reaching  Kingston  on  the  1st  of  July.  On  the  8th  of  July 
the  Governor  repaired  to  the  Protestant  church,  and  there  the  oaths 
were  administered  by  Chief  Justice  Osgoode.  The  Honorable  James 
Baby  and  the  Honorable  Peter  Russell,  together  with  the  magistrates 
and  principal  inhabitants  of  the  town,  were  present ;  and  the  ceremon- 
ial must  have  been,  so  far  as  the  primitive  environment  permitted,  of 
a  very  impressive  character.  A  note  containing  the  minutes  of  the 
Executive  Council  in  connection  with  this  event  is  given  in  its  proper 
place  in  Mrs.  Simcoe's  diary  for  July,  1792. 

From  Kingston,  Governor  Simcoe,  with  his  family  and  suite, 
sailed  on  the  Government  schooner  "Onondaga"  for  Niagara,  where 
they  arrived  on  the  26th  July,  1792.  Navy  Hall  was  undergoing, 
alteration?.  These  were  not  completed,  so  by  the  Governor's  orders 

21 


DIARY  OF  MKS.  SIMCOE 

three  marquees  were  pitched  on  the  hill  above  the  Hall.  In  these 
the  Governor's  family  and  suite  were  housed  pending  the  completion 
of  the  alterations.  Navy  Hall  had  been  originally  built  by  Governor 
Haldimand  for  the  use  of  the  naval  officers  on  the  lakes.  During 
Simcoe's  time  some  additions  were  made.  One  of  these  was  a  council 
chamber,  and  it  was  used  as  a  ball-room  where  Mrs.  Simcoe  enter- 
tained. Simcoe's  work  in  the  way  of  organizing  the  Provincial 
Government  and  carrying  on  the  affairs  of  the  Province,  will  be  told 
in  another  volume. 

Simcoe  was  energetic  in  his  administration  and  was  inspired  by 
a  determination  to  do  his  best  for  the  people  he  was  called  upon  to 
govern.  The  first  Legislature  was  called  on  17th  September,  1792, 
at  Navy  Hall,  Niagara,  and  was  prorogued  on  the  15th  of  October. 
There  has  always  been  some  doubt  as  to  the  building  and  the  place 
where  the  first  Legislature  met.  Some  assert  that  the  meeting  was 
held  in  a  tent  pitched  on  the  common  above  Fort  George.  This 
ground  was  marked  'by  an  old  oak  tree  known  as  the  "Parliament 
Oak."  A  picture  of  this  tree  in  decay  is  in  the  Museum,  Niagara-on- 
the-Lake.  Another  writer  asserts  that  the  Legislature  met  in  Free- 
masons' Hall,  Niagara.  The  records  of  the  Upper  Canada  Gazette, 
however,  dispose  of  all  doubts,  for  in  the  issue  of  that  paper  of  18th 
April,  1793,  the  words  "Government  House,  Navy  Hall"  are  used, 
and  on  3rd  July,  1794,  the  same  words  are  used,  while  on  the  10th 
of  August,  1794,  Governor  Simcoe  calls  the  members  to  appear  at 
"our  Government  House,  Navy  Hall."  On  the  14th  of  August,  1794, 
the  latter  expression  is  again  used. 

During  Simcoe's  term  from  1792-6  five  sessions  of  the  Legislature 
were  held  at  Niagara,  in  one  of  the  four  buildings  known  as  Navy 
Hall,  for  there  was  no  accommodation  for  the  Legislature  at  York. 
The  buildings  at  York  were  not  ready  for  occupation  till  1797,  the 
year  following  Simcoe's  departure.  Rochefoucauld  in  his  "Tour 
Through  Upper  Canada,"  1795,  writes  that  "during  our  residence 
at  Navy  Hall  the  session  of  the  Legislature  of  Upper  Canada  was 
opened."  He  does  not  indicate  any  building  other  than  "Navy  Hall" 
and  says  the  Governor  "dressed  in  silk  entered  the  hall  with  his  hat 
on  his  head,  attended  by  his  adjutant  and  two  secretaries." 

Eight  acts  were  considered  and  passed.  The  ancient  laws  of  the 
Province  of  Quebec  were  abolished,  the  laws  of  England  were  to 
prevail,  and  all  forms  of  law  and  equity  were  to  be  in  conformity 
with  the  British  rules  of  evidence.  Trial  by  jury  was  established  and 
provision  made  for  the  recovery  of  small  debts.  Jails  and  court 
houses  were  to  be  erected  in  the  four  Districts,  the  Eastern,  the 
Middle,  the  Home  and  the  Western.  A  marriage  bill  was  introduced 
with  the  view  of  legalizing  all  irregular  marriages,  for  at  this  period 
no  marriage  ceremony  was  legal  unless  performed  by  a  clergyman  of 
the  Church  of  England.  It  was,  therefore,  necessary  that  all  past 
marriages  should  be  legalized  and  a  law  provided  for  the  future  vali- 
dation of  all  such  unions. 

22 


SIMCOE  AXD  DOECHESTER 

But  this  act  was  withdrawn  and  another  act  was  drawn  during 
the  recess,  submitted  to  the  authorities  in  England,  and  was  then 
passed  by  the  Legislative  Assembly  and  assented  to  by  the  Governor. 
Shortly  after  the  prorogation  of  the  first  Assembly  the  publication  of 
the  Upper  Canada  Gazette  or  American  Oracle,  the  official 
journal  of  the  province,  was  commenced. 

In  February,  1793,  General  Simcoe  visited  the  western  parts  of 
the  Province,  accompanied  by  Major  Littlehales,  Captain  Fitzgerald, 
Lieutenant  Smith  of  the  5th  Regiment,  and  Lieutenants  Talbot,  Grey 
and  Givins.  They  proceeded  west  to  the  Mohawk  village  on  the  Grand 
River,  then  to  the  Moravian  Settlement  of  the  Delaware  Indians,  and 
returned  by  way  of  the  present  site  of  London,  Ont.,  which  at  a  later 
date  Simcoe  suggested  as  a  proper  place  for  the  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince. 

On'  the  2nd  May,  1793,  he  visited  the  site  of  Toronto  for  the 
first  time  and  decided  to  call  the  new  town  York  "in  consideration 
and  compliment  of  the  Duke  of  York's  victories  in  Flanders."  But 
it  was  not  until  the  26th  August,  1793,  that  the  official  notification 
of  the  name  was  published. 

In  1793,  Simcoe  directed  also  the  making  of  a  roadway  to  the 
western  part  of  the  province,  the  present  Dundas  Street,  and  named 
it  after  the  Right  Hon.  Henry  Dundas,  Secretary  of  State  for  the 
Colonies.  In  May,  1794,  he  paid  his  second  visit  to  the  site  of  his 
new  capital  (now  Toronto),  and  ordered  Mr.  Alexander  Aitken,  a 
Government  surveyor,  to  make  a  plan  of  the  town.  He  also  selected 
the  site  for  a  fort  at  the  west  end  of  the  town  so  as  to  command  the 
mouth  of  the  harbor.  This  fortification  was  destroyed  in  1813,  but 
rebuilt  in  1816,  and  is  now  (1911)  being  restored  by  the  corporation 
of  Toronto  under  agreement  with  the  Dominion  Government. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  Lord  Dorchester,  the  Governor-Gen- 
eral, was  on  leave  of  absence  and  did  not  return  to  Canada  until 
September  of  1793.  From  the  date  of  Lord  Dorchester's  return  down 
to  the  date  of  Simcoe's  departure  from  Canada,  there  was  constant 
friction  between  the  Governor-General  and  the  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  Upper  Canada.  Indeed,  it  looked  as  if  Dorchester  had  determined 
to  make  Simcoe's  position  as  uncomfortable  as  possible.  Simcoe  had 
not  forgotten  the  "unjust,  humiliating  and  disgraceful  order,"  as  he 
termed  it,  issued  by  Guy  Carleton  in  1783,  concerning  a  charge  made 
against  the  Queen's  Rangers  as  being  guilty  of  "plundering  and 
marauding"  on  Long  Island  Sound  during  the  War  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, a  charge,  by  the  way,  that  was  without  foundation.  The  official 
correspondence  shows  that  Dorchester  seized  every  opportunity  to 
clog  the  wheels  of  Simcoe's  .Government.  As  an  example  of  this 
unfriendliness  Dorchester  compelled  Simcoe  to  change  the  system 
of  contracting  for  supplies  and  he  ordered  the  change  in  a  manner 
that  was  most  mortifying. 

Then  again,  Simcoe  was  strongly  against  the  proposal  of  Dor- 
chester to  erect  a  fort  in  the  Indian  territory  on  the  Maumee  River. 

25 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Dorchester  insisted  that  the  fort  should  be  established  and  his  order 
was  carried  out  by  Simcoe.  He  did  not  agree  with  Simcoe  on  the 
choice  of  London  as  the  capital  of  Upper  Canada;  and  when  Simcoe 
objected  to  Dorchester's  policy  of  removing  the  best  part  of  the 
troops  from  Upper  Canada  and  taking  them  to  Quebec,  the  Governor- 
General  wrote  to  Simcoe  saying  that  he  would  act  on  his  own 
judgment  irrespective  of  the  opinion  expressed  by  Simcoe.  The 
official  correspondence  of  the  time  teems  with  passages  at  arms 
between  Dorchester,  Simcoe,  and  the  Duke  of  Portland. 

Simcoe,  of  course,  had  carried  on  official  correspondence  during 
his  term  with  the  authorities  at  London.  Dorchester  naturally 
thought  that  Simcoe  should  use  the  Governor-in-Chief  as  the  medium 
of  communication.  Indeed,  Dorchester  complained  that  he  had  not 
been  treated  as  the  Governor-in-Chief  should  be ;  and  that  the  author- 
ities in  London,  that  is,  the  Duke  of  Portland,  had  no  right  to 
receive  official  communications  from  the  Lieutenant- Governor,  who 
was  subordinate  to  the  Governor-in-Chief. 

The  poles  could  not  be  further  apart  than  Simcoe  and  Dorches- 
ter in  their  views  as  to  the  powers  and  prerogatives  of  the  Governor 
and  Lieutenant-Governor,  respectively.  Dorchester  would  have  made 
the  new  province  a  military  colony  with  forts  for  the  protection  of  the 
settlers.  On  the  other  hand  Simcoe's  aim  was  to  bring  in  colonists — 
even  American  colonists — and  make  Upper  Canada  a  great  agricul- 
tural province. 

Simcoe  often  said  that  the  day  would  come  when  every  acre  of 
land  from  the  Ottawa  to  the  Detroit  River  would  so  respond  to  the 
call  of  the  husbandmen  that  the  sickle  would  never  be  idle  and  the 
people  never  be  in  want. 

The  Duke  of  Portland  tried  to  throw  oil  on  the  troubled  waters, 
but  without  avail.  Dorchester  felt  that  Simcoe  was  his  inferior 
officer,  for  he  writes  that  Simcoe  "seemed  to  think  that  he  had  an 
independent  command."  Simcoe  held  fast  to  the  idea  that,  outside  of 
actual  military  operations,  he  was  supreme  in  his  own  province.  The 
neglect  to  furnish  Simcoe  with  individual  instructions  defining 
exactly  his  powers  and  duties  seems  to  have  been  the  cause  of  all 
the  trouble. 

This  continued  friction  and  unrest  between  the  Governor  and 
Lieutenant-Governor  in  Upper  Canada  led  to  the  resignation  by  both 
of  their  respective  commands  in  the  usual  form  of  "leave  of  absence." 
Dorchester  sailed  for  England  on  the  9th  July  and  Simcoe  said 
farewell  to  Upper  Canada  on  the  21st  July,  1796.  On  the  10th  Sep- 
tember, with  his  wife  and  children  he  sailed  from  Quebec  in  H.  M. 
Ship  "Pearl,"  which  anchored  in  the  Downs  on  the  13th  of  October. 
On  disembarking,  the  General  and  his  family  proceeded  to  Dover, 
Canterbury  and  Dartford,  and  on  Monday,  the  17th,  reached  Wolford. 

In  1796  the  British  Government  wanted  an  officer  to  take  charge 
of  the  forces  in  San  Domingo.  General  Simcoe,  who  had  been 
gazetted  Major-General  on  the  2nd  of  October,  1794,  was  offered  the 

26 


SIMCOE'S  LATER  POSITIONS 

position.  He  called  upon  the  Duke  of  Portland,  who  told  him  that 
he  could  retain  his  position  of  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Upper  Canada 
or  go  as  Commander-in-'Chief  of  the  forces  in  San  Domingo,  to  succeed 
Sir  Ralph  Abercrombie. 

Simcoe  accepted  the  new  position  and  on  the  3rd  of  December, 
1796,  he  was  appointed  Civil  Governor  and  Commander-in-Ohief  of 
the  British  forces  in  San  Domingo  in  place  of  Sir  Adam  Williamson, 
who  had  established  the  British  protectorate  over  the  island. 

Simcoe  was  much  disappointed.  In  a  letter  written  to  H.  R.  H. 
the  Duke  of  Kent  on  24th  November,  1801,  referring  to  his  San 
Domingo  appointment,  Simcoe  writes:  "His  Grace  (the  Duke  of 
Portland)  expressly  told  me  that  I  was  to  be  Commander-in-Chief. 
In  this  I  was  disappointed.  Sir  R.  Abercrombie  retained  that  office, 
but  with  the  injunction  communicated  to  him  by  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Dundas,  the  Secretary  of  State,  not  to  exercise  any  authority  in  San 
Domingo,"  and  Simcoe  further  adds,  "I  believe  such  an  injunction 
to  be  illegal,  I  am  sure  it  was  unmilitary."  In  this  letter  Simcoe 
also  pointed  out  that  his  "services  in  Canada  had  been  slighted"  in 
that  as  Lieutenant-Governor  he  had  a  fair  claim  to  the  command  of 
the  Royal  Americans  in  preference  to  General  Hunter.  The  letter 
further  shows  that  he  was  promised  the  position  of  Governor-General 
of  Canada  and  also  a  peerage. 

In  1797  General  Simcoe  proceeded  to  his  new  post  with  instruc- 
tions to  aid  the  French  in  restoring,  if  possible,  order  to  the  island. 
While  the  General  did  excellent  work  in  his  command,  he  became 
wearied  with  the  kind  of  warfare  in  which  he  was  engaged,  and  after 
eight  months  in  the  island  he  returned  to  England,  either  to  pro- 
cure a  force  adequate  for  the  work  or  to  abandon  the  cause.  His 
place  was  filled  by  his  second  in  command,  Brigadier-General  Sir 
Thomas  Maitland,  appointed  18th  April,  1797.  In  1798,  owing  to 
the  fear  that  Napoleon  would  seek  a  landing  on  British  soil,  General 
Simcoe  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  Plymouth  and  the  Western 
District,  and  in  Felruary,  1801,  he  was  gazetted  as  "Lieutenant- 
General  in  the  Army." 

In  1806  the  General  was  appointed  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
British  forces  in  India,  to  succeed  Lord  Lake,  and  he  at  once  began 
to  make  arrangements  for  departure  to  his  far-distant  command. 
Mrs.  Simcoe  and  one  of  her  daughters  had  gone  to  London  and 
were  busily  engaged  in  making  purchases  such  as  would  be  required 
in  their  new  home,  when  an  entire  change  of  plan  came  from  the 
authorities  in  London  by  special  messenger  to  Exeter,  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Western  District. 

The  order  was  in  effect  that  the  British  Government  had  informa- 
tion that  led  to  the  belief  that  an  invasion  of  Portugal  was  contem- 
plated by  Napoleon.  The  orders  were  peremptory.  The  fleet  under 
Earl  St.  Vincent  was  cruising  off  Brest,  whence  it  was  ordered  to 
the  Tagus,  while  Lord  Rosslyn  and  Lieutenant-General  Simcoe  were 
directed  to  join  Earl  St.  Vincent  at  Lisbon. 

27 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

General  Simcoe  had  been  in  poor  health,  but  by  exercising  the 
greatest  care  he  was  able  without  undue  exertion  to  cover  the  large 
amount  of  work  assigned  to  him  in  the  command  of  the  Western 
District.  He  was  so  confident  of  his  physical  strength  that  he  did 
not  hesitate  to  accept  the  India  command  when  it  was  offered  to 
him. 

Indeed  it  was  anticipated  that  after  the  negotiations  in  Lisbon 
lie  would  return  to  England  and  then  proceed  to  India.  But  it  was 
not  to  be.  He  sickened  on  the  voyage  to  Lisbon  and  was  compelled 
to  return  to  England.  There  was  some  delay  owing  to  the  non- 
arrival  of  the  man-of-war  which  was  ordered  to  convey  him  to  Eng- 
land. But  on  the  28th  of  September,  1806,  he  sailed  on  H.  M.  S. 
"Illustrious"  and  on  the  21st  of  October  he  landed  at  Topsham  and 
the  next  day  was  carefully  driven  to  Exeter  and  taken  to  the  house 
of  his  friend,  Archdeacon  Moore,  whose  dwelling  was  in  the  Cathedral 
Close.  He  was  too  ill  to  make  the  journey  to  Wolford,  and  on  the 
following  Sunday,  the  26th,  the  General  passed  away. 

The  remains  of  the  General  were  embalmed  and  kept  in  Exeter 
until  the  4th  of  November  in  order  that  the  funeral  arrangements 
might  be  perfected.  His  funeral  was  an  imposing  one  and  every  mark 
of  respect  was  paid  by  the  citizens  and  by  the  military  authorities. 
The  burial  took  place  at  Wolford,  fourteen  miles  from  Exeter,  and 
the  old  Roman  road  over  which  the  cortege  passed  was  lined  by  the 
volunteer  militia  of  Devon.  At  the  third  mile  of  the  journey  a  squad- 
ron of  dragoons  were  drawn  up  and  escorted  the  remains  to  Wolford. 
The  regulars  stationed  at  Exeter  were  unable  to  take  part  owing  to 
the  fact  that  there  was  a  Parliamentary  election  in  progress  and 
during  such  an  event  the  military  were  not  allowed  in  the  constit- 
uency. Reaching  Wolford  at  six  o'clock  in  the  evening,  the  burial 
was  by'  torchlight  in  the  presence  of  his  widow  and  family  and  the 
leading  men  of  the  county.  The  remains  were  interred  at  the  east  end 
of  the  private  chapel,  which  had  been  erected  by  the  General. 


28 


CHAPTER   III. 
COURTSHIP  AND  MARRIAGE. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Simcoe  after  his  return  in  1781  from  the 
American  campaign,  spent  some  days  in  London  with  the  authorities 
of  the  War  Office.  During  that  summer  he  journeyed  to  Exeter  and 
resolved  that  Devon,  the  county  in  which  he  had  so  many  friends  and 
connections,  should  be  his  permanent  home. 

There  is  no  correspondence  in  the  manuscripts  at  "Wolford  to 
show  whether  his  mother,  to  whom  he  was  devoted,  was  alive  at  the 


BUCKERALL  PARISH   ClIURCH,  DEVON. 
(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

time  of  his  return.  Nor  is  there  any  record  of  her  death  to  be  found 
in  the  registers  of  the  Cathedral  or  of  any  of  the  churches  of  Exeter, 
although  diligent  search  for  entries  has  been  made  by  the  writer. 
The  impression  amongst  the  Devon  connections  of  the  family — all 
by  marriage — is  that  Mrs.  Simcoe  died  in  Exeter  shortly  before  the 
return  of  her  son  from  the  United  States. 

After  his  return  the  Colonel  was  not  in  the  best  of  health.  The 
strenuous  activities  of  military  life  in  the  American  campaign  had 
told  severely  on  his  physique.  He  had  not  fully  recovered  from  the 

29 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 


effects  of  a  wound  he  had  received  at  the  Battle  of  Brandywine;  and, 
therefore,  a  quiet  life  and  perfect  rest  were  prescribed  by  his  physician. 
He  loved  the  balmy  air  of  Devon  and  enjoyed  short  visits  to  the 
country  houses  of  friends,  who  delighted  to  welcome  him ;  for  he  had 

a  happy  and  amiable  disposi- 
tion, and  was  an  entertaining 
conversationalist. 

But  there  was  one  country 
home  where  his  presence  gave 
more  than  ordinary  pleasure.  It 
\vas  Hembury  Fort,  some  miles 
from  Honiton.  Here  on  the  site 
of  this  old  Eoman  encampment 
resided  two  old  friends  of  his 
father,  Admiral  and  Mrs. 
Graves.  The  Admiral  was  his 
godfather,  and  out  of  respect 
and  deep  regard  for  that  officer, 
Captain  Simcoe,  E.N.,  had 
given  his  son  "  Graves  "  as  one 
of  his  Christian  names.  Mrs. 
Graves  was  a  sister-in-law  of 
Colonel  Gwillim  of  "Old 
Court "  in  Herefordshire. 

On  the  first  of  these  visits, 
in  the  spring  of  178.2,  Colonel 
Simcoe  met  Miss  Gwillim.    It  is 
BUCKERALL  CHURCH— INTERIOR.     said  to  have  been  a  case  of  love 

at  first  sight.  She  was  then 
sixteen,  petite,  fair  to  see, 
bright  and  entertaining,  and  attractive  in  manner.  The  Colonel,  now 
in  his  thirtieth  year,  renewed  his  visits ;  and  in  this  case  the  course 
of  true  love  ran  absolutely  smooth,  for  the  engagement  followed,  but 
no  date  for  the  wedding  was  fixed. 

Mrs.  Graves  naturally  thought  that  sixteen  was  rather  an  early  age 
for  her  niece  to  assume  the  responsibilities  of  married  life,  but  what- 
ever objections  she  offered  were  evidently  overcome,  for  Samuel 
Graves  and  Margaret  Graves  were  witnesses  to  Simcoe's  marriage 
at  Buckerall  Parish  Church,  on  the  30th  of  December,  1782,  which 
was  solemnized  by  the  Eev.  Thomas  Kosskilly,  Curate  of  the  Parish. 
The  marriage  certificate  reads : — 

"No.  60 — Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Graves  Simcoe  of  this  Parish 
and  Miss  Elizabeth  Posthuma  Gwillim  of  this  Parish  were  married  in 
this  church  by  License  this  30th  Day  of  December  in  the  Year  One 
Thousand  Seven  Hundred  and  Eighty-two  by  me,  Thos.  Eoskilly, 
Curate.  This  Marriage  was  solemnized  between  TJs,  John  Graves 
Simcoe,  Elizabeth  Posthuma  Gwillim,  in  the  Presence  of  Saml. 
Graves,  Margaret  Graves." 

30 


(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson 
collection.) 


MARRIAGE  OF  COLONEL  SIMCOE 

Where  the  honeymoon  was  spent  does  not  appear  in  the  Wolford 
MSS.,  but  the  Colonel  and  his  wife  after  marriage  resided  in  Exeter. 
The  Colonel  felt  that  Devonshire  was  really  his  native  county.  He 
had  practically  lived  in  it  for  twenty-three  years  from  1759,  when 
his  mother  and  his  brother  Percy  left  Cotterstock,  after  the  death 
of  his  father.  With  this  idea  in  his  mind  he  determined  to  settle 
down  in  some  congenial  spot,  of  which  there  are  so  many  in  Devon, 
the  most  charming  of  all  the  English  counties. 

His  wife  felt  as  he  did,  and  her  fortune  made  it  possible  to  realize 
this  desire.  Accordingly  in  1784  Wolford  and  the  surrounding 
estate  were  bought  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  from  the  heirs  of  Peter  Geneste. 
But  it  was  not  until  1788  that  they  made  Wolford  their  permanent 
residence,  after  improvements  in  the  house  had  been  made. 


and    (tit'/, 


Married  in  this  (~6u>rc£ bv     ^(/GGHOU 


this 3a*- Day  of  fdef^t,^   in  the  Year  One  ThoufandSevci 

Hundred  and    g^gx  -(&•*•          by  me_ 

This  Marriage  was  folemnized between  Us- 
InthePrefenceof 


$$^ftatt»*ett#^^ 


THE  SIMCOE  MARRIAGE  CERTIFICATE. 

(From  Register  of  Buckerall  Parish  Church.) 

Shortly  after  the  marriage,  the  College  of  Arms,  on  application, 
authorized  the  arms  here  depicted  to  be  borne  by  Colonel  and  Mrs. 
Simcoe,  viz.,  Dexter,  Simcoe — Azure  a  fesse  wavy  Ermine  between 
two  stars  of  twelve  points  in  chief  and  a  cannon  barwise  in  base  or, 
Sinister,  Gwillim — Argent,  a  Lion  rampant,  Ermines,  collared  Or. 
Crest,  Simcoe: — Out  of  a  naval  crown  Or  a  demi  Sea  Lion  proper 
holding  in  his  fore  fin  a  dagger  erect  Argent  the  pomel  and  hilt  gold 
and  on  his  shoulder  a  Rose  Gules  barbed  and  seeded  proper  as  hereon 
depicted. 

Mrs.  Simcoe  was  entitled  to  a  large  number  of  quarterings  and  at 
a  subsequent  date  some  of  these  were  added  to  the  arms  borne  by  the 
Colonel  and  his  wife.  An  explanation  of  the  later  arms  is: — The 
arms  in  the  first  and  fourth  quarters  are  those  of  Simcoe.  The  arms 

31 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


SlMCOE-GWILLIM 

ARMS,  1782. 


SlMCOE-GwiLLIM  ARMS, 

1792. 


in  the  second  and  third  quarters  have  not  been  identified  by  the 
College  of  Arms,  London,  England,  and  there  is  nothing  in  the 
College  to  show  that  'Colonel  Simcoe  was  entitled  to  make  'use  of  this 

'quartering.     -With  regard  to  the  smaller  shield — 

the   first   quarter   is   an   incorrect   representation 

of  the  Gwillim  arms. 

The    second,    consist- 
ing of  four  lions  and 

crosses,    represent    the 

Spinckes    arms.      The 

third  quarter  contains 

the  arms  of  Stuart — 

Or     a     fesse     chequy 

argent    and    azure,    a 

bordure,   ermine ;   and 

the  arms  in  the  fourth 

quarter  of  the  smaller 

shield     are     those     of 

Elines — Ermine    two 

bars      sable     each 

charged  with  five  elm 

leaves  or. 

From    1783-7    the 

Colonel  and  his  wife 
lived  at  St.  Stephen's  in  Exeter,  and  in  January,  1784,  Eliza,  their 
first  child,  was  born.  Then  in  August,  1785,  at  St.  David's  in  Exeter, 
Charlotte,  the  second  child,  arrived,  and  in  April  of  1787,  the  third 
child,  Henrietta,  another  daughter.  The  first  child  born  at  Wolford 
was  Caroline  in  November  of  1788,  followed  by  Sophia,  another 
daughter,  in  October  of  1789.  The  sixth  child,  the  first  boy,  Francis 
Gwillim,  was  born  in  June,  1791,  some  months  before  the  departure 
of  the  Colonel  and  his  wife  for  Canada. 

The  Exeter  Flying  Post  of  Thursday,  June  9,  1791,  announces 
the  birth  as  follows: — "Monday,  the  Lady  of  Colonel  Simcoe  was 
safely  delivered  of  a  son  and  heir,  at  their  seat,  at  Wolford  Lodge, 
near  Honiton." 

The  Colonel  devoted  his  entire  time  for  the  first  few  years  to  re- 
organizing and  improving  his  estate.  Wolford,  which  was  a 
small  but  well-built  house,  was  remodelled.  A  new  dwelling  was 
built  in  front  of  the  old-time  farmhouse.  Every  convenience  for 
those  days  was  introduced;  roadways  were  laid  out  through  different 
parts  of  the  estate,  which  covered  about  5,000  acres;  and  under  the 
direction  of  Colonel  Simcoe  and  his  active  and  well-informed  manager, 
Mr.  John  Scadding,  many  valuable  improvements  were  made.  Mr. 
Scadding  was  the  father  of  the  late  Rev.  Henry  Scadding,  D.D., 
grand-uncle  of  Dr.  H.  Crawford  Scadding,  of  Toronto. 

32 


THE  SIMCOE  HOME 

All  this  delighted  Mrs.  Simcoe.  She  had  a  direct  interest  in 
the  work  of  improvement,  and  it  was  at  her  suggestion  that  many  of 
the  acres,  thickly  wooded  to-day,  were  planted  and  improved. 

Mrs.  Simcoe,  as  has  been  said,  was  of  a  vivacious  disposition.  She 
was  fond  of  gaiety.  Wolford  in  1789  became  the  centre  of  attraction 
in  that  part  of  the  county.  The  house  had  ample  accommodation 
for  visitors,  and  never  a  week  passed  without  all  its  guest-chambers 
being  filled. 

Mrs.  Simcoe  had  inherited  all  the  Gwi'llim  wealth  and  it  was 
liberally  spent,  not  only  in  improving  the  estate  but  in  making  life 
enjoyable  in  the  manor  house.  She  had  a  great  admiration  for  her 
husband  and  was  especially  pleased  when  in  1790  he  entered  Parlia- 
ment as  the  representative  of  St.  Maw's  in  Cornwall. 


WOLFORD,  NEAR  HONITON,  DEVON. 

(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

But  a  change  in  their  lives  came  when  the  British  Government 
decided  in  the  summer  of  1791  that  it  would  require  Colonel  Simcoe's 
services  immediately  as  the  first  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  new 
Province  of  Upper  'Canada.  All  plans  for  the  coming  winter  were 
summarily  disposed  of,  for  arrangements  had  to  be  promptly  made 
for  the  journey  to  Canada.  Mrs.  Simcoe  and  the  Colonel  went  to 
London,  the  former  to  arrange  for  her  outfit,  the  latter  to  interview 
the  authorities  at  the  War  Office  and  receive  his  final  instructions. 

Then  came  the  question  of  the  children — which  of  the  six  could 
be  taken  to  Canada.  Eliza  was  seven  years  of  age,  Charlotte  six, 
Henrietta  four,  Caroline  three,  Sophia  two,  and  Francis  Gwillim  was 
only  three  months  old.  Mrs.  Simcoe  would  have  liked  to  take  all  her 
little  ones  with  her,  but  that  was  impossible. 
3  33 


DIARY  OF  MES.  S1MCOE 

Fortunately,  however,  there  were  two  old  friends,  Mrs.  and  Miss 
Hunt,  in  whom  the  Colonel  and  his  wife  had  the  greatest  confidence 
and  in  whose  care  at  Wolford  they  determined  to  leave  the  four 
eldest,  Eliza,  Charlotte,  Henrietta  and  Caroline,  taking  Sophia  and 
Francis  to  Canada.  Mrs.  Simcoe  returned  from  London  in  the 
beginning  of  September  and  most  energetically  directed  the  packing 
and  looked  forward  with  pleasure  to  the  days  to  be  spent  in  the  new 
world. 

The  story  of  Mrs.  Simcoe's  life  from  the  day  she  with  her  husband 
left  Wolford  and  sailed  in  H.  M.  S.  "Triton"  from  Weymouth,  cannot 
be  told  better  than  it  is  written  in  her  diary.  Some  incidents  of  her 
life  in  Canada  not  given  in  the  diary  will  be  found  in  subsequent 
chapters. 

When  in  1759,  her  father,  Captain  Gwillim,  ascended  with  General 
Wolfe  the  rugged  path  that  led  to  the  heights  of  Abraham,  little  did 
he  think  that  thirty-two  years  later  his  daughter  would  give  to  future 
generations  of  Canadians  pictures  of  places  in  the  new  land  that  he 
and  his  companions  were  winning  for  the  Empire.  But  the  daring 
and  resolute  soldier  of  Wolfe  transmitted  to  his  daughter  not  only  the 
courageous  qualities  that  had  been  necessary  to  win  this  new  land 
for  Britain,  but  also  the  foresight  and  the  genius  by  which  she  has 
preserved  by  pen  and  pencil  the  spirit  both  of  the  natural  scenery 
and  the  social  life  of  the  New  Britain  that  was  being  planted. 


CHAPTER     IV. 
FAREWELL  TO  WOLFORD. 

The  air  at  Wolford  was  filled  with  loving  farewells  as  Colonel 
Simcoe,  his  wife,  his  children  and  attendants  left  one  of  the  happiest 
of  England's  homes  to  face  the  perils  of  an  Atlantic  voyage.  For  a 
week  before  their  departure  the  county  people  had  called  to  say  good- 
bye, and  wish  the  new  Governor  and  his  wife  a  safe  voyage  to  their 
colonial  home  in  the  western  continent. 

Wolford  had  during  the  few  years  of  residence  by  the  Simcoes 
been  the  most  hospitable  of  all  the  country  houses  in  that  part  of 


NORTH  VIEW  OF  WEYMOUTH  IN  1788. 

(From  a  Drawing  in  Ike  Broadley  collection.) 

Devon.  Its  guest  chambers  were  never  without  an  occupant,  and  the 
reception  days  of  Mrs.  Simcoe  had  a  welcome  and  a  charm  for  the 
large  circle  of  friends  who  had  the  pleasure  of  being  entertained  there. 
Colonel  Simcoe's  name  was  a  household  word,  not  only  in  county 
families,  but  in  military  circles  in  Devon  and  Cornwall,  and  as  a 
Devon  chronicle  writer  says,  "more  distinguished  men  than  ever 
dined  under  one  roof  in  Devon  were  often  found  at  Colonel  Simcoe's 
table/' 

The  afternoon  of  Thursday,  17th  September,  1791,  was  fixed  for 
the  journey  to  "Weymouth,  from  which  port  they  were  to  sail.  The 
luggage — and  there  was  plenty  of  it — had  been  sent  forward  on 
Wednesday.  On  Saturday  morning,  the  17th,  the  pa'rty  arrived  at 

35 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Weymouth  and  in  a  few  hours  were  comfortably  settled  in  lodgings 
which  faced  the  esplanade  and  the  bay. 

Weymouth  is  a  well  known  port  in  Dorset,  on  the  English  Channel 
south  of  Dorchester,  on  a  bay  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Wey.  The 
river  separates  the  two  quarters  of  the  town.  Old  Weymouth  is  on 
the  south  side  and  Melcombe  Regis  faces  the  bay  on  the  north.  The 
sands  are  extensive  and  there  is  a  magnificent  esplanade.  George 
III.  after  his  serious  illness  in  1788  found  the  place  an  excellent 
health  resort  and  visited  it  nearly  every  year  between  1788-1805. 
He  resided  at  Gloucester  House,  built  by  the  Duke  of  Gloucester 
and  bought  by  the  King.  Owing  to  the  King's  visits  the  town  soon 
attained  considerable  social  prominence. 

Colonel  and  Mrs.  Simcoe  thoroughly  enjoyed  the  days  spent  in 
Weymouth  before  sailing  in  the  "Triton"  frigate  which  lay  anchored 
in  the  bay  awaiting  the  embarkation  of  its  distinguished  passengers. 
The  first  entry  in  Mrs.  Simcoe's  diary  was  made  on  the  day  of  her 
arrival  in  Weymouth. 

Weymouth,  Saturday,  17th  Sept.,  1791 — We  arrived  at  Weymouth.  I 
walked  with  Lady  Collier  on  the  Esplanade  in  the  evening. 

NOTE. — Lady  Collier  was  Elizabeth  Fryer,  second  wife  of  Sir 
George  Collier,  whom  he  married  in  1781.  He  was  Senior  Naval 
Officer,  Halifax,  July,  1776-9,  and  in  1780  commanded  the 
"  Canada." 

Sunday  18th — Went  to  church  with  Lady  Collier  and  to  the  Rooms  in 
the  evening.  The  King  looked  very  well. 

NOTE.— Robert  Huish  (1777-1850)  in  his  "King  George  III." 
writes : 

"The  time  of  His  Majesty  was  chiefly 
occupied  at  Weymouth  in  receiving  the 
formal  address  of  the  corporation  or  the 
visits  of  the  nobility  and  gentry  of  the 
vicinity,  and  partly  on  horseback,  rambling 
over  the  hills  and  downs  or  walking  on  the 
esplanade  amidst  respectful  joyous  groups 
of  his  loyal  subjects.  The  Sabbath  day  was 
always  passed  in  the  offices  of  religion,  the 
royal  family  walking  to  church  without 
parade  or  ceremony,  the  service  of  the 
day  always  ending  with  'God  Save  the  GEORGE  III. 

King.'" 

Mr.  A.  M.  Broadley,  of  Bridport,  Eng.,  informs  me  that  the 
"Weymouth  Rooms"  patronized  by  the  Royal  Family  were  those 
known  as  "Stacey's,"  formerly  part  of  the  Royal  Hotel,  which  can  be 
clearly  seen  in  the  earlier  pictures  and  engravings  of  Weymouth 
C 1789-91)  of  which  he  possesses  a  large  collection.  The  "Royal" 
spoken  of  by  Dr.  Wolcot  in  his  satire  "  Weymouth  Amusements  " 
(1795),  was  pulled  down  several  years  ago  and  has  been  replaced  by 
a  modern  building. 

36 


GAVEL-KIND  IN  PORTLAND  ISLE 

Mon.  19th — I  went  to  Portland  Island,  a  rock  peninsula  of  Dorsetshire, 
connected  with  the  mainland,  with  Lady  de  la  Pole,  wife  of  Sir  John  de  la 
Pole,  and  went  round  the  Island  in  a  cart,  the  conveyance  generally  used 
on  those  rough  roads.  The  sea  views  are  very  fine.  There  is  an  uncommon 
aperture  in  the  land  in  one  spot,  where  we  looked  down  as  if  into  a  vast 
well  and  saw  the  waves  dashing  below.  We  drove  by  the  lighthouse. 
There  are  some  buildings  in  ruins  covered  with  ivy  which  have  a  very 
picturesque  appearance.  We  stopped  to  take  some  refreshment  after  the 
drive  at  one  of  the  largest  villages  in  the  island,  where  we  tasted  Portland 
mutton.  The  inhabitants  of  the  island  have  laws  and  regulations  peculiar 
to  themselves.  For  instance,  there  is  an  official  of  the  island  called  a 
Reeve.  He  collects  rent  and  has  a  staff  called  the  Reeve  Staff,  a  very  long 
stick  on  which  payments  are  recorded  in  notches  cut  on  the  face  of  the 
stick.  In  buying  and  selling  land  the  buyer  and  the  seller  go  to  the 
church,  and  sign  a  register  before  witnesses.  They  call  it  a  Church  Gift. 
It's  very  simple — no  writings  or  parchment  used,  no  lawyers  consulted. 
We  crossed  a  very  narrow  passage  to  the  island,  but  it  is  sometimes  very 
rough. 

NOTE. — The  Isle  of  Portland,  really  a  peninsula,  though  generally 
called  an  island,  is  in  Dorset,  south  of  Weymouth,  projecting  into  the 
English  Channel  and  terminating  in  the  Bill  of  Portland.  It  is  four 
and  a  half  miles  long  and  about  two  miles  wide  and  nine  in  circum- 
ference. It  is  connected  with  the  mainland  at  Abbotsbury  by  the 
shifting  Chesil  Beach,  a  narrow  ridge  of  gravel  and  shingle  ten  and  a 
half  miles  long.  This  peninsula  is  practically  a  great  bed  of  stone, 
first  used  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  The  stone  is  quarried  in  blocks  of 
three  to  fourteen  tons  each.  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  and  other  great 
structures  were  built  of  stone  from  these  quarries.  Portland  is  a 
"liberty"  of  itself,  and  the  custom  of  "gavel-kind"  prevails,  which  is 
an  old  land  tenure  in  England  still  in  vogue  in  Kent,  by  which  land 
descends  to  all  the  sons  in  equal  shares. 

In  Portland  service  of  lawyers  is  not  necessary  in  connection  with 
the  sale  and  purchase  of  land.  The  ordinary  method  of  conveyance 
is  almost  unknown  in  Portland.  This  is  done  by  what  is  called  a 
Church  Gift,  a  form  used  for  the  purchase  from  time  immemorial. 
The  buyer  and  seller  go  to  the  church  and  in  the  church  is  a  register. 
The  Church  Gift  is  signed  in  presence  of  two  witnesses  who  must  be 
"  Tenants  "  of  the  Manor.  The  deed  is  called  a  Church  Gift  instead 
of  a  common  law  conveyance. 

One  of  the  officials  of  the  Island  of  Portland  is  called  the  Reeve. 
His  duty  for  his  year  of  office  is  to  collect  the  Chief  or  Quit  rent.  He 
holds  the  office  for  one  year  only  and  never  for  a  second  term.  A 
new  Reeve  is  appointed  annually  by  the  Court  Leet,  which  is  held 
twice  a  year,  in  May  and  November.  A  woman  or  a  man  may  hold 
the  office.  Men  and  women  have  had  equal  rights  in  Portland,  long 
before  any  Married  Woman's  Property  Act  was  passed  by  Parliament 
giving  women  their  rights.  This  has  been  the  case  in  Portland  from 
time  immemorial  and  women  make  wills  and  hold  offices  and  buy  and 
sell  property  quite  apart  from  their  husbands. 

The  duty  of  the  Reeve  for  his  year  of  office  is  to  collect  the  Quit 
37 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


Rent  or  Chief  Rent  which  is  due  to  the  Lord 
of  the  Manor,  who  in  this  Manor  is  the  King 
or  Queen,  this  being  a  Royal  Manor.  The 
Quit  Rent  is  an  annual  payment  at  the  rate 
of  three  pence  per  ,acre  to  the  Lord  of  the 
Manor  by  landowners  in  the  Island  for  their 
private  lands  as  distinct  from  Crown  Lands 
and  Common  or  Parish  lands.  Every  such 
landowner  is  called  a  "  tenant "  of  the 
Manor,  but  the  private  lands  are  treated  as 
freehold  notwithstanding  this  annual  pay- 
ment to  the  Chief.  On  the  death  of  a  tenant 
there  becomes  due  to  the  Chief  a  payment 
of  2/6  which  is  paid  out  of  the  lands  owned 
:at  his  death.  There  are  three  kinds  of 
land,  viz.:  The  Crovv-n  lands,  Private  lands 
and  Commonable  or  Parish  lands,  the  latter 
belonging  to  the  King  and  the  tenants,  and 
in  which  the  tenants  have  equal  rights  with 
the  King. 

The  Reeve  Staff  or  Stick  is  the  record  of 
the  payment  of  this  Quit  Rent  and  is  of 
Saxon  origin.  It  is  a  stick  from  ten  to 
twelve  feet  long  and  one  and  a  half  inches 
square.  Payments  are  represented  by 
notches  cut  across  the  face  of  the  stick.  A 
deep  notch  cut  across  the  whole  side  of  the 
face  represents  one  shilling.  A  notch  half 
way  across  represents  sixpence,  a  lighter  and 
not  so  deep  a  notch  across  the  whole  face 
represents  a  penny.  A  notch  the  same  depth 
as  the  last  named  half  way  across  the  stick 
represents  a  halfpenny,  and  a  quarter  across, 
one  farthing.  No  one  pays  less  than  a 
farthing,  but  it  is  easy  to  see  that  an  acre 
may  be  so  divided  as  to  make  many  owners 
who  would  pay  one  farthing  each.  This  was 
the  custom  before  books  for  keeping  accounts 
were  in  vogue.  It  is  done  every  year,  but  in 
these  modern  days  books  are  kept  as  well. 
Each  Reeve  prepares  a  new  Staff  and  retains 
it  as  his  own, — as  the  stick  he  used  during 
his  term  of  office. 

The  Chief  or  Quit  rent  is  paid  on  pri- 
vate lands  only.  The  total  amount  has  stood 
at  £14  14s.  3d.  from  time  immemorial  and 
although  by  the  sub-division  of  land  the 
Reeve  collects  more,  only  this  sum  is  paid  over  to  the  Chief.  No 
question  is  asked  and  so  the  extra  amount  goes  into  the  pocket  of  the 


y* 


3/8 


A   REEVE    STAFF 


SOCIAL  FUNCTIONS  AT    WEYMOUTH 


Reeve.  The  payment  proper  to  the  Reeve  is  £1  per  year.  Formerly 
he  had  no  money  payment,  but  had  the  use  of  a  piece  of  land  for  the 
year.  This  piece  of  land  is  called  the  "  Reeve  Plot." 


VIEW  OF  WEYMOUTH,  LOOKING  WEST,  1791. 
Showing    (A)    Gloucester  Lodge,    (B)    Stacey's   Hotel  Rooms. 

(From  a  Water-color  in  the  Broadley  collection.) 

The  picture  of  a  Reeve  Staff  is  from  a  drawing  kindly  made  for 
me  by  Mr.  B.  0.  Pearce,  an  Ex-Reeve,  prominent  in  business  circles 
in  Portland.  He  also  furnished  the  information  in  this  note  con- 
cerning the  peculiar  customs  of  Portland  and  the  use  of  the  Reeve 
Staff. 

Mon.  19th — I  dined  with  Lady  de  la  Pole  at 
Stacey's  Hotel  on  the  Esplanade,  and  went  in  the 
evening  to  see  the  play  of  "As  You  Like  It,"  which 
was  very  well  performed.  Col.  Simcoe  dined  with 
Lord  Grenville. 

NOTE. — This  conclusively  proves  Mr.  Broad- 
ley's  contention  as  to  Stacey's  Rooms  existing  in 
1791.  They  were  quite  close  to  Gloucester  Lodge. 
Lady  de  la  Pole  was  the  wife  of  the  sixth  Baronet. 
George  William  Wyndham — Baron  Grenville 
(1759-1834),  Home  Secretary,  1789-90  and  Sec- 
retary of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs  1791-1801  in 
Pitt's  administration. 

Tues.  20th — I  was  tired  with  writing,  and  did  not 
»ro  to  the  ball. 

Wed  21st — The  Chancellor,  Edward,  Lord  Thurlow,  is  gone  into 
Flintshire. 

39 


BAUON  GREXVILLE. 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

The  sealers,  those  officials  who  prepare  documents  for  sealing  in  the 
Lord  Chancellor's  department,  are  following  with  Gov.  Simcoe's  com- 
mission, but  not  having  yet  overtaken  him,  we  are  detained  here  and 
complaining  of  losing  a  fine  east  wind.  We  give  two  and  a  half  guineas 
a  week  for  a  very  small  lodging.  I  could  not  go  to  Lullworth  Cove  to-day 
lest  the  Commission  should  arrive,  in  which  case  we  are  to  sail  imme- 
diately. 

NOTE.— Thurlow,  Edward,  first  Baron  Thurlow  (1731-1806), 
Lord  Chancellor,  1778,  prepared  a  celebrated  report  on  the  Quebec 
Bill  which  was  quoted  at  length  in  Christie's 
History.  He  intrigued  with  George,  Prince  of 
Wales,  against  Pitt,  and  was  obliged  to  resign  in 
1792.  His  political  principles  were  merely  a  high 
view  of  royal  prerogative  and  an  aversion  to 
change.  It  was  of  him  that  Macaulay  said,  "I 
wonder  if  any  man  ever  was  as  wise  as  Thurlow 
looks." 

Lullworth  Cove  is  a  beautiful  inlet  in  the  Eng- 
lish Channel,  almost  landlocked,  deep  and  narrow 
with  lofty  cliffs,  and  very  fine  scenery.     It  is  a 
few  miles  from  Weymouth,  and  is  usually  visited 
BAROX  THURLOW.      by  excursionists. 

Thur.  22nd — Intelligence  is  received  that  the  Chancellor  is  gone  to 
Cumberland. 

Fri.  23rd — I  was  pleased  with  a  camera  obscura  I  saw  fixed  in  the  top 
of  a  room.  I  bought  a  wooden  pentograph,  an  instrument  for  the  mechan- 
ical copying  of  engravings,  diagrams  and  plans.  The  Misses  Rolle,  mem- 
bers of  Lord  Rolle's  family  (a  Devonshire  nobleman)  are  here  and  very 
civil  to  me.  I  went  five  miles  with  Lady  Poulett  and  her  children  in  her 
Sociable  (a  carriage  of  the  period),  and  dined  with  her. 

NOTE. — Henry  Rolle  was  created  Baron  Rolle  of  Stevastone  in 
January,  1747,  and  died  without  issue  in  1759.  His  nephew  John  Rolle 
eventually  succeeded  to  the  Stevastone  property.  He  was  M.P.  for 
Devonshire,  1780-4,  1790,  and  was  a  staunch 
adherent  of  Pitt.  In  1796  he  was  created  Baron 
Rolle  of  Stevastone.  He  died  without  issue  in 
April,  1842.  The  "Misses  Rolle"  were  Isabella 
Harriot  Charlotte,  born  1754,  and  Florence,  born 
1762. 

Fri.  23rd — In  the  evening  we  walked  on  tlhe 
esplanade.  The  Royal  family  came  and  spoke  to 
Lady  P.,  and  the  Princess  Royal  carried  Lady 
Mary  Poulett,  daughter  of  the  Earl,  a  heavy 
child  three  years  old,  the  wihole  length  of  the 
esplanade. 

NOTE. — Princess    Charlotte    Augusta    Matilda, 
born   29th   September,   1766,   eldest   daughter  of          PRINCESS 
George  III.,    (1738-1820)    married  in  1797,  her 
cousin  Frederick  William  Charles,  Duke  of  Wurtemburg,  who  subse- 
quently became  King  of  Wurtemburg.     He  formed  an  alliance  with 

40 


MES.  SIMCOE  MEETS  KING  GEORGE. 

Napoleon  in  1805,  his  army  fighting  for  Napoleon  for  several  years, 

but  eventually  joining  the  allies  in  1813. 

Lady  Mary  Poulett  was  the  second  daughter 
of  John,  the  fourth  Earl  Poulett,  by  Sophia  his 
wife,  daughter  and  heir  of  Admiral  Sir  George 
Pocock,  K.B.  Lady  Mary  in  1821  became  the 
second  wife  of  Lord  Charles  Henry  Somerset. 

Sat.  24th — I  walked  on  the  sands  with  Coll.  Sim- 
coe  before  breakfast.  We  met  the  King.  He  asked 
me  whether  I  left  my  children  at  school,  how  I  should 
like  being  at  sea,  &c.  I  was  not  well  and  dined  at 
home.  Sir  de  la  Pole  sent  me  landrails.  My  French 
cook  dressed  them  without  taking  out  the  inside,  and 
I  found  a  shell  as  large  as  a  nut  in  one  of  them.  I 
thought  they  lived  by  suction.  How  could  this  be? 
LADY  POULETT  NOTE. — The  Landrail  or  Corncrake,  a  mi- 

gratory bird,  leaves  England  before  the  winter, 
and  repairs  to  other  countries  in  search  of  food.  It  appears  in  Eng- 
land the  latter  end  of  April. 

Sun.  25th — I  was  at  the  Rooms  to-night,  and  met  Capt.  Sydney  Smith. 
He  wore  a  handsome  star  given  him  by  the  King  of  Sweden,  in  whose 
service  he  distinguished  himself.  He  is  thought  to  be  like  Charles  the 
Twelfth  of  Sweden.  His  countenance  reminded  me  of  pictures  of  some 
great  men  in  Elizabeth's  reign — a  marked  countenance,  expressing  the 
reverse  of  a  trifling  character. 

The  whole  of  this  day  it  blew  so  heavy  a  gale  that  the  "Triton,"  the 
ship  on  which  we  are  to  sail  for  Canada,  was  obliged  to  go  out  to  sea,  it 
being  dangerous  to  remain  at  anchor.  From  Lady  de  la  Pole's  windows 
in  this  hotel,  where  I  dine,  the  waves  looked  tremendous.  The  scene  was 
grand,  but,  as  the  Queen  (Charlotte)  observed  this  evening,  was  "mixed 
with  too  much  horror  to  be  pleasing." 

NOTE.— Sir  William  Sydney  Smith  (1764-1840)  a  naval  officer 
who  entered  the  Navy  in  1777,  became  captain  in  1782,  knighted 
in  1792.  He  was  captured  off 
Havre  by  the  French  in  1796, 
imprisoned  in  Paris  for  two 
years,  escaped  in  1798,  and  in 
1799  undertook  the  defence  of 
St.  Jean  d'Acre.  In  March, 
1799,  he  captured  the  French 
vessels  and  held  the  town  until 
the  siege  was  raised.  He  died 
in  1840. 

Sun.    25th — I    dined    yester- 
day,   24th,    at    Sir    G.    Collier's, 
with     Capt.      Murray,     of     the 
SIB  GEORGE  MURRAY.  "  Triton,"   who   appears   a   very    glR  SYDNEY  SMITH 

gentlemanly  man,  and  his  hav- 
ing the  reputation  of  being  an  excellent  officer  is  a  great  consolation  to 
us  who  are  aJbout  to  sail  in  so  late  a  season  for  a  northern  climate.     Sir 
J.  Jervoise  is  the  only  man  who  tells  Coll.  Simcoe  that  he  is  certain  of 
making  his  passage  at  this  time  of  the  year.    Others  think  it  is  too  late, 

41 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


but  he   is  a   man   of  knowledge   in  nautical   affairs,   and,   therefore,   his 
opinion  is  to  he  trusted  to. 

The  King  asked  Capt.  Murray  about  his  stock  of  provisions  for  the 
voyage,  and  hoped  he  had  prepared  for  making  my  passage  as  comfortable 
as  possible  to  me. 

XOTE.  —  Sir  George  Murray,  1759-1819,  Vice-Admiral,  of  a 
younger  branch  of  the  Elibank  family.  His  actual  services  in  the 
Navy  probably  began  about  1772  when  he  joined  the  "Panther"  on 
the  Newfoundland  station.  He  was  afterwards  in  the  "  Romney," 
the  flagship  of  Rear  Admiral  John  Montague,  on  the  same  station. 
In  1792  he  was  appointed  to  the  "Triton"  frigate,  and  after- 
wards to  the  "  Nymphe."  In  1807,  he  was  ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief  of  the  naval  opera- 
tions against  Buenos  Ayres.  On  25th  October, 
1809,  he  was  promoted  to  be  a  Vice-  Admiral, 
\\Tas  nominated  a  K.C.B.  on  2nd  January,  1815, 
and  died  suddenly  at  Chichester  on  28th  February. 
1819. 

John  Jervoise  (Jervis),  Earl  St.  Vincent,  the 
first  Viscount,  was  born  at  Meaford,  Staffordshire, 
17th  January,  1734.  He  entered  the  navy  in  his 
tenth  year,  led  the  advanced  squadron  in  charge 
of  transport  past  Quebec,  was  entrusted  by  Wolfe 
with  his  last  message  to  his  betrothed,  1759,  and 
EARL  ST.  VINCENT,  was  a  personal  friend  of  Captain  John  Simcoe, 
R.  N.,  father  of  Governor  Simcoe.  He  became 
admiral  of  the  blue  and  commander  of  the  naval  forces  in  the 
Mediterranean  in  1795,  and  in.  consequence  of  his  victory  over  the 
Spanish  fleet  off  Cape  St.  Vincent  in  February,  1797,  was  raised 
to  the  peerage.  In  1821  he  became  admiral  of  the  fleet. 


CHAPTEK  V. 
THE  GOVERNOR  AND  SUITE  EMBARK. 

Mrs.  Simcoe's  description  of  the  trip  from  Weymouth  to  the  New 
World  forms  an  interesting  commentary  upon  the  ocean  travel  of 
a  century  ago.  Long  was  the  voyage  and  great  was  the  discomfort 
even  upon  the  "Triton,"  which  compared  most  favorably  with  the 
usual  sailing  craft  of  the  day.  With  wind  as  the  only  motive  power, 
the  man-of-war  which  bore  the  Simcoe  party  towards  the  West  took 
forty-six  days  upon  a  voyage  which  the  fleet  liner  of  to-day  would 
make  in  less  than  five.  And  the  gain  in  comfort  has  been  no  less 
marked. 

However,  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  possessed  of  an  industry  which  pre- 
vented her  long  passage  from  being  irksome.  Much  of  the  time  she 
spent  in  reading  and  writing.  Every  incident  of  importance  found 
its  way  into  her  record.  The  vessel's  speed  and  weather  conditions 
were,  of  course,  sedulously  jotted  down  by  the  diarist;  there  is  men- 
tion of  the  rare  passing  vessels;  while  the  description  of  the  routine 
life  upon  an  eighteenth  century  warship  has  a  peculiar  interest  to 
the  luxury-loving  traveller  of  to-day. 

When  land  was  sighted,  the  Captain's  chart  was  always  consulted 
and  every  point  of  land  that  had  a  name  found  a  place  in  her  daily 
writings.  She  certainly  had  a  traveller's  mind,  with  powers  of  obser- 
vation that  added  to  her  voyage  pleasure  both  for  herself  and  for 
the  friends  to  whom  she  wrote. 

Mon.  26th  Sept. — Wind  east,  blowing  fresh,  fine  and  clear.    It  became 
calm  this  morning,  and  at  one  o'clock  p.m.  we  embarked  on  board  His 
Majesty's   frigate   "  Triton,"   28   guns.  Captain   Murray.     Capt.    Stevenson 
accompanied  us,  and  Lt.  Grey,  a  son  of  Sir  Charles 
Grey's,  for  whom  Coll.  Simcoe  requested  a  passage, 
who  is  going  to  join  the  Fusiliers  or  the  7th  Regt.  at 
Quebec,   the  regiment    of    which   Prince   Edward   is 
Colonel. 

I  became  giddy  as  soon  as  I  entered  the  ship 
and  went  to  my  cabin,  an  apartment  just  large  enough 
to  swing  a  cot,  which  I  immediately  got  into.  On 
leaving  Weymouth  and  in  going  through  a  surf  called 
the  Portland  Race,  one  of  the  port  hole  windows  was 
stove  in,  and  the  gentlemen  at  dinner  were  quite  wet. 

NOTE.— Sir   €harles    Grey,    first    Earl    Grey, 
1729-1807,    a    General    in    the    Army,    was   con- 
spicuous for  his  services  to  the  King  in  the  Ameri- 
r<  can  Revolution.     He  was  created  Earl  Grey  and 
Viscount  Howick  in  1806.     Earl  Grey,  the  present  Governor-General 
of  Canada,  is  the  fourth  bearer  of  the  title,  and  is  directly  descended 
from  Sir  Charles  Grey.     Lieutenant  Thomas  Grey,  who  sailed  with 

43 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Governor  Simcoe,  was  fifth  son  of  Sir  Charles  Grey,  was  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  the  12th  Regiment  of  Foot,  which  embarked  for  the  East 
Indies,  8th  June,  and  anchored  in  Table  Bay,  19th  September,  1796. 
The  regiment  was  in  bad  health  while  in  Table  Bay,  so  Grey  was 
probably  left  behind  when  it  sailed  on  the  following  10th  of  November. 
He  retired  by  sale  of  his  commission,  1st  December,  1796,  and  died 
at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  17th  January,  1797,  unmarried. 

Tues.  27th — East,  fresh  and  fine.  Went  before  the  wind  at  9  knots  an 
hour. 

Wed.  28th — East,  fresh  and  fine.  Went  upon  deck.  Our  hours  are 
early.  We  breakfast  at  8;  dine  at  2,  and  never  take  any  supper. 

Sunday,  Oct.  2nd — Calm. 

Mon.  3rd — Rough. 

Tues.  4th — I  got  the  better  of  my  sickness  yesterday,  but  there  blew 
so  strong  a  gale  of  wind  that  I  was  obliged  to  remain  in  my  cot  or  in  a 
corner  behind  the  stove  in  the  great  cabin,  to  secure  myself  from  falling. 
It  was  by  persevering  to  go  on  deck  and  by  eating  salt  beef,  covered  with 
mustard,  that  I  soon  became  well.  As  my  health  amends  my  spirits  rise, 
and  I  am  rather  diverted  at  the  difficulties  we  meet  with  at  dinner,  when, 
in  spite  of  all  care,  the  dishes  are  often  tossed  to  every  corner  of  the  room. 
The  ship  not  having  sufficient  ballast  makes  her  roll  so  unreasonably.  I 
think  I  have  great  merit  in  beginning  to  write  to  you  this  early,  in  spite  of 
rough  weather.  The  children  (Francis  and  Sophia)  are  well,  but  never 
appear  to  be  safe  except  when  in  their  cots,  for  the  nurses  are  much  indis- 
posed and  have  very  indifferent  sea  legs.  I  am  learning  to  walk  on  deck, 
but  cannot  yet  do  it  without  leaning  on  the  arm  of  a  gentleman.  Capt. 
Murray,  who  has  been  in  France,  plays  at  reverse,  the  French  card  game, 
with  us.  Sophia's  amusement  is  seeing  the  poultry  on  deck,  where  a  little 
midshipman  carries  her  every  day.  The  wind  has  for  several  days  driven 
us  to  the  southward  of  our  course.  It  begins  to  blow  hard  again,  so  I 
must  retire  to  my  cot. 

Wed.  5th — Calm.     Went  five  knots  an  hour. 

Thur.  6th — Went  six  knots  an  hour. 

Fri.  7th — We  saw  porpoises. 

Sat.  8th — Calm  and  fine.  It  is  expected  we  shall  see  the  Azores  or 
Western  Isles  to-morrow  night. 

Sun.  9th — Hot  and  fine.  We  rose  from  dinner  at  three  o'clock  to  see 
a  ship  pass.  She  was  the  "  Minerva,"  of  London,  from  New  York  to  Malaga, 
a  Spanish  port  on  the  Mediterranean.  I  admired  the  sight  as  she  sailed 
close  to  us.  She  did  not  give  any  intelligence.  At  10  p.m.  an  island  was 
seen. 

Mon.  10th — Fine,  very  hot.  The  heat  was  so  excessive  I  could  not 
sleep,  and  rose  at  6  o'clock  to  look  at  the  island,  which  was  Corvo,  the 
most  northerly  of  the  Azores.  The  mist  presently  dispersing,  we  saw 
Flores,  the  westernmost  island  of  the  Azores,  where,  in  1591,  Sir  Richard 
Grenville,  in  a  small  man-of-war,  the  "Revenge,"  held  at  bay  fifteen 
Spanish  warships  till  his  own  was  but  a  wreck.  The  atmosphere  far 
from  clear.  Corvo  is  extremely  high  land,  lat.  39,  Corvo  S.S.E.,  3  leagues. 

Coll.  Simcoe  has  been  reading  "  L'Histoire  Generale  de  la  Nouvelle 
France,"  by  Francois  Xavier  Charlevoix,  the  French  Jesuit  traveller,  who 
twice  visited  Canada  and  sailed  down  the  Mississippi  to  New  Orleans, 
and  who  says  that  Corvo  was  discovered  by  a  Portuguese,  who  found  it 
uninhabited,  but  saw  an  equestrian  statue  on  a  pedestal,  of  what  metal 
made  he  knew  not;  but  there  was  an  inscription  on  it  which  was  not 
legible.  The  right  hand  of  the  finger  pointed  to  the  west. 

The  Western  Isles  are  inhabited  by  Portuguese,  who  are  fond  of  buy- 
ing black  clothes  whenever  ships  call  there,  which  they  frequently  do  to 

44 


ROUGH  WEATHER  AT  SEA 

take  in  water,  and  which  we  should  have  done  had  not  the  lateness  of 
the  season  in  which  we  quitted  England  made  it  necessary  not  to  lose  an 
hour  on  the  passage,  as  we  are  doubtful  of  reaching  Quebec  before  the 
St.  Lawrence  is  filled  with  ice. 

I  should  have  liked  to  have  gone  on  shore  here,  as  the  climate  is  said 
to  be  delightful  and  the  islands  abounding  in  grapes,  oranges,  melons, 
chestnuts,  etc.  No  boats  came  to  us  with  fruits,  and  they  rarely  fish 
beyond  their  harbour  on  account  of  the  heavy  squalls  to  which  the  coast 
is  subject,  which  endangers  their  being  blown  out  to  sea.  From  the 
description  of  the  islands  I  would  like  to  make  a  voyage  here  instead  of 
going  to  Tunbridge  Wells  (in  England)  or  other  watering  places,  where 
people  frequently  tire  or  weary  themselves.  The  scheme  would  be  more 
enlarged,  and  I  believe  much  more  amusing.  Being  at  sea  in  good  weather 
is  delightful,  and  there  is  no  occasion  to  execute  such  a  voyage  in  the 
equinoxial  season. 

Tues.  llth — Wind  light,  very  hot  and  contrary.  A  ship  on  her  lar- 
board tack  was  seen  last  night;  we,  being  on  the  starboard,  did  not  speak 
with  her.  I  rose  this  morning  at  three  o'clock  and  looked  at  the  constel- 
lation of  Orion  and  its  stars  in  great  brightness.  The  heat  is  excessively 
oppressive,  though  we  have  the  windows  open  all  night. 

Wed.  12th — I  copied  some  prints  of  ships  Capt.  Murray  lent  me.  An 
American  vessel  was  seen. 

Thurs.  13th — Fine.  A  sail  passed  this  morning,  supposed  to  be  an 
English  44  guns.  At  noon  a  Portuguese  vessel  was  seen. 

Fri.  14th — Very  hard  gale  this  morning.  The  sea  ran  mountains 
high.  I  sat  on  deck  and  saw  the  men  reefing  the  sails.  Their  situation 
appeared  tremendous.  Mr.  Benge,  the  Purser,  gave  Coll.  Simcoe  an 
account  of  his  having  been  twice  wrecked  on  the  14th  October,  which  made 
him  rather  distrust  his  safety  on  this  anniversary.  He  was  on  the  "  Deal 
Castle "  when  she  and  seventeen  ships  were  lost  on  the  Spanish  main. 
She  was  carried  by  a  violent  gale  of  wind  over  a  high  rock,  and  struck 
on  the  sands.  At  two  in  the  morning  her  bottom  stove  in,  but  she  did  not 
sink  till  after  daylight,  when  all  the  men  except  seventeen  got  on  shore 
on  rafts.  The  account  of  such  perils  during  such  weather  was  not  very 
amusing  to  us. 

NOTE. — On  the  10th  of  October,  1780,  a  dreadful  hurricane  com- 
menced on  the  island  of  Barbadoes,  and  continued  without  inter- 
mission for  forty-eight  hours.  Ships  were  driven  from  their  anchors, 
the  capital  of  the  island  was  destroyed,  and  the  inhabitants  were 
compelled  to  take  refuge  in  cellars.  Many  were  killed  by  falling 
buildings,  and  on  the  following  day  there  was  not  a  house  in  the 
island  that  had  escaped  damage,  many  of  them  were  levelled  to  the 
ground,  and  the  loss  of  life  amounted  to  thousands.  Many  of  the 
ships  moored  at  St.  Lucia  were  driven  out  to  sea.  The  "Androm- 
eda," 28  guns,  and  the  "Deal  Castle,"  24  guns,  were  lost  on  the 
coast  of  Martinique,  while  the  "Thunderer,"  among  other  vessels, 
was  never  heard  of  again,  and  the  exact  place  of  their  loss  was  never 
ascertained. 

Sat.  15th— Wind  ;N.W..  cold,  hard  gale.  This  hard  gale  did  not  cool 
the  cabins,  which  had  been  so  extremely  heated;  I  was,  therefore,  glad  to 
be  on  deck  to  get  rid  of  the  headache,  notwithstanding  the  weather  was 
so  rough  that  I  was  obliged  to  hold  fast  by  a  cannon.  The  waves,  rising 
like  mountains,  have  the  grandest  and  most  terrific  appearance,  and  when 
the  ship  dashes  with  violence  into  the  sea,  much  as  a  chaise  in  the 
act  of  overturning,  it  is  surprising  that  she  rights  again.  I  viewed  this 
tempestuous  scene  with  astonishment. 

45 


DIAKY  OF  MES.  SIMC'OE 

Sun.  16th — A  very  stiff  gale.  Fine  weather  makes  me  very  happy, 
but  when  it  blows  hard  this  abode  is  certainly  horrid  beyond  the  imagina- 
tion of  those  who  have  not  experienced  it.  The  noises  on  board  a  ship, 
till  one  becomes  accustomed  to  them,  almost  deprive  one  of  one's  senses; 
in  bad  weather  they  are  doubled;  every  place  wet  and  dirty,  besides  being 
bruised  by  sudden  motions  of  the  ship  and  half  drowned  by  leaks  in  the 
cabin.  The  gale  has  to-day  been  stiff  and  contrary.  Two  days  since  we 
expected  to  have  been  ere  this  catching  cod  on  the  banks  of  Newfound- 
land, and  now  we  are  far  off.  Those  who  are  of  a  sanguine  temper  think 
we  may  get  to  New  York;  others  foresee  that  we  shall  be  driven  to  Bar- 
badoes,  where  we  must  pass  the  winter,  and  in  May  sail  for  Antigua  to 
refit. 

Coll.  Simcoe  is  the  only  person  who  supposes  it  possible  to  reach 
Quebec.  It  will  be  so  late  before  we  come  into  the  River  St.  Lawrence 
that  the  pilots  will  probably  have  quitted  the  Isle  of  Bic,  an  island  in  the 
river  near  Rimouski,  below  Quebec,  and  the  master  of  the  "  Triton " 
cannot  carry  her  up  without  a  pilot.  In  this  case  we  must  return  to  the 
Gulph,  and  the  season  being  too  severe  to  keep  in  a  northern  latitude,  we 
must  steer  for  Barbadoes,  and  there  shall  meet  with  millions  of  those 
black  beetles  I  so  much  detest,  those  verdaderos  ninos  d'eponomon — 
lizards,  centipedes  and  scorpions  besides:  Desdichada  de  mi  gue  tengo  de 
ayer?  (I  miserable,  what  have  I  of  yesterday?) 

After  being  amused  during  the  day  by  a  description  of  those  vile 
reptiles,  the  evening  proved  so  rough  and  dismal  that  everybody  sat 
melancholy  and  unoccupied.  I  learnt  a  hymn  in  the  Spectator,  happening 
to  open  the  book  where  there  was  one  applicable  to  our  present  situation. 

I  then  sat  myself  down  to  copy  pictures  of  ships,  and  by  perseverance 
and  determined  opposition  to  unfavourable  circumstances  I  finished  six 
pretty  correctly.  My  cot  striking  against  the  side  of  the  cabin  most  un- 
comfortably, Coll.  Simcoe  thought  of  the  method  used  by  the  ancients  to 
lessen  the  force  of  battering  rams  by  hanging  up  feather  beds  to  receive 
them.  This  device  made  the  cot  slide  up  and  down  very  easily. 

NOTE. — Addison's  Spectator — the  first  number  of  this  periodical 
was  published  in  March,  1711,  and  the  last  on  the  20th  December, 
1714.  The  Spectator  newspaper  was  not  published  till  1828. 

Mon.  17th — We  saw  porpoises. 

Tues.  18th — A  pleasant  morning.  At  12  a  sudden  gale  of  wind  arose, 
and  while  I  was  engaged  in  a  game  of  Piquet,  the  French  card  game  much 
played  in  England,  with  Oapt.  Murray,  a  lee  lurch  threw  me  to  the  side  of 
the  cabin  against  the  fender.  I  was  vexed  at  the  accident,  though  not 
hurt,  having  piqued  myself  on  having  been  so  expert  as  always  to  have 
avoided  falling. 

Wed.  19th — A  brig  seen.  A  shag  (or  green  cormorant)  with  a  red 
bill  was  seen.  Wind  variable. 

Thurs.  20th — Wind  moderate.  We  are  130  leagues  from  Newfound- 
land. This  distance  we  have  kept  these  last  five  days.  I  began  to  draw 
a  map  of  the  Genesee  River,  New  York  State — falls  into  Lake  Ontario. 

NOTE. — Mrs.  Simcoe  was  very  fond  of  drawing  maps.  One  of  her 
maps  of  Upper  Canada,  about  four  feet  square,  is  preserved  at  Wol- 
ford.  It  is  very  accurately  drawn. 

Fri.  21st — Very  hard  gale.  'A  tempestuous  night.  It  rained  upon 
my  bed,  but  a  thick  greatcoat  covered  me,  and  I  slept  well.  This  ship 
is  a  good  sea  boat,  but  so  leaky  in  her  upper  works  that  the  floor  of  my 
cabin  is  scarcely  ever  dry,  and  the  baize  with  which  it  is  covered  retains 
the  wet.  Therefore,  I  always  wear  clogs.  Some  shrouds  were  lost  in 
this  gale  of  wind. 


MRS.  SIMCOE'S  LOVE  OF  BIRD  LIFE 


A  S.NOWBIUD. 
(From  a  Drawing  by  Mr».  Siincoe.) 


Sat.  22nd— N.E.  hard  gale. 

Sun.  23rd — Wind  N.E.  Whales  seen  near  the  ship,  and  many  birds, 
which  are  signs  of  being  in  soundings,  though  none  can  be  obtained.  As 
the  sun  has  not  been  seen  for  some  days  no  observation  can  be  taken,  and 
the  compass  is  so  bad  a  one  that  it  traverses  to  all  points  in  a  gale  of 
wind,  so  that  the  Master  knows  not  where  we  are,  or,  in  bad  weather,  what 
course  we  are  going. 

Mon.  24th — Wind  N.E.  Cold  and  clear.  Number  of  gulls  and  shear- 
waters and  Mother  Carey's  chickens  flying  about.  They  are  a  brown 

bird     with     white     spots,  _ 

pretty    and    rather    larger 

than    a   sparrow,   a   storm 

petrel,  a  little  bird  which 

frequents  this  part  of  the 

Atlantic.     The  shearwater 

is    a   bird     measuring    15 

inches  in  length,  31  inches 

in  breadth.    It  has  a  black 

and      yellow     bill,     white 

under     wings     and     body, 

back  and  tail  black,  found  on  waters  all  over  the  world.    Mother  Carey  is 

Mater   Cara.     The  birds  are   called   "Sailors'"   friend;  their  appearance 

portends  bad  weather.     To  kill  them  is  unlucky.     Each  bird  is  supposed, 

so  legend  says,  to  contain  a  soul  of  a  dead  sailor.     At  12  o'clock  we  were 

in  75  fathoms  of  water.    Cod,  haddock  and  halibut  were  caught.     A  very 

cold  night  and  rained  into  my  cot. 

Tues.  25th — N.W.  wind  excessive.  No  soundings  since  12  last  night. 
It  is  extraordinary  to  be  out  of  them  so  soon.  It  is  hoped  we  shall  keep 
clear  of  Sable  Island,  30  leagues  east  of  Nova  Scotia,  which  is  frequently 
enveloped  in  fog,  and,  therefore,  very  dangerous.  No  trees  grow  on  it,  but 
there  is  plenty  of  wood  from  the  frequent  wrecks  that  are  driven  on  its 
shores.  It  abounds  with  rats,  snipe,  and  so  forth. 

Wed.  26th— Wind  N.W.  So  extremely  cold  that  I  could  not  stay  on 
deck  without  a  fleecy,  hosiery  greatcoat  on;  a  bird  like  a  linnet  and  a 

crossbill  alighted  on  the 
rigging.  It  was  out  of  the 
reach  of  land.  I  hoped  to 
have  kept  it  in  my  cabin, 
but  it  soon  died.  This 
bird  is  about  the  size  of  a 
lark  and  7  inches  in 
length.  It  has  a  peculiar 
bill,  the  upper  and  under 
mandibles  curve  in  oppo- 
site directions  and  cross 
each  other  at  the  points. 
Its  eyes  are  hazel,  and  its  general  colour  reddish  mixed  green,  but  these 
birds  are  sometimes  rose  colour  or  yellowish  green. 

Thurs.  27th — Wind  moderate.  A  beautiful  owl,  olive  colour,  with 
white  spots  and  black  about  his  face,  was  caught  to-day.  He  was  not 
larger  than  a  thrush  and  not  wild;  also  a  bird  the  size  of  a  lark. 

Fri.  28th — Wind  N.E.  A  fine  morning,  and  we  fortunately  made  the 
Isle  of  Sable,  thirteen  leagues  N.,  only  8%  fathoms  water,  before  12  o'clock, 
when  a  very  thick  fog  came  on. 

NOTE. — Sable  Island  is  a  small  island  off  Nova  Scotia,  first 
sighted  by  Cabot  in  1497,  situated  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  lying  110 
miles  southeast  of  Cape  Canso,  lat.  43°  58'  N.,  long.  59°  46'  W.  It  is 

47 


(From 


A  CROSSBILL. 

Draining  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  ) 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

deep,  low  and  sandy,  about  25  miles  in  length  and  surrounded  by 
shoals  and  sandbanks,  and  known  as  "the  ocean  graveyard."  In  1791 
it  was  forty  miles  long;  in  1890  it  had  been  reduced  to  25  miles. 
Cape  Sable  Island  is  the  southwesternmost  extremity  of  Nova  Scotia 
and  is  frequently  confused  with  Sable  Island. 

28th,  p.m. — If  it  blow  hard  until  to-morrow  we  hope  to  go  through  the 
Gut  or  Strait  of  Canso,  a  beautiful  passage  between  Nova  Scotia  and  Cape 
Breton  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  into  Northumberland  Strait,  between 
high,  rocky  shores,  and  the  shortest  way  to  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence.  I 
am  now  reconciled  to  being  at  sea.  I  am  well  enough  to  work,  write  or 
draw;  and  sailing  at  the  rate  of  10  miles  an  hour  without  fatigue  or 
trouble  (which  in  this  good  weather  is  the  case)  is  very  pleasant.  I 
should  like  to  embark  in  summer,  see  various  coasts,  look  into  the  har- 
bours, and  pass  two  or  three  months  in  this  way.  For  example,  come  to 
Spanish  River,  on  the  Oape  Breton  Coast,  where  we  hope  shortly  to  be, 
and  I  am  'told  is  a  pretty  place,  and  I  hope  to  visit  Mrs.  McCormick,  wife 
of  Lieut.-Col.  McCormick,  governor  of  the  island  of  Cape  Breton,  to-morrow. 

NOTE. — Spanish  River  is  known  to-day  as  Sydney  Harbour. 

Sat.  29th — Wind  N.W.  The  wind  against  our  going  through  the  Gut 
of  Canso.  At  8  to-day  we  saw  the  coast  of  Nova  Scotia.  At  12  observed 
White  Island,  east  of  Liscomb  Harbour.  We  saw  American  schooners. 
The  white  sails  appeared  very  pretty  to  us  who  had  been  so  long  without 
seeing  any  objects,  and  the  breakers  along  the  coast,  contrasted  with  some 
dark  shores,  had  a  good  effect.  We  saw  the  Gut  of  Canso  at  a  distance. 
At  4  we  saw  at  the  south  end  of  Cape  Breton,  Richmond  Island,  so  called 
in  some  charts,  in  others  Isle  Madame.  We  were  very  near  it.  It  is  a  bold, 
perpendicular,  dark  red  rock,  shaded  almost  to  black,  and  covered  with  pine, 
which  looks  richer  than  oak,  and  the  conic  shape  when  in  maps  looks 
well.  Some  large  blasted  pine,  quite  white,  had  a  wild,  fine  effect.  At 
the  end  of  this  island  are  rocks  under  water,  which  form  fine  breakers, 
dashing  up  a  great  height  and  sinking  beneath  the  blue  tide.  A  little  dis- 
tance from  Richmond  lies  Green  Island,  a  small,  low,  smooth,  olive-coloured 
slip  of  land  south  of  Isle  Madame.  Behind  Richmond  island  is  Arichat 
Harbour,  on  the  west  coast  of  Isle  Madame,  off  the  southern  coast  of  Cape 
Breton,  from  whence  we  saw  a  schooner  coming.  Within  half  an  hour  she 
came  up  with  us,  but  could  not  pilot  us  into  Arichat  harbour,  or  we  should 
have  anchored  safely  there  and  waited  for  an  E.  wind  to  carry  us  thro'  the 
Gut  of  Canso,  the  passage  between  Nova  Scotia  and  Cape  Breton  Island. 

Coll.  Simcoe  quotes  "  there  is  a  tide  in  the  affairs  of  men,"  and  says 
our  losing  the  opportunity  of  going  thro'  the  Gut  of  Canso  makes  him,  for 
the  first  time,  doubtful  of  reaching  Quebec.  He  is  particularly  disappointed 
at  not  seeing  this  passage,  as  his  father,  Capt.  John  Simcoe,  R.N.,  of  the 
"  Pembroke,"  proposed  to  the  Admiralty  to  carry  large  ships  through  it, 
and  would  have  gained  much  time  by  so  doing.  This  advantage  was  lost, 
as  his  proposal  was  objected  to  by  the  officers,  who  were  afraid  to  risk  the 
passage.  We  are  now  beating  about,  not  making  much  way  or  venturing 
to  make  more  sail  than  will  carry  us  5  knots  an  hour  during  this  night, 
lest  we  get  among  the  numerous  breakers  hereabouts. 

Sun.  30th — Wind  W.,  clear  and  cold.  Passed  Louisbourg  at  seven  this 
morning.  Coll.  Simcoe  was  very  sorry  he  had  not  seen  that  harbour,  so 
often  mentioned  in  his  father's  papers.  At  ten  we  passed  the  Isle  de 
Scatari,  Lat.  46,  long.  59,  45  W.,  off  Cape  Breton  (near  the  entrance  to  Mir6 
Bay).  Then  saw  Cape  Breton.  At  eleven  made  Flint  Island  and  Cape 
Perc6  (north  of  Mir6  Bay).  We  passed  Spanish  (River  at  6  in  the  evening. 
I  did  not  see  it.  Gov.  McCormick  lives  there,  and  has  a  brig  in  which  he 
goes  to  England. 

48 


OFF  CAPE  BKETON  COAST 

NOTE. — Flint  Island  is  east  of  Cape  Breton  between  North  and 
South  Head  at  the  entrance  of  Cow  Bay. 

Governor  Macormick,  of  Cape  Breton,  was  appointed  to  that  office 
October  llth,  1787,  as  successor  to  Des  Barres,  and  in  September  of 
the  following  year,  entertained  at  Sydney,  the  capital,  Prince  Wil- 
liam Henry  (afterwards  William  IV.),  who  had  arrived  there  in 
his  yacht  the  "Andromeda."  Governor  Macormick  resigned  on  27th 
May,  1795.  He  was  a  personal  friend  of  Governor  Simcoe  and  was 
frequently  at  Wolford. 

Mon.  31st — Wind  N.E.  Snow.  At  eleven  we  passed  Niganiche  (Nig- 
anish)  Island,  off  the  east  coast  of  Cape  Breton,  near  Middle  Head.  At  12 
Cape  Nord,  the  N.E.  extremity  of  the  island  of  Cape  Breton,  which  is 


ISLAND  OF  ENTRY,  1791. 

(From  a  Drawing  by-  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

broken  into  rifts  and  chasms,  a  very  bold  coast.  There  was  a  good  deal 
of  snow  on  the  trees,  and  as  it  was  still  falling,  together  with  fog,  I  saw 
but  little.  It  had  a  wild  appearance.  Lat.  47,  long.  42%.  This  place 
abounds  with  ducks. 

NOTE. — In  Bayfield's  Admiralty  charts  Inganish  Island  is  situated 
north  of  Middle  Head,  between  North  Bay  and  South  Bay,  lat. 
46°  50'  on  east  coast  of  Cape  Breton.  It  is  sometimes  spelled 
"Ingonish." 

Tues.  November  1st — Wind  N.W.  Cold.  We  saw  the  Magdalen  Islands 
about  the  centre  of  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence.  They  are  uninhabited,  and 
in  summer  frequented  by  sea  cows.  There  is  good  duck  shooting  on  them, 
and  codfish  near  them,  for  which  purpose  an  American  schooner  is  now 
at  anchor  off  one  of  them.  At  12  saw  Amherst  Island,  the  south  island 
of  the  Magdalen  group,  and  afterwards  to  the  north  and  east  the  Isle 
Entry,  another  of  the  group. 

Wed.  2nd — Wind  N.W.,  very  cold.  I  saw  Amherst  Island  in  another 
point  of  view;  also  Deadman's  Isle,  which  appears  in  shape  like  a  ram. 

4  49 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


NOTE. — Deadman's  Island  is  a  small  island  to  the  west  of  the 
Magdalen  group.    In  a  French  map  of  1755  by  Vangoudy,  the  island 
is  given  as  "Isle  de  Corps  Mort." 

Wed.  2nd— We  met  the  "  Liberty,"  of  Whitby, 
bound  to  Portsmouth  from  Miscou  (Misco)  Har- 
bour, in  Miscou  Island,  at  the  entrance  to  the 
Bay  of  Chaleur,  laden  with  plank.  The  "Liberty" 
informed  us  that  the  "Alligator,"  with  Lord 
Dorchester  on  board,  had  put  into  Halifax  the 
7th  of  September,  having  sprung  her  bowsprit, 
and  the  "  Penelope  "  was  nearly  being  lost  at  the 
same  time.  Capt.  Murray  sent  a  boat  on  board 
the  "Liberty,"  with  letters  for  England.  During 
the  time  we  lay  to,  several  codfish  were  caught. 
I  like  the  chowder  made  of  them  very  much. 
Coll.  Simcoe  has  the  gout  in  his  hand. 


THE  "  LIBERTY." 

(From  a  drawing  by 
Mrs.  Simcoe.) 


NOTE. — Guy  Carleton,  who  was  created  first  Baron  Dorchester 
in  1786,  served  in  America  from  1758  to  1762,  and  from  1766  to 
1770,  was  acting  Governor  of  Quebec.  Upon 
his  return  to  England  in  1770,  he  advocated  the 
passing  of  the  Quebec  Act  and  in  1775  returned 
as  Governor  of  that  province.  For  five  months 
he  successfully  defended  Quebec  against  the 
Americans,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year, 
1776,  defeated  them  on  Lake  Champlain.  In 
1782-3  he  was  Commander-in-Chief  in  America. 
As  Governor  he  resided  in  Quebec  from  1786 
to  1791,  and  as  Governor- General  from  1793  to 
July,  1796,  when  he  returned  to  England. 

Fri.  4th — Wind  N.E.  Dreadful  gale  and  snow- 
storm; several  men  frost  bit  during  the  last  night,  LoRI>  DORCHESTER. 
which  was  the  worst  weather  we  have  had.  The 
ship  pitched  her  forecastle  under  water  continually.  In  the  morn- 
ing the  Isle  Bonaventure,  just  north-east  and  opposite  the  Perce  Rock, 
.on  the  Gaspe  coast,  was  seen,  but  the  wind  being  contrary  they  tacked  all 
day  and  lost  ground.  We  were  under  single  reef  courses  the  whole  day. 
Coppers,  or  kettles  from  the  ship's  galley,  are  kept  boiling  night  and  day 
to  thaw  the  tackle  and  ropes,  which  are  continually  freezing.  The  sailors 
have  no  clothing  more  than  they  would  have  on  a  West  India  voyage,  and 
suffer  severely.  Had  we  been  8  leagues  more  to  the  northward,  this  wind 
would  have  served  to  carry  us  up  the  St.  Lawrence  River. 

Sat.  5th — Wind  N.W.,  moderate.  N.W.  during  the  day,  but  at  night  the 
wind  came  S.W.,  and  we  ran  our  course  at  the  rate  of  8  knots  an  hour. 
Isle  Bonaventure  was  seen  again. 

Sun.  6th — Wind  N.W.  Passed  Cap  des  Rosiers  north  of  Cap  Gaspe, 
in  fine  weather,  but  at  12  o'clock  a  most  heavy  gale  of  wind  came  on,  which 
lasted  till  12  at  night,  the  highest  sea  and  the  roughest  weather  we  have 
had.  Two  reefs  in  the  foresail.  Tacked  all  day  and  lost  much  ground. 
If  this  weather  continues  many  hours  we  cannot  weather  it,  but  must  be 
blown  out  of  the  river  and  go  to  New  York,  if  we  can,  more  probably  to 
be  blown  to  the  West  Indies,  the  men  being  so  disabled  by  the  frost  and  so 
many  on  the  sick  list  that  there  are  not  enough  to  work  the  ship  against 
adverse  winds.  The  dinner  overset,  the  tea  things  broke,  but  I  eat  broth 
without  spilling  it. 

50 


PILOT  BOARDS  "  THE  TEITOX  " 

Mon.  7th — Wind  moderate.  Saw  Anticosti  Island.  It's  a  large  island 
in  the  estuary  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

Tues.  8th — Wind  moderate,  N.W.,  hard  frost  and  clear.  We  saw  part 
of  the  coast  called  in  the  chart  Les  Vallees,  two  rivers  in  Gaspe"  County 
falling  into  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence.  Tacked  all  day  and  made  some  way. 

NOTE.— Called  "Great  and  Little  Valley"  in  chart  of  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence  published  by  Eobert  Sayer,  London,  1st  August,  1785. 

Wed.  9th — N.E.  Clear  and  moderate.  Saw  Mons.  Camillo  and  Riviere 
Matane. 

NOTE. — Mount  Camille,  in  Eimouski  County,  is  one  of  the  highest 
mountains  in  Quebec,  being  about  four  thousand  feet  in  height. 
River  Matane,  also  in  Rimouski  County,  rises  in  the  Shickshock 
Mountains  and  falls  into  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence. 


ISLAND  OF  ANTICOSTI. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

I  walked  two  hours  on  the  deck  this  afternoon,  and  saw  a  fine  sunset 
behind  Bique  (Bic),  a  village  in  Rimouski  County,  near  Rimouski.  When 
we  came  within  sight  of  Bique,  Capt.  Murray  fired  a  gun  for  a  pilot,  and 
one  very  soon  after  the  signal  came  on  board.  He  had  arrived  from 
Isle  aux  Coudres  (or  Hazel  Island,  17  leagues  N.E.  of  Quebec)  this  day  to 
attend  a  dance  at  Bique,  which  latter  place  he  had  quitted  a  week  before, 
not  expecting  any  ships  from  England  at  so  late  a  season.  To-morrow  he 
would  have  returned  to  Coudres,  and  we  must  have  left  the  river  for 
want  of  a  pilot.  Our  arrival  this  day  was,  therefore,  most  fortunate. 
I  copied  some  of  Des  Barres'  charts  this  morning.  The  wind  was  so  fair 
that  all  the  sails  were  set,  even  the  sky  scrapers,  and  the  ship  went  so 
steadily  that  I  did  not  feel  any  motion. 

NOTE. — Bic,  or  Sainte  Cecile  de  Bic,  is  a  post-village  of  Rimouski 
County,  about  a  hundred  and  eight  miles  below  Quebec  City  and 
nine  miles  west  of  Rimouski.  There  is  an  island  opposite  this  village 
three  miles  in  length  and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  in  breadth  called 
Bic  or  L'Islet  au  Massacre.  According  to  tradition  two  hundred 

51 


THE  DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMOOE 


Micmac   Indians   were   murdered  here  by   the   Iroquois   about   two 
hundred  years  ago.    The  place  is  also  called  Bicque  and  Bique. 

Joseph  Frederic  Wallet  des  Barres  was  born  in 
1722.  He  was  the  descendant  of  the  Protestant 
branch  of  a  noble  French  family  who  emigrated 
to  England  after  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of 
Nantes.  In  1756  he  embarked,  as  lieutenant,  in 
the  60th  Regiment  of  Foot  for  America.  From 
1784-1787,  Des  Barres  was  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  the  Isle  of  Cape  Breton,  and  in  1785  founded 
Sydney.  He  ranked  in  the  army  as  Colonel 
(Brevet)  from  1st  January,  1798,  and  retired 
in  1803.  A  large  part  of  the  Maritime  Provinces 
were  surveyed  by  Des  Barres  and  many  of  the 
best  maps  of  the  period  were  made  by  him.  He  was  Captain  Cook's 
teacher  in  navigation.  His  death  took  place  in  Halifax,  N".S.,  in 
October,  1824,  at  the  age  of  102. 

Thurs.  10th  —  N.E.  Rain  and  mild.  We  saw  three  ships  on  their  way 
to  England  anchored  off  the  Brandy  Pots  Islands,  N.E.  of  Hare  Islands. 
Passed  Hare  Island  and  the  Kamouraska  Islands.  I  feel  the  air  much 
heavier  since  we  have  been  so  near  land.  We  expect  to  be  at  Quebec  in 


DES  BAKRES. 


te;^ 

H^^4%.*-.   .^-•V^'^.^lW--^- *.->:;•-•- 


BRANDY  POTS  ISLANDS,  1791. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

the  night.  The  Island  of  Orleans  (N.E.  of  Quebec)  reaches  from  nearly 
opposite  Cape  Tourmente  to  within  a  league  and  a  half  of  Quebec.  It  is 
seven  leagues  in  length  and  three  in  width.  As  Baron  Jean  de  la  Hontan 
writes  in  his  "Voyages  dans  I'Amerique  Septentrionale "  (published  in 
1704),  "north  of  the  Isle  of  Orleans  the  river  divides  into  two  branches;" 
the  ships  sail  through  the  south,  the  north  channel  being  foul  with  shoals 
and  rocks. 


CHAPTER    VI. 
THE  GOVERNOR  AND  HIS  FAMILY  IN  QUEBEC. 

Governor  Simcoe,  although  he  had  brought  his  commission  as 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Upper  Canada  with  him,  was  compelled, 
owing  to  circumstances  related  in  a  previous  chapter,  to  remain  at 
Quebec  until  June  of  1792,  before  proceeding  to  the  Upper  Province 
and  to  Kingston,  where  he  would  take  the  oaths  of  office.  There  were 
many  matters  of  importance  to  be  arranged  before  he  entered  upon 
the  active  duties  of  his  position. 

The  Act  of  the  Imperial  Parliament  dividing  the  old  province 
of  Quebec  into  the  two  provinces  of  Upper  and  Lower  Canada  was 
passed  in  May,  1791.  The  commission  of  Governor  Simcoe  is  dated 
12th  September,  1791,  and  the  proclamation  in  accordance  with  the 
Act  was  issued  at  Quebec  on  November  18th,  1791.  In  June,  1792, 
he  proceeded  to  Upper  Canada,  arriving  at  Kingston  in  July,  where 
he  took  the  oaths  of  office  in  presence  of  his  Executive  Council. 

Fri.  llth — I  expressed  so  much  concern  to  quit  the  ship  that  Capt. 
Murray  said  he  was  almost  afraid  to  dine  on  shore,  lest  I  should  order  the 
ship  under  weigh  to  sail  on  a  further  voyage.  The  "Triton"  anchored 
at  Quebec  at  one  this  morning.  At  7  I  looked  out  of  the  cabin  window 
and  saw  the  town  covered  with  snow,  and  it  rained  the  whole  day.  Coll. 
Simcoe  and  Capt.  Murray  dined  with  General  Alured  Clarke,  the  Lt.- 
Governor,  administrator,  to  meet  H.R.H.  Prince  Edward. 

NOTE. — Sir  Charles  Alured  Clarke  had  a  long  and  distinguished 
military  career.  When  fourteen  he  entered  the  army  as  an  ensign. 
Seventy-three  years  later,  on  the  accession  of 
William  IV.,  he  was  made  a  field  marshal.  He 
died  in  September,  1832.  Sir  Alured  was  Gov- 
ernor of  Jamaica  from  1782-90,  when  he  was 
transferred  to  the  staff  at  Quebec.  He  was  sworn 
in  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Province  of 
Quebec,  8th  of  October,  1790.  He  received  his 
commission  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Lower 
Canada,  September  12th,  1791,  and  remained  in 
office  until  January  21st,  1796.  During  the  two 
years'  absence  of  Lord  Dorchester  he  acted  as  SlR  ALUBED  CLABKE. 
administrator  of  the  province.  Subsequently  he 
became  Governor-General  of  India  and  later  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  forces  there. 

Edward  Augustus  was  the  fourth  son  of  George  III.  and  the 
father  of  Queen  Victoria.  He  was  not  liked  by  his  parent  and  spent 
most  of  his  time  in  military  service  abroad.  For  a  while  he  was  in 
command  of  the  7th  Royal  Fusiliers  at  Gibraltar  and  at  once  showed 

53 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

himself  a  thorough  martinet,  and  became  so  unpopular  Tfith  his 
men  that  he  was  sent  to  Oanada  in  1791.  Three  years  later  he 
served  in  Martinique  and  St.  Lucia,  but  on  the  close  of  operations 
returned  to  Canada.  In  1799  several  promotions 
came  his  way.  He  was  made  Duke  of  Kent,  and 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  forces  in  British 
Xorth  America.  In  1803  he  was  appointed  Gov- 
ernor of  Gibraltar.  In  July,  1818,  he  married 
Victoria  May  Louisa,  widow  of  Enrich  Charles, 
Prince  of  Leiningen.  Eighteen  months  later  he 
died. 

The  7th  Regiment  or  Royal  Fusiliers  was 
formed  in  1685.  In  1773  they  proceeded  to 
Canada  and  were  stationed  at  Quebec,  Montreal 
and  St.  John's.  When  Quebec  was  'besieged  by 
Montgomery  and  Arnold,  the  garrison,  of  which 
sixty  men  of  the  Fusiliers  formed  part,  defended 
the  place  with  firmness  and  intrepidity.  The  regiment  fought  dur- 
ing the  War  of  the  Revolution.  They  returned  to  England  in  1783, 
on  conclusion  of  the  treaty  of  peace.  In  May,  1791,  the  regiment 
was  again  in  Canada  under  the  command  of  Prince  Edward,  who 
in  1799  was  created  Duke  of  Kent.  In  1801  the  Duke  was  re- 
moved to  the  First  or  Royal  Regiment,  and  was  succeeded  in  the 
colonelcy  by  Lieutenant-Governor  Sir  Alured  Clarke,  from  the  5th 
Foot,  who  had  commanded  the  Fusiliers  during  a  great  part  of  the 
American  war.  In  1810,  the  regiment,  which  was  stationed  in  the 
West  Indies,  returned  to  England. 

Fri.  llth — I  was  not  disposed  to  leave  the  ship  to  enter  so  dismal 
looking  a  town  as  Quebec  appeared  through  the  mist,  sleet  and  rain,  but 
at  6  o'clock  L.t.  Talbot  went  ashore  with  me,  and  General  Clarke's  covered 
carriole,  a  small  chaise  on  runners  instead  of  wheels,  was  ready  to  carry 
me  to  the  Inn  in  the  Upper  Town,  to  which  we  ascended  an  immensely 
steep  hill  through  streets  ill  built.  The  snow  was  not  deep  enough  to 
enable  the  carriole  to  run  smoothly,  so  that  I  was  terribly  shaken,  and 
formed  a  very  unpleasant  idea  of  the  town  which  I  had  come  to,  and  the 
dismal  appearance  of  the  old-fashioned  inn  I  arrived  at,  which,  I  could 
suppose,  resembled  my  idea  of  a  Flemish  house,  was  not  preposessing. 
My  rooms  were  all  on  the  first  floor  and  a  large  kitchen  adjoining  the 
sitting  room.  I  did  not  suffer  from  cold,  for  it  was  heated  by  polls  or 
stoves,  which  were  so  well  supplied  with  wood  that  I  found  it  sometimes 
necessary  to  open  the  finettes,  or  sliding  panes  of  glass  in  the  windows. 
I  met  with  fine  partridges  and  excellent  apples  called  Roseaux,  pink 
throughout,  and  they  had  a  flavour  of  strawberries — a  very  early  apple, 
and  they  do  not  keep. 

Sun.  13th — Capt.  Murray  sailed  for  Halifax.  I  sent  letters  to  England 
by  a  merchant  vessel.  I  was  amused  by  seeing  dogs  of  all  sizes  drawing 
traineaux  or  sleds  with  wood.  Mastiffs  draw  loads  of  provisions,  and  very 
small  dogs  carrioles,  with  children  in  them. 

Fri.  18th — I  walked  with  Ooll.  Simcoe  to  Cape  Diamond  and  saw  the 
citadel,  which  is  fortified  by  many  works,  and  from  whence  there  is  a  very 
grand  view  of  the  town,  shipping  and  distant  mountains  as  far  as  Cap 
Tourmente.  near  the  mouth  of  the  river.  The  inhabited  country  near 
Quebec  is  embellished  by  the  villages  of  Montmorency  at  the  Falls,  Charles- 

54 


FIRST  DAYS  IN  QUEBEC 

bourg,  Lorette,  St.  Foix  (Ste.  Foy),  all  within  a  few  miles  of  Quebec.  It 
seemed  very  perilous  walking  over  acres  of  ice,  but  cloth  shoes  or  worsted 
stockings  over  shoes  prevent  slipping. 

Sat.  19th — I  went  to  the  house  we  have  hired  in  St.  John  Street,  which 
is  a  very  moderate  one,  but  the  only  one  at  present  to  be  let.  There  is  a 
poil  or  stove  in  one  parlour,  and  a  fireplace  in  the  other. 

Mon.  21st — I  went  to  a  subscription  concert.  Prince  Edward's  band 
of  the  7th  Fusiliers  played,  and  some  of  the  officers  of  the  Fusiliers.  The 
music  was  thought  excellent.  The  band  costs  the  Prince  eight  hundred  a 
year. 

Sat.  26th. — A  Mr.  Hazeel,  who  is  lately  come  from  the  River  la 
Tranche  (the  Thames  in  Middlesex,  U.C.),  dined  with  us,  and  confirms  the 
favourable  opinion  we  have  entertained  of  the  country  on  its  banks.  We 
supped  at  Major  Watson's.  Mrs.  Watson  appeared  pleasing.  Mrs.  Caldwell, 
wife  of  Coll.  Caldwell,  was  there. 

XOTE. — There  was  a  Major  Watson  on  the  staff  at  Quebec  in  1791. 
He  belonged  to  the  3rd  Foot  Guards.  He  became  Major-General, 
20th  December,  1793. 


THE  RECOLLET   CHURCH — INTERIOR  VIEW. 

Sun.  27th — I  went  to  church.  The  service  is  performed  in  a  room 
occasionally  used  as  a  Council  Chamber.  Prince  Edward  always  goes  to 
church,  and  his  band  plays  during  the  service.  On  the  death  of  the  two 
Jesuits  the  Recollet  Church  will  devolve  to  the  English,  and  as  these 
men  are  very  old,  the  English  Government  do  not  think  it  necessary  to 
build  a  church  for  the  use  of  Protestants;  indeed,  the  French  allow  us  to 
use  the  Recollet  Church  between  the  hours  of  their  service,  but  as  they 
will  not  admit  of  fires  in  it,  the  Council  Chamber  is  generally  used  as  a 
church  in  the  winter. 

NOTE. — The  Recollet  Church  in  1791  was  situated  on  the  site  of 
the  present  English  Cathedral.  The  Convent  gardens  occupied  the 
site  of  the  present  Court  House.  The  picture  is  from  a  drawing 
showing  the  interior  of  the  church  restored  after  the  Siege  of  Quebec. 

55 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  28th — I  went  to  a  concert,  and  afterwards  to  a  dance  at  the 
Fusiliers'  Barracks. 

NOTE. — The  Fusiliers'  Barracks  were  on  the  site  of  the  present 
City  Hall,  Quebec. 

Tues.  29th — I  supped  at  Major  Stewart's,  of  the  Royal  Regiment  of 
Artillery,  and  met  Mrs.  P.  V.  (full  name  not  in  MSS.),the  most  unpleasing 
woman  I  have  seen  in  this  place.  She  is  just  arrived  from  London. 

NOTE. — Major  John  Stewart  became  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the 
regiment  in  1793. 

Wed.  30th — St.  Andrew's  Day.  Coll.  Simcoe  dined  with  Dr.  Mabane 
at  Woodfleld,  near  Quebec.  He  was  an  army  surgeon,  came  into  the  Coun- 
cil at  Quebec,  amassed  money,  and  lived  what  is  called  most  hospitably, 
far  beyond  his  fortune. 

NOTE. — Judge  Adam  Mabane  was  a  member  of  the  first  Executive 
Council  of  Quebec   (1775).     He  at  one  time  resided  at  Woodfleld, 
formerly  "Samos/'  which  is  situated  three  miles 
from  Quebec.  It  was  an  elegant  mansion  and  rich- 
ly laid  out  estate.  In  1646,  the  Company  of  New 
France  owned  the  estate  surrounding  Woodfield. 
After  various  owners  it  passed  in  1731  into  the 
hands  of  Monseigneur  Dosquet,  Bishop  of  Samos, 
who  built  the  dwelling  house.  He  was  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Samos  in  1726,  and  evidently  gave  the 
name  of  the  diocese  to  the  house.     1733  he  was 
made  Bishop  of  Quebec,  having  been  for  three 
years  coadjutor  to  Monseigneur  Duplessis-Mornay. 
In  1763,  the  land  on  which  the  house  stood  was 
conceded   by   the    Quebec    Seminary   to    Thomas 
JUDGE  MABANE.       Ainslie,  who  renamed  the  dwelling  "Woodfield," 
and  in  1769,  Judge  Adam  Mabane  acquired  it. 
He  died  in  1792,  and  his  sister  Miss  Isabella  Mabane  bought  it  in 
1794,  holding  it  until   1805,  when  it  was  purchased  by   the  late 
Honorable    Matthew   Bell,   who   in    1816    sold   it   to    Mr.    William 
Sheppard. 

The  original  house  was  built  on  the  brow  of  the  hill  overlooking 
the  St.  Lawrence.  It  was  of  stone,  one  storey  high,  peaked  roof,  after 
the  style  of  architecture  which  prevailed  in  those  days,  something 
the  same  as  that  of  the  manor  house  at  Beauport.  Judge  Mabane 
made  many  alterations,  adding  a  second  storey  and  two  pavilion 
wings  connected  with  the  house  by  corridors.  In  1775-6,  it  was  used 
as  an  hospital  for  American  soldiers.  In  December,  1842,  the  house 
was  destroyed  by  fire  and  a  new  residence  built  by  Mr.  Sheppard. 
In  1847  Woodfield  was  sold  to  Mr.  Thomas  Gibb,  who  exchanged  it 
with  his  brother,  Mr.  James  Gibb.  In  1879,  the  estate  was  sold  as 
a  site  for  a  rural  cemetery. 

The  information  concerning  Samos  is  from  an  excellent  paper 
written  by  P.  B.  Casgrain,  K.C.,  Clerk  of  Circuit  Court,  Quebec,  and 
presented  to  the  Royal  Society  of  Canada  in  1906. 

56 


VISITS  SURVEYOR-GENERAL  HOLLAND 

Thurs.  1st  Dec. — A  fine,  clear  day.  I  walked  near  three  miles  to 
Major  Holland's,  Surveyor-General,  where  I  saw  some  fine  prints  of  Italy 
and  Mount  Vesuvius. 

Observing  that  the  stoves  are  generally  heated  to  an  excessive  degree, 
I  was  told  that  in  this  house  they  were  always  moderate.  I  looked  at  the 
Fahrenheit's  thermometer  in  the  room,  and  it  was  74°.  They  said  that  it 
had  been  86°  at  Chief  Justice  Smith's  a  few  evenings  ago. 


THE  RESIDENCE   KNOWN   AS  SAMOS. 

( From  a  Drawing  in  possession  of  P.  B.  Casgrain,  Quebec.) 

NOTE. — Major  Samuel  Holland  was  born  in  England  in  1717, 
receiving  his  military  education  there  and  in  Holland.  At  an  early  age 
he  entered  the  Army  as  Lieutenant  of  Artillery 
and  served  some  time  on  the  Continent.  In  1756 
he  was  promoted  to  a  captaincy  and  in  the  follow- 
ing year  was  appointed  aide-de-camp  to  General 
Wolfe.  He  took  part  in  the  expedition  against 
Louisbourg  and  was  engineer-in-chief  with  Wolfe 
and  Saunders  at  Quebec.  According  to  some  critics 
he  stood  near  Wolfe  when  that  officer  fell.  In  1763 
Holland  was  appointed  Surveyor-General  of  Quebec 
and  Director  of  Surveys  in  British  North  America, 
and  also  a  member  of  the  Council,  Quebec.  Many 
of  the  manuscript  plans  in  the  Dominion  Archives 
are  signed  by  him  During  his  stay  in  Quebec  SURV.^,EN.  HOLLAND. 
Prince  Edward  paid  Holland  many  visits  at  his  old 
mansion  on  the  Ste.  Foye  Road.  He  married  Marie  Josephte  Rolet, 
by  whom  he  had  eight  children,  the  eldest,  Colonel  John  F.  Hol- 
land, being  the  first  British  subject  born  on  Prince  Edward  Island. 
The  only  living  grandson  of  the  Surveyor-General  is  Augustus  E.  C. 
Holland  (son  of  Frederic  Braham  Holland),  of  Wallace  Bridge, 
N.S.  A.  E.  Holland,  of  St.  Eleanor's,  P.E.I.,  is  a  great-grand- 
son through  his  father,  Samuel  Holland,  Jr.,  while  Miss  Marion 

57 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Holland,  of  Melbourne,  Que.,  and  Mrs.  Alton  Rowland,  of  Windsor 
Mills,  Que.,  daughters  of  the  late  H.  A.  P.  Holland,  are  also  great- 
grandchildren of  the  Surveyor-General. 

From  hence  I  went  in  an  open  carriole  (which  is  a  sort  of  phaeton 
body  on  a  sledge  or  runners,  shod  with  iron  instead  of  wheels)  to  Wood- 
field,  to  call  on  Dr.  Mabane's  sister.  It  is  three  miles  from  Quebec,  a 
beautiful  situation  among  woods,  on  the  steep  and  high  banks  of  the  St. 
Lawrence,  and  within  a  mile  from  Wolfe's  Cove,  the  spot  where  Wolfe 
landed.  From  hence  I  went  to  "  Sans  Bruit,"  a  house  of  Coll.  Caldwell, 
let  to  a  Mr.  Philip  Tosey,  a  Church  of  England  clergyman,  who  emigrated 
from  Sussex.  He  is  military  chaplain,  and  is  also  engaged  in  clearing 
7,000  acres  of  land,  and  of  his  skill  in  farming  Mr.  Young,  the  agricul- 
turist, has  written  so  largely.  I  walked  from  hence  to  Quebec,  two  miles. 
It  is  fatiguing  to  walk  on  snow  when  not  perfectly  frozen,  and  my  half 
boots  were  heavy  with  icicles. 


CANADIAN  CARRIOLE. 

(From  a  Draiving  by  Mrg.  Simcoe  ) 

NOTE. — "Sans  Bruit,"  on  the  Ste.  Foy  Road,  was  bought  by  Colonel 
Murray,  a  nephew  of  General  Murray,  and  named  "Sans  Bruit," 
which  means  "without  noise."  It  appears  that  on  one  occasion  the 
Colonel  wrote  to  a  merchant  in  the  Lower  Town  asking  him  to  send 
him  a  list  of  articles,  and  at  the  foot  of  the  letter  he  wrote  "Sans 
Bruit,  1  June."  The  merchant,  thinking  that  this  was  simply  a 
caution  to  him  to  deliver  the  goods  without  noise,  arrived  at  the 
house  at  night  and  as  secretly  as  possible.  The  Colonel  heard  the 
disturbance  at  the  door,  and  discovered  that  the  merchant  was  doing 
his  best  to  call  attention  to  his  presence  with  the  least  noise  possible. 
Explanations  were  given,  but  the  merchant  still  thought  that  "Sans 
Bruit"  was  simply  a  word  of  caution,  and  could  not  possibly  be  the 
name  of  a  residence. 

Rev.  Philip  Tosey  was  appointed  rector  of  the  parish  of  Quebec 
in  1786.  He  was  the  second  authorized  Protestant  minister  in  the 
city  and  was  also  Ecclesiastical  Commissary  for  the  Eastern  Dis- 
trict. 

58 


GOVERNOR  SIMCOE  LEAVES  FOR  MONTREAL 

Fri.  2nd — We  dined  at  Belmont,  four  miles  from  Quebec,  Coll.  Cald- 
well's,  a  very  indifferent  house  in  appearance,  but  comfortable  within.  I 
nearly  fainted  with  the  heat  this  evening,  and  was  told  that  Fahren- 
heit thermometer  in  this  drawing-room  had  one  evening  been  at  100.  I 
eat  part  of  a  metiffe,  a  bird  between  a  wild  goose  (the  outarde)  and  a 
tame  one.  It  was  much  better  than  the  tame  goose.  I  found  it  so  cold 
coming  home  after  supper  in  a  covered  carriole  that  I  wore  one  of  the 
fencing  masks  lined  with  fur  which  Capt.  Stevenson  gave  me. 

NOTE. — The  estate  of  Belmont,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Ste.  Foy 
Road,  near  Quebec,  originally  belonged  to  the  Jesuit  Fathers.  After 
passing  through  different  hands  it  came  into  the  possession  of  Hon- 
ourable Colonel  Henry  Caldwell,  who  was  Assistant  Quartermaster- 
General  under  Wolfe,  in  1759.  He  settled  in  Quebec  after  the  con- 
quest, held  the  Provincial  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  and  was  appointed 
to  the  Legislative  Council  in  1792.  In  1794  he  became  Receiver- 
General  of  the  Province.  Colonel  Caldwell  built  the  mansion,  which 
was  burned  in  1798  and  rebuilt  in  1800.  He  died  there  in  1810. 


BELMONT,  NEAR  QUEBEC. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mr*.  Simcoe.) 

During  the  years  that  followed  the  property  was  owned  by  different 
parties  until  the  late  manager  of  the  Beauport  Asylum  bought  it, 
and  it  is  now  a  private  sanitarium,  known  as  the  "Belmont  Retreat." 

Sat.  3rd — Coll.  Simcoe  set  out  for  Montreal,  accompanied  by  Capt. 
Stevenson.  They  wore  large  beaver  coats,  and  the  carriole  was  filled  with 
buffalo  skins.  I  copied  some  views  of  Italy  that  Major  Holland  lent  me. 

NOTE. — I  find  mention  of  Captain  Stevenson  in  a  letter  of  General 
Simcoe,  dated  6th  September,  1791.  Simcoe  refers  to  Captain  Stev- 
enson in  these  words:  "I  have  recommended  him  to  the  office  of 
Deputy  Quarter-Master  General,  to  relinquish  the  idea  of  not  joining 
his  regiment  till  the  spring,  and  to  accompany  me  to  Quebec,  not 
thinking  it  fitting  in  respect  to  the  commission  with  which  I  am 
honoured  that  if  I  should  be  blown  off  the  St.  Lawrence  into  an 
American  port  that  I  should  arrive  there  unattended,  and  in  case 

59 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

of  personal  accident  that  those  whom  I  value  more  than  life  would 
be  without  a  protector." 

Sun.  4th — Mrs.   Tosey,  wife  of  the  military  chaplain,  carried  me  to 
church  in  a  carriole  like  a  narrow  coach,  which,  from  its  length,  was  much 


OFFICERS'  CAERIOLE. 

(From  a  Draiving  by  Mm.  Simcoe.) 

easier  than  those  usually  used,  but  too  heavy  for  one  horse  to  draw  with 
ease,  therefore  seldom  used. 

Mon.  5th — A  thaw  to-day;  the  air  raw  and  cold,  and  the  roads  full  of 
cahots — a  word  used  in  Quebec  for  the  holes  and  pits  made  on  the  snow 


RUINS  OF  INTENDANT'S  PALACE,  QUEBEC,  1791. 

(From  an  Engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

roads — makes  driving  very  jolty;  but  it  did  not  deter  Prince  Edward  and 
a  party  from  driving  8  miles  to  the  village  of  Lorette.  It  is  the  custom 
here  to  make  parties  to  dine  in  the  country  at  a  distance  of  ten  miles. 
They  often  carry  a  cold  dinner,  and  return  to  a  dance  in  the  evening, 

60 


MES.  SIMCOE  DESCRIBES  QUEBEC 

and  this  in  the  severe  weather,  which  seems  as  much  relished  by  the 
English  as  the  Canadians.  Their  partners  must  be  very  agreeable,  or  they 
could  never  have  liked  these  parties.  I  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Watson,  wife 
of  Major  Watson. 

A  slight  shock  of  an  earthquake  was  felt  in  Saint  Louis  Street  this 
evening.  Quebec  is  divided  into  Upper  and  Lower  town.  The  latter  is 
inhabited  by  the  merchants  for  the  convenience  of  the  harbour  and  quays. 
They  have  spacious  houses  three  stories  high,  built  of  dark  stone,  but 
the  streets  are  narrow  and  gloomy.  In  the  suburbs  of  St.  Foy  are  ruins 
of  the  Intendant's  Palace,  which  was  a  very  large  building.  The  upper 
town  is  more  airy  and  pleasant,  though  the  houses  in  general  are  less. 

NOTE. — Ste.  Foy — this  form  of  spelling  has  been  used  by  the 
Abbe  Scott,  who  found  it  in  the  original  documents.  When  Talon 
filled  the  office  of  Intendant,  he  had  a  brewery  built  at  the  Palais, 
which  was  finished  in  1671.  This  industry,  quite  a  new  one  in  the 


THE  FORT  AND  CHATEAU  ST.  Louis,  QUEBEC. 

(From  an  Engraving  in  the  Dominion  Archive*,  Ottawa.) 

country,  did  not  prove  as  profitable  as  expected.  Thereupon  the 
Intendant  made  the  building  his  residence,  and  the  Superior 
Council  held  its  sittings  there.  The  Council,  when  first  established, 
held  its  sittings  in  a  house  called  the  "Palais"  at  the  corner  of 
the  Place  d'Armes  and  St.  Louis  Street,  on  the  very  spot,  in  fact, 
where  the  present  Court  House  stands.  Talon's  brewery  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire  in  the  night  of  the  5th  January,  1713.  On  its  ruins 
was  erected  the  splendid  building  of  the  Intendant's  Palace,  of 
which  Kalm  and  Charlevoix  speak  in  terms  of  admiration.  It  was 
almost  entirely  demolished  during  the  siege  of  1759.  At  the  present 
day  a  large  brewery  stands  on  the  ruins  of  the  Intendant's  Palace, 
and  thus  the  site  is  restored  to  its  former  use. 

Mon.  5th — The  Chateau,  the  residence  of  the  Governor,  just  above  the 
lower  town,  contains  some  very  good  rooms  built  by  Sir  Frederick  Haldi- 
mand.  The  situation  is  very  high,  and  commands  a  most  noble  prospect 

61 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

down  the  river.  The  old  chateau  is  in  a  ruinous  state,  but  it  is  used  for 
public  offices,  and  convenient  for  the  Governor  as  being  so  near  his  own 
residence  that  there  is  only  a  courtyard  between  them. 

NOTE. — Champlain  in  1620  built  the  first  Fort  St.  Louis.  In 
the  year  1646,  a  contract  was  passed  between  the  Company  of  New 
France  and  the  contractors  for  more  extensive  works  of  defence  in 
Quebec.  In  the  following  year  the  foundation  of  the  first  Chateau 
was  laid.  The  Chateau  was  built  within  the  boundary  of  the  Fort, 
and  the  distinction  between  Chateau  and  Fort  has  not  always  been 
preserved.  Many  imagine  that  the  famous  Chateau  St.  Louis  was 
but  one  structure,  whilst  in  reality  it  was  com- 
posed at  one  time  of  three,  viz. :  Fort  St.  Louis, 
Chateau  St.  Louis  and  Haldimand  Castle.  The 
Chateau  overhung  the  cliffs,  as  may  be  seen  by  the 
view  in  "Hawkins"  and  other  works,  and  in  fact 
it  occupied  the  site  of  the  present  terrace.  In 
1784,  while  levelling  the  yard  at  the  Chateau, 
workmen  dug  up  a  large  stone  with  a  Maltese 
cross  on  it,  bearing  date  1647.  In  later  years 
there  was  some  controversy  as  to  whether  the  date 
on  the  stone  was  1646  or  1647,  but  it  was  finally 
decided  to  be  the  latter,  and  that  the  old  relic  was 
intended  to  commemorate  a  double  event,  viz: — 
STONE*  AJ  J  the  Jear%  in  which  the  Fort  St.  Louis  Bastion 
was  begun  and  finished,  1646  and  1647.  The 
stone  was  first  placed  in  the  cheek  of  the  gate  of  the  new 
building,  Haldimand  Castle,  at  the  rear,  about  on  the  site  of 
the  present  Chateau,  and  subsequently  was  placed  over  the  entrance 
to  the  hotel  known  as  the  Chateau  Frontenac.  The  Chateau  St. 
Louis  was  rebuilt  in  1694-8  and  another  storey  added  in  1811.  It 
was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1834.  Sir  Frederick  Haldimand  lived  there 
from  1777  to  1784. 

Wed.  7th — Gen'l.  Clarke's  servant  threw  himself  from  the  Chateau 
into  the  Lower  Town,  some  hundred  feet,  without  breaking  a  bone  or 
being  killed.  I  received  a  letter  from  Coll.  Simcoe,  who  travelled  in  the 
carriole  to  Three  Rivers,  100  miles,  where  he  found  the  river  open,  and 
was  obliged  to  cross  it  in  a  boat  and  proceed  the  remaining  100  miles  to 
Montreal  in  a  cal&che,  a  carriage  like  a  gig,  with  a  seat  in  front  for  the 
driver.  He  reached  Pt.  aux  Trembles,  on  the  island  of  Montreal  and 
within  three  leagues  of  Montreal,  the  second  day  from  Quebec. 

Sun.  llth — I  dined  at  Coll.  Caldwell's,  and  soon  after  I  returned  home 
Coll.  Simcoe  arrived  from  Montreal,  which  place  he  left  yesterday.  He 
brought  with  him  Mr.  Talbot,  of  the  24th  Regt.,  a  relation  of  Lady  Buck- 
ingham, who  was  aide-de-camp  to  the  Marquis  while  he  was  Lieutenant 
of  Ireland,  and  at  whose  request  Coll.  Simcoe  takes  Mr.  Talbot  into  his 
family. 

NOTE. — Thomas  Talbot,  son  of  Richard  Talbot  and  Margaret, 
afterwards  (1831)  Baroness  Talbot,  was  born  at  Malahide,  near  Dub- 
lin, on  19th  July,  1771.  In  May,  1783,  when  little  more  than  eleven 
years  of  age,  he  received  a  commission  in  the  army,  as  ensign  in  the 
66th  Regiment  of  Foot.  In  September  of  the  same  year  he  became  a 

62 


DIAKY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 


63 


COLONEL  TALBOT  OF  POET  TALBOT 


lieutenant,  his  retirement  on  half  pay,  from  1784  to  1787,  immed- 
iately following.  The  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland  at  that  time  was 
the  Marquis  of  Buckingham,  a  relative  of  Talbot's,  and  he,  with 
Arthur  Wellesley,  afterwards  Duke  of  Wellington,  acted  as  aides  to  the 
Marquis.  In  1790,  Wellesley  became  a  member 
of  the  Irish  Parliament,  and  Talbot  joined  the 
24th  Eegiment  at  Quebec.  Soon  after  Governor 
Simcoe's  arrival  in  Canada,  Talbot  became  his 
private  and  confidential  secretary,  remaining  a 
member  of  the  Governor's  family  until  1794.  In 
June  of  that  year  he  returned  to  England,  hav- 
ing been  summoned  to  join  his  regiment.  In 
1796  he  was  appointed  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the 
5th  Foot,  which  had  been  stationed  at  Niagara 
during  the  period  he  had  been  on  Simcoe's  staff, 
and  three  years  later  commanded  the  second  bat- 
talion of  the  regiment  in  Holland.  Talbot  returned  to  Canada  in 
1801,  seeking  a  place  to  establish  a  settlement.  Through  an  over- 
sight he  did  not  accomplish  his  purpose  and  again  went  to  Eng- 
land, where  he  was  assisted  in  his  efforts  by  General  Simcoe.  In 


COLONEL   TALBOT. 


COLONEL  TALBOT'S  RESIDENCE,  PORT  TALBOT. 

(From  a  Sketch  gent  to  England  in  1S06,  and  copied  by  Mm.  Simcoe.) 

1803,  Colonel  Talbot  took  up  permanent  residence  in  Upper  Canada, 
receiving  a  grant  of  5,000  acres  in  the  Township  of  Dunwich.  He 
founded  what  is  known  as  tbe  Talbot  Settlement,  which  in  1831 
was  estimated  at  40,000  souls.  During  his  residence  in  Canada, 
Colonel  Talbot  occasionally  visited  England,  and  it  was  on  his  last 
5  65 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

visit,  in  1851,  that  he  met  the  companion  of  his  early  youth,  Arthur 
Wellesley,  then  Duke  of  Wellington.  It  is  a  coincidence  that  they 
died  within  a  few  months  of  each  other,  the  "Iron  Duke"  passing  away 
on  14th  September,  1852,  and  the  "Founder  of  the  Talbot  Settle- 
ment" on  6th  February,  1853. 

The  house  was  situated  on  the  cliff  at  the  top  of  a  green  slope 
;  rising  to  the  west  from  the  mouth  of  the  Talbot  Creek,  in  Dunwich. 
The  place  has  always  been  called  Port  Talbot  although  there  is  neither 
port  nor  village  in  the  vicinity.  The  site  of  Colonel  Talbot's  home  is 
now  occupied  by  a  residence  built  by  Colonel  (afterwards  Lord)  Airey 
about  1849,  left  of  the  wing  shown  in  the  picture  on  the  brow  of  the 
hill,  nearest  the  creek. 

Thurs.  15th — We  walked  to  the  provision  store,  a  road  by  the  river- 
side below  Cape  Diamond,  always  sheltered  and  well  beaten. 

Sun.  18t.h — We  dined  at  Belmont. 

Mon.  19th — Dined  and  supped  at  Madame  Baby's,  wife  of  Monsr. 
(Hon.)  Francois  Baby,  a  member  of  the  Legislative  Council.  I  ate  part  of 
the  moufle  of  the  orignale,  or  elk.  They  are  sometimes  shot  by  the 
Indians,  and  much  esteemed.  It  was  a  very  rich  dish,  with  an  excellent 
sauce.  I  am  told  the  lip  of  the  ox  is  sometimes  sold  for  it.  A  pie  made  of 
cr£te  de  coys  (a  pie  garnished  with  cocks'  combs)  is  also  a  very  favourite 
dish  among  the  Canadians,  and  easily  procured,  as  quantities  of  poultry 
are  killed  in  the  beginning  of  the  winter  and  kept  hung  up  in  a  frozen 
state.  The  poultry  eat  dry,  but  when  preserved  in  barrels  of  snow,  as  is 
the  custom  at  New  York,  they  retain  the  juices  much  better. 

Tues.  20th — We  supped  at  Mr.  Thomas  Ainslie's,  the  Collector  of 
Customs  here. 

Wed.  21st — We  dined  with  Mr.  Jenkins  Williams,  the  Clerk  of  the 
Legislative  Council.  The  supper  was  very  elegant.  Mrs.  Williams  is  a 
very  genteel  woman,  and  paints  beautifully  and  dresses  very  well.  She 
has  not  been  here  above  two  years,  having  been  educated  in  London. 

NOTE. — Jenkins  Williams  was  Judge  Jenkins 
Williams  of  the  District  of  Quebec  in  1797.  He 
succeeded  Judge  Mabane  as  Judge  of  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas  in  1792. 

Thurs.  22nd — I  had  an  order  from  Mgr.  Francois 
Hubert,  the  Catholic  Bishop  of  Quebec,  for  admit- 
tance to  the  Convent  des  Ursulines,  where  I  went 
to-day  with  Madame  Baiby.  The  Surperieure  (La  Mere 
Saint  Louis  Gonzague)  is  a  very  pleasing,  conversible 
woman  of  good  address.  Her  face  and  manner  re- 
minded me  of  Mrs.  Gwillim  (Mrs.  Simcoe  in  this 
writing  refers  to  a  relative  of  her  own,  not  her 
mother,  who  died  at  her  birth).  The  nuns  appeared 
cheerful,  pleased  to  see  visitors,  and  disposed  to  con- 
verse and  ask  questions.  Their  dress  is  black  with 
MGR.  HUBERT.  a  white  hood,  and  some  of  them  looked  very  pretty 
in  it.  They  carry  cleanliness  and  neatness  to  the 

greatest  pitch  of  perfection  in  every  part  of  the  convent,  and  are  indus- 
trious in  managing  a  large  garden.  They  educate  children  at  this  con- 
vent, taking  both  pensionnaires  and  day  boarders.  They  make  many  deco- 
rations for  their  altars  and  church,  and  gild  picture  frames.  They  showed 
a  fine  piece  of  embroidery  worked  by  an  English  nun,  since  dead.  Some 
of  them  make  boxes  and  pin  cushions  of  birch  bark,  worked  with  dyed 

66 


PUBLIC  BUILDINGS  IN  QUEBEC 

hair  of  the  orignale  or  elk.  It  is  so  short  that  it  must  be  put 
through  the  needle  for  every  stitch,  which  makes  it  tedious.  All 
sorts  of  cakes  and  sweetmeats  are  made  here,  and  all  the  desserts  in 
Quebec  are  furnished  by  the  nuns.  They  dry  apples  in  a  very  peculiar 
manner.  They  are  like  dried  apricots.  All  these  things  are  of  use  to  main- 
tain them,  their  finances  being  very  moderate. 

Another  convent  is  called  the  Hotel  Dieu,  for  the  reception  of  the 
sick,  whether  French  or  English.  It  is  attended  by  the  medical  men  on 
the  staff,  who  speak  highly  of  the  attention  payed  by  the  nuns  to  the  sick 
people.  The  General  Hospital  is  a  convent  a  mile  out  of  the  town,  where 
sick  and  insane  people  are  received. 

NOTE. — Mgr.  Jean  Frangois  Hubert  was  born  in  Quebec  on  the 
23rd  February,  and  became  Bishop  of  Quebec  on  12th  June,  1788. 
He  died  at  the  General  Hospital,  Quebec,  on  17th  October,  1797, 
Mother  St.  Louis  de  Gonzague,  who  was  several  times  Superior  of  the 
Ursulines  Convent,  died  on  the  23rd  March,  1802. 


CONVENT  OF  THE  URSULINES,  QUEBEC,  1791. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Richard  Short.) 

NOTE. — The  General  Hospital  of  Quebec  occupied  the  site  of  the 
Convent  of  the  Eecollets  on  the  banks  of  the  River  St.  Charles.  It 
was  first  occupied  as  an  hospital  on  30th  October,  1692.  In  1740 
and  1859,  additions  were  made,  and  considerable  repairs  in  1850. 
There  do  not  appear  to  have  been  many  editions  of  pictures  since 
1743.  The  present  hospital  is  on  the  same  site  as  it  was  in  1791. 

Fri.  23 — The  great  church  or  cathedral  stands  in  the  centre  of  the 
town,  and  appears  to  be  filled  with  people  at  all  hours  of  the  day.  It  is 
a  handsome  building.  Near  to  it  is  the  seminary,  where  boys  are  educated, 
and  some  of  the  Catholic  clergy  reside  there.  The  Jesuits'  or  Recollet 

67 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Church  is  a  handsome  building,  ornamented  with  some  pictures,  but  no 
fine  paintings.  Two  models  of  ships  are  suspended  in  it,  placed  there  in 
commemoration  of  the  arrival  of  some  of  the  settlers  from  France.  The 
only  two  Jesuits  living  have  spacious  apartments  near  the  church,  and  a 
good  library  and  large  gardens.  I  went  to  a  subscription  ball  this  evening. 
There  were  three  rooms  well  lighted,  and  the  company  well  dressed. 

NOTE.— The  Cathedral  stands  on  the  same  ground  as  in  1791. 
The  first  parish  church  at  Quebec  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1640  and 
the  new  structure,  which  afterwards  became  the  Cathedral,  was  not 
commenced  till  September,  1644,  under  the  name  of  Notre  Dame  de 
la  Paix.  It  was  opened  in  1650.  During  the  siege  of  Quebec  in  1759 
nearly  all  the  wooden  portion  of  the  church  was  destroyed,  but  it  was 


THE  GENERAL  HOSPITAL,  QUEBEC. 

(From  an  old  Drawing  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

restored  between  1769  and  1771.  In  1843  considerable  changes  were 
made  at  the  east  end,  but  the  building  is  practically  the  same  in 
the  interior  as  it  was  in  1791. 

Sat.  24th — Dr.  T.  M.  Nooth  says  a  great  light  was  observed  last  night 
in  the  air  in  a  direction  N.E.  beyond  St.  Paul's  Bay,  which  is  30  leagues 
below  Quebec,  opposite  Isle  aux  Coudres,  in  the  St  Lawrence.  He  supposed 
an  eruption  had  taken  place  from  a  volcano,  which  is  believed  from  the 
reports  of  Indians  to  be  in  those  parts,  and  a  fresh  eruption  might  have 
taken  place  there,  occasioned  by  an  earthquake  which  was  severely  felt  a 
few  days  since  near  St.  Paul's  Bay.  However,  there  is  much  of  conjecture 
in  the  supposition  about  the  existence  of  this  volcano. 

NOTE. — The  Quebec  Gazette,  of  the  22nd  December,  1791,  con- 
tains a  letter  from  St.  Paul's  Bay  written  on  December  llth,  giving  an 


NATAL  DAY  OF  THE  PROVINCES 


account  of  a  violent  earthquake  that  occurred  on  the  6th  at  Bay  St. 
Paul  and  relating  the  fact  that  there  were  thirty  shocks  in  one  day. 
On  the  17th,  about  five  o'clock  in  the  evening  "a  globe  of  fire  appearing 
to  the  eye  of  the  size  of  a  48-pound  cannon  ball  was  observed  in  the 
sky  coming  from  the  southwest  striking  towards  the  northeast,  disap- 
pearing in  its  perpendicular  descent  above  St.  Paul's  Bay,  after 
bursting  with  an  explosion."  This  strange  "great  light"  which  Dr. 
Nooth  observed  on  the  evening  of  the  23rd  may  have  been  a  repeti- 
tion of  "the  globe  of  fire"  on  the  15th. 

Sun.  25th — Christmas  Day.     I  went  with  Madame  Baby  at  5  in  the 
morning  to  the  Cathedral  Church,  to  see  the  illuminations  of  the  altar, 

which  to  those  who  have  not  seen 

the  highly-decorated  Roman  Cath- 
olic churches  in  Europe  is  worth 
seeing.  The  singing  and  chanting 
was  solemn.  I  was  wrapped  up 
very  much,  and  wore  a  kind  of 
cloth  lined  with  eiderdown,  a  very 
comfortable  head-dress;  but  the 
cold  was  intense,  for  the  Roman 
Catholics  will  not  admit  of  fires  in 
their  churches,  lest  the  pictures 
should  be  spoiled.  I  saw  no  fine 
pictures. 

Mon.  26th— This  day  the  divi- 
sion of  the  Province  of  Quebec  into 
Upper  and  Lower  Canada,  and  the 
new  constitution  given  to  the 
former,  was  announced  by  pro- 
clamation. There  were  dinners  at 
the  hotels  and  illuminations  at 
night  to  commemorate  this  event. 

NOTE.  —  This  proclamation 
was  issued  at  Quebec  on  the  18th 
of  November,  1791,  and  decreed 
that  the  division  of  the  two  pro- 
vinces should  take  effect  on  26th 
December,  1791. 

Wed.  28th— I  was  at  a  very 
pleasant  ball  at  the  Chateau,  and 
danced  with  Prince  Edward. 


THE  CATHEDRAL,  QUEBEC, 
AS  RESTORED. 

(From  Routhier's  "Quebec.") 


Thurs.  29th— We  drove  to  Woodfield,  and  admired  the  beautiful  scenery 
around  it. 

Sat.  31st — We  drove  to  Belmont.  We  saw  two  Indians  from  the  village 
of  Lorette  who  had  mocassins  to  sell,  a  kind  of  leather  shoe  made  of 
untanned  deer  skins,  which  I  was  glad  to  buy  for  the  children  on  account 
of  their  softness.  These  Lorette  Indians  were  originally  Hurons,  con- 
verted, but  reluctantly,  by  the  Jesuits.  They  speak  French,  and  are  so 
intermixed  with  that  people  that  they  scarcely  appear  to  differ  but  in 
dress.  They  wear  shirts,  leggings  and  blankets,  and  the  men  wear  fur  or 
cloth  caps. 

I  walked  this  evening  at  nine  o'clock  to  Fort  Louis  Gate,  one  of  the 
old  gates  of  the  city. 

69 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

NOTE. — The  Indians  at  Lorette,  about  eight  miles  from  Quebec, 
were  of  the  Huron  tribe.  After  the  Indian  massacres  of  1648-9, 
parties  of  the  tribe  sought  refuge  in  different  places,  one  section 
seeking  refuge  on  the  Island  of  Orleans.  They  were  afterwards 
located  in  Quebec,  and  upon  Marquis  de  Tracy  effecting  a  truce  in 
1665  with  the  Iroquois,  the  enemies  of  the  Hurons,  the  latter  left  the 


ST.  Louis   GATE,  1791. 

(From  a  Drainng  in  the  Dominion  Archives,  Ottawa.) 

city.  After  several  Sittings  they  finally,  in  1697,  settled  at  Lorette, 
where  some  hundred  descendants  of  the  once  warlike  race  live  to-day. 
Mrs.  Simcoe  had  reference  to  St.  Louis  Gate,  the  entrance  to 
Quebec  from  the  west.  The  Fort  St.  Louis  stood  on  the  edge  of  the 
cliff,  and  the  entrance  to  the  remains  of  the  Fort  in  1792  was  through 
the  Chateau  Haldimand. 

70 


DEESS  OF  THE  HABITANTS 


• 


Sat.  31st — The  moon  shone  bright,  and,  however  intense  the  cold  is 
here,  it  is  so  extremely  still  at  night  that  it  is  less  felt  than  in  England, 
where  a  less  degree  of  cold  is  attended  with  wind.  There  is  little  wind 
here,  except  with  a  snowstorm  of  fine  snow.  The  French  call  it  poudre  or 
powdered  snow,  and  to  travel  with  that  blowing  in  one's  face  is  very  dis- 
agreeable. The  Canadians  wear  scanty,  thick  woollen 
coats,  and  sometimes  leather  ones,  with  hoods  to 
them,  over  a  bonnet  rouge,  a  red  bonnet.  The  habi- 
tants call  it  a  capitshaw,  and  their  coats  are  tied 
round  with  a  coloured  worsted  sash.  They  have 
always  a  pipe  in  their  mouths.  The  French  women 
wear  long,  thin  linen  cloaks,  sometimes  hoods  lined 
with  eiderdown,  but  often  walk  in  the  street  with 
only  a  muslin  cap. 

There  was  an  anniversary  dinner  to-day,  attended 
by  those  gentlemen  who  particularly  distinguished 
themselves  in  the  defence  of  the  town  when  attacked 
by  Montgomery  on  31st  Dec.,  1775.  Coll.  Caldwell 
was  among  the  most  active  persons  on  this  occasion. 

This  day  five  years  since  (31st  Dec.,  1786)   the 
air  became  in  a  few  hours  so  dark  that  it  was  neces- 
sary to  light  candles.     At  three  o'clock  black  clouds    MONS   GRAVE  DE  LA 
were  continually  rolling  onwards  from  the  southwest.     "  RIVE. 

The  darkness  continued  the  whole  of  the  next  day, 
when  a  person  could  not  toe  discerned  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street. 
It  was  supposed  to  be  occasioned  by  the  eruption  of  a  volcano.  Pere 
Grav6,  Superieur,  Seminaire,  believes  the  report  of  Indians,  who  assert 
that  they  have  seen  a  burning  mountain  to  the  north-east  of  St.  Paul's 
Bay. 

Accounts  received  from  Montreal  of  the  defeat  of  2,000  of  the  people 
of  the  United  States,  about  twenty  miles  from  the  Miami  Fort,  by  1.400 
Indians.  They  had  barricaded  their  camp  with  flour  barrels,  etc.  The 
Indians  attacked  them,  beat  them,  and  took  six  pieces  of  cannon,  all  their 
provisions,  new  clothing,  etc.,  killed  1,200  men,  Coll.  Butler  and  other 
officers,  among  whom,  it  was  supposed,  St.  Clair  fell.  The  troops  retreated 
and  were  pursued  by  400  Indians,  who  probably  would  have  destroyed  them 
all  if  they  had  not  stopped  to  plunder. 

NOTE. — Mons.  Frangois  Grave  de  la  Eive  during 
the  interval  between  1768  and  1802,  was  several 
times  Superior  of  the  Quebec  Seminary.  He 
\vas  born  in  France  and  came  to  Canada  in  1754, 
and  for  many  years  was  Vicar  of  the  Diocese  of 
Quebec.  He  died,  aged  71,  in  the  Hotel  Dien, 
Quebec,  on  4th  February,  1802,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Seminary  Chapel. 

John  Butler  was  born  in  New  London,  Conn., 
in  1725,  his  father,  an  Irish  officer,  having  come 
to  the  North  American  Colonies  with  his  regi- 
ment about  1711.  Butler's  first  service  was  as  a 
captain  in  the  Indian  Department  in  the  expe- 
dition against  Crown  Point  under  Sir  William  Johnson,  where  he 
greatly  distinguished  himself.  He  also  served  under  Abercrombie 
at  Ticonderoga  and  with  Bradstreet  at  the  capture  of  Fort 
Frontenac.  He  accompanied  Johnson  against  Fort  Niagara  as 

71 


COLONEL  BUTLER. 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


second  in  command  of  the  Indians  and  after  General  Prideaux's 
death  he  followed  him  in  the  command.  He  afterwards  served 
throughout  the  Revolutionary  War  in  command 
of  the  famous  corps  of  "Rangers"  bearing  his 
name.  This  corps  was  disbanded  June,  1784. 
Butler,  after  the  war,  was  appointed  Deputy-Sup- 
erintendent of  the  Indians.  He  died  near  Niag- 
ara in  1796,  and  was  buried  in  the  private 
burying  ground  of  the  family. 

General  St.  Clair  was  an  American  General  of 
considerable  reputation.     He  commanded  at  Ti- 
conderoga  in  1777  and  had  to  evacuate  the  fort 
on  Burgoyne's  attack  in  July.     He  was  Governor 
of  the  Ohio  territory  in  1789-1802.     The  fight  at 
GEN  ST  CLAIU       Miami   between   the    Indians    and    the    United 
States   troops    occurred   on   the    3rd    November, 
1791.     He  was   defeated  in   an   ambuscade  by  Indians   near   Fort 
Recovery  in  Ohio.     After  defeat  he  resigned  his  command  and  was 
succeeded  by  General  Wayne,  who  was  appointed  to  conduct  the 
operations  with  a  newly  recruited  force.     (See  Archives,  Q.  57,  p. 
178.) 


CHAPTER   VII. 
MRS.  SIM  CO  E  SPENDS  AN  ENJOYABLE  WINTER. 

From  the  day  of  her  arrival  in  Quebec,  Mrs.  Simcoe's  time  had 
been  fully  occupied.  It  was  one  round  of  unalloyed  -pleasure.  Every- 
one in  military  and  social  circles  seemed  determined  that  there 
should  be  nothing  lacking  to  make  her  winter's  sojourn  enjoyable. 
The  deeds  of  hospitality  were  exemplified  in  the  fullest  sense  of  the 
term  and  ofttimes  after  the  return  of  the  Governor  and  his  wife  to 
England,  the  memories  of  the  pleasant  months  spent  in  the  "Ancient 
City"  during  the  winter  and  spring  of  1791-2  were  the  subject  of 
conversation  at  Wolford.  The  Simcoes  made  many  friends 
in  Quebec.  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  a  most  lovable 
woman,  highly  educated,  well  informed,  bright, 
cheerful,  and  always  ready  to  join  in  the  social 
festivities  that  were  a  great  feature  in  Quebec  a 
century  ago.  Her  husband  during  this  period 
won  the  lasting  friendship  of  Prince  Edward. 
They  seemed  by  instinct  to  be  drawn  to  each  other. 
Between  them  a  personal  correspondence  con- 
tinued up  to  the  time  of  the  General's  death.  The 
intimacy,  begun  in  Quebec,  was  cemented  in  the 
years  that  followed.  It  was  a  generous  friend- 
ship, and  Prince  Edward,  then  and  after  he 
became  Duke  of  Kent,  never  forgot  to  write  from  op 

time  to  time  a  friendly  line  to  Simcoe. 

But,  with  all  the  social  appointments,  Mrs.  Simcoe  found  time 
to  keep  up  her  diary,  and  her  first  record  in  1792  was  of  a  sermon 
she  had  heard  in  the  old  Cathedral  of  Quebec. 

Pri.  6th  Jan.,  1792— Le  Jour  des  Rois— the  Epiphany  visit  of  the  Wise 
Men  to  Christ.  I  went  with  Madame  Baby  to  the  Cathedral,  and  heard 
Monsr.  du  Plessis,  the  Bishop's  Chaplain,  preach  a  most  excellent  sermon 
on  the  subject  of  the  Kings  of  the  East  seeking  Jesus  Christ.  His  action 
was  animated  and  his  sermon  impressive.  The  Bishop  himself  was 
present.  He  wore  a  white  muslin  dress  and  a  rich  mantle  embroidered 
with  gold;  blue  silk  gloves,  worked  with  gold;  his  mittens  pink  and 
silver,  blue  and  gold.  He  changed  them  two  or  three  times  during  the 
service,  which  had  a  theatrical,  poor  and  unfit  appearance. 

NOTE. — Joseph  Octave  Plessis  was  born  at  Montreal  in  March, 
1762,  He  was  ordained  priest  at  Quebec  on  llth  March,  1786,  and 
from  time  to  time  was  employed  as  professor  of  humanity  at  the 
College  of  St.  Raphael,  also  as  Secretary  to  the  Bishop  of  Quebec 
and  curate  of  the  capital.  In  September,  1797,  he  was  created 
coadjutor  to  Bishop  Denault,  and  obtained  the  royal  acceptance 

73 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

through  General  Prescott.  He  succeeded  Mgr.  Denault  and  took 
possession  of  his  seat  on  17th  January,  1806.  He  left  for  England 
and  Eome  in  1819,  and  in  consideration  of  services  rendered  to 
England  during  the  French  Revolution  and  during  the  War  of 
3812,  he  met  with  a  kind  and  hearty  reception  from  Lord  Bathurst. 
He  died  at  the  General  Hospital,  Quebec,  on  4th  December,  1825. 
Bishop  Plessis  was  the  greatesit  man  who  ever  occupied  the  Roman 
Catholic  episcopal  seat  at  Quebec  since  Frangois  de  Laval  Mont- 
morency. 

St.  Joseph  Street,  in  the  suburb  of  St.  Roch,  Quebec,  was  named 
after  Bishop  Plessis,  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  church  in 
St.  Roch's  was  built  by  him  on  land  donated  by  Mr.  John  Mure, 
a  Presbyterian.  The  church  was  dedicated  to  St.  Joseph. 

Sat.  7th — Fahrenheit's  thermometer  23  degrees  below.  I  rub  silk 
gowns  with  flannel  to  see  the  beautiful  streams  of  fire  which  are  emitted 
with  a  crackling  noise  during  the  cold  weather. 

Tues.  10th — I  bought  an  eiderdown  quilt  which  cost  £4  16s. 

NOTE. — It  is  generally  admitted  that  money  has  doubled  in  value 
since  1791,  so  £4  16s.  would  now  be  worth  £9  12s.  or  $36.85.  Lambert 
says  in  his  Travels  (1806-8)  that  the  dollar  or  Spanish  piastre 
was  worth  five  shillings  in  Canadian  currency,  and  that  to  bring 
sterling  money  into  Canadian  currency,  one-ninth  must  be  added. 

Thurs.  12th — I  drove  out  in  a  covered  carriole. 

Wed.  18th— A  ball  at  the  Chateau.  This  being  Queen  Charlotte's  birth- 
night,  .there  were  near  30>0  people.  The  ladies  were  well  dressed. 

Sat.  21st — Miss  Johnson  dined  with  me,  and  we  went  to  a  dance  in 
the  evening  at  the  Fusiliers'  mess  room — very  agreeable.  The  ther- 
mometer is  24  degrees  below.  In  the  New  York  paper  I  read  of  "  a  leaf 
imported  from  Botany  Bay,  which  when  dried  goes  off  by  the  application 
of  a  match  with  an  explosion  like  gunpowder,  and  the  air  is  agreeably 
perfumed." 

NOTE. — Miss  Johnson  was  Ann,  eldest  daughter  of  Sir  John 
Johnson.  She  married,  in  1797,  Colonel  Edward  Macdonell,  Deputy 
Quartermaster  General. 

Tues.  24th — I  gave  a  dance  and  supper  to  a  dozen  of  the  7th  Fusiliers 
and  as  many  young  dancing  ladies.  My  rooms  being  small  obliged  me  to 
invite  so  few,  and  only  those  who  danced. 

Sun.  29th — Drove  in  a  covered  carriole  towards  the  Isle  of  Orleans,  an 
island  in  the  St.  Lawrence  seven  miles  below  Quebec.  The  ice  was  so 
rough  and  snow  uneven  that  I  was  almost  seasick. 

Mon.  30th — I  went  in  an  open  carriole  to  see  the  Falls  of  Montmor- 
ency,  six  miles  from  Quebec.  The  river  roars  over  a  rocky  bed  among 
woods  before  it  reaches  the  precipice,  over  which  it  falls  280  feet.  The 
rocky  sides  are  covered  on  the  summit  with  wood.  Sir  Frederick  Haldi- 
mand  built  a  summer  house  projecting  over  the  water,  supported  by 
beams.  We  descended  to  it  by  steps  cut  in  the  rock,  and  from  it  we  had 
a  fine  view  of  the  Fall.  Sir  Frederick  Haldimand  built  a  good  house  near 
the  bank  of  the  river  and  commanding  a  fine  prospect.  Prince  Edward 
hired  it  last  year,  but  as  he  went  to  Quebec  every  day,  found  the  stony 
roads  prejudicial  to  his  horses'  feet. 

74 


MOXTMORENCY  HOUSE  AT  THE  FALLS 

NOTE. — Sir  Frederick  Haldimand  (1718-1791),  lieutenant-gen- 
eral, colonel  commandant  of  the  60th  Foot,  was  a  Swiss  by  birth. 
In  1756  he  was  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Royal  Americans,  afterwards 
the  60th  Foot  and  now  the  King's  Royal  Rifle  Corps,  then  being 
recruited  in  America  under  command  of  the  Earl 
of  Loudoun.  On  the  27th  of  June,  1778,  he  was 
appointed  to  succeed  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  after- 
wards the  first  Lord  Dorchester,  as  Governor  and 
Commander-in-Chief  in  Canada,  which  post  he 
held  until  1784,  when  he  returned  to  England.  A« 
an  administrator  in  Canada  he  is  accused,  says 
Lee  in  the  National  Biography,  of  being  harsh 
and  arbitrary  and  more  than  one  action  for  false 
imprisonment  was  successfully  maintained  against 
him  on  his  return  to  England.  Haldimand's  com- 
missions, 1758-85,  including  the  entire  records 
that  accumulated  during  his  public  career,  are  g,u  p  HALDIMAND. 
in  the  British  Museum  and  copies  are  in  the 
Archives  Department  in  Ottawa,  He  built  the  residence  known  as 
Haldimand  House,  Quebec. 

Of  the  summer  house,  the  Baroness  Riedesel  says  in  her  diary: 
<rWhen  we  first  went  to  see  that  sublime  scene  (Montmorency  Falls) 
T  happened  to  say  to  the  General  that  it  must  be  delightful  to  have 
a  little  dwelling  opposite  to  it.  Three  weeks  later  (in  the  summer 
of  1782)  we  accompanied  him  thither  a  second  time  and  after  having 
climbed  up  a  steep  ascent  and  the  detached  rocks,  which  were  con- 
nected by  small  bridges  and  reminded  me  of  some  descriptions  of 
Chinese  gardens,  we  at  last  reached  the  top,  where  the  General 
begged  my  hand  to  show  me  into  a  small  house,  which  was  as  it  were 

suspended   on   the   cataract The   foundations   of   the 

house  consisted  of  eight  strong  beams  laid  athwart  beneath  which  the 
cataract  hurried  down  with  tremendous  velocity." 

"The  good  house"  Mrs.  Simcoe  refers  to  was  Montmorency  House, 
which  is  not  to  be  confused  with  Chateau  Haldimand,  the  addition 
built  in  1784  to  the  Castle  of  St.  Louis.  With  Montmorency  House 
Prince  William  Henry  fell  in  love  when  in  Canada;  from  1791  to 
1794  Prince  Edward  made  it  his  home  in  the  summer  time;  and  now 
the  Haldimand  House — Kent  Lodge — is  a  summer  hotel,  the  home 
of  many  a  tourist,  who  comes  to  be  thrilled  by  the  rushing  waters 
of  the  Montmorency. 

In  the  Supplement  to  the  Quebec  Gazette,  22nd  December,  1792, 
is  the  following  notice.  "For  sale,  the  elegant  villa  of  the  late  Sir 
Frederick  Haldimand,  K.B.,  delightfully  situated  near  the  Falls  of 
Montmorency,  with  the  farm  house,  Quebec,  1st  December,  1791." 

Tues.  31st — A  very  pleasant  dance  at  the  Chateau  this  evening. 

Tues.  Feb.  7th — At  two  o'clock  the  kitchen  chimney  was  on  fire.  It 
was  soon  extinguished,  as  the  people  here  are  expert  in  using  fire  engines. 
The  houses  being  covered  with  shingles  (wood  in  the  shape  of  tiles),  fires 

75 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


spread  rapidly  if  not  immediately  put  out.  Prince  Edward,  General  Clarke, 
etc.,  dined  with  Coll.  Simcoe,  and  this  accident  retarded  the  dinner,  so  I 
went  to  bed  before  the  dinner. 

Wed.  8th— Supped  at  Mrs.  Smith's,  wife  of  the  Chief  Justice. 

OTE. — Chief  Justice  William  Smith,  born  at 
York,  1728,  educated  at  Yale,  was  appointed 
a  member  of  His  Majesty's  Council  in  1769. 
After  the  evacuation  of  New  York  he  withdrew  to 
England  with  Sir  Guy  Carleton,  who  was  at  that 
time  commander-in-chief.  Mr.  Smith  remained 
in  England  until  1786  when  he  was  appointed 
first  Chief  Justice  of  Canada  and  continued  to 
hold  the  office  until  his  death  seven  years  later. 
His  second  son,  Honorable  William  Smith,  wrote 
our  first  Canadian  history  in  English. 

Thurs.  9t<h — Coll.  and  Mrs.  Cal dwell  and  Major 
and  Mrs.  Watson  dined  with  us.  We  went  to  the 
Assembly,  where  an  account  was  brought  of  our  house 
being  burnt  down.  Coll.  Simcoe  went  home  and 
found  it  only  the  chimney  on  fire.  I  was  not  told  of 


CHIEF  JUSTICE 
SMITH. 

it,  thouglh  an  officious  man  afterwards  assured  me  he  would  have  informed 
me  had  he  known  it. 

Sat.  llth— We  supped  at  Madame  Baby's,  but  not  till  12  o'clock,  it 
being  a  fast  day.  Then  there  was  a  good  dinner. 

Sun.  12th— Walked  by  the  sea. 


THE  PROVISION  STORE,  QUEBEC. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Mon.  13th — We  walked  to  the  provision  store  before  breakfast;  dined 
at  Belmont.  The  thermometer  3  degrees  below. 

Tues.  14th— Supper  at  Major  Stewart's  (of  the  Royal  Regiment  of 
Artillery).  The  Prince  was  there.  During  the  winter  large  masses  of 
ice  float  down  the  river,  and  the  people  who  come  to  market  from  the 
opposite  shore  pass  in  canoes,  which  they  quit  when  they  come  to  one  of 

76 


MBS.  SIMCOE  MEETS  QUEBEC  NOTABLES 

these  large  bodies  of  ice,  and  carry  their  canoes  across  the  ice  on  their 
shoulders  and  launch  them  again  in  the  water,  and  this  is  repeated  several 
times  before  they  reach  Quebec,  where  they  sell  a  fat  turkey  for  15d. 
and  provisions,  all  kinds,  in  proportion.  The  mode  of  crossing  the  river 
appears  so  difficult  and  dangerous  that  it  seems  hardly  credible  till  it  has 
been  seen.  This  evening  it  was  announced  that  "  le  pont  est  pris  "  (the 
bridge  has  formed),  that  is,  there  is  now  a  complete  body  of  ice  filling  up 
the  river,  and  canoes  will  be  no  longer  used,  as  carrioles  will  drive  across, 
which  is  very  useful  to  the  peasants  and  very  pleasant  to  those  who  drive 
for  amusement,  and  this  year  the  weather,  having  been  calm  and  the  wind 
with  the  tide  when  it  froze,  the  ice  is  very  smooth.  It  is  seven  years  since 
a  bridge  was  formed. 

Wed.  15th — Coll.  Simcoe  and  I  were  going  to  walk  on  the  ice  bridge. 
As  there  was  a  narrow  space  containing  water  between  the  land  and  the 
ice,  a  plank  was  laid  across,  which  Coll.  Simcoe  had  passed,  and  stepping 
back  to  give  me  his  hand,  he  slipped  into  the  water,  but  luckily  caught 
hold  of  the  plank  which  supported  'him  until  the  Canadians  who  were  near 
and  on  my  screaming  out  "  Au  secours  "  (help)  assisted  him  out.  Had  the 
plank  given  way  he  must  have  gone  under  the  ice,  and  it  would  have  been 
impossible  to  have  got  out.  We  walked  to  Monsr.  Baby's,  and  I  ran  home 
to  order  dry  clothes  to  be  brought  there. 

Fri.  17th — I  went  to  the  ball  at  the  Chateau.  There  was  also  a  dance 
at  the  barracks  to-night. 

Sat.  18th — One  of  the  casmettes  (or  bombproof  chambers)  near  Fort 
Louis  Gate  has  been  fitted  up  for  a  theatre.  Some  Canadian  gentlemen 
represented  the  French  play  of  "  Le  Medecin  malgre  lui "  (MolieYe)  and 
"La  Comtesse  D'Escarbagnas  "  (Moliere).  I  was  surprised  those  people, 
unused  to  see  theatrical  representations,  could  perform  as  well  as  they  did, 
and  I  was  much  amused.  The  Fusiliers  are  going  to  act  plays,  and  as 
Coll.  Simcoe  does  not  like  to  see  officers  so  employed  he  does  not  intend  to 
go  to  the  theatre  again.  I  went  across  the  river  to  Point  Levy  yesterday. 
The  ice  was  excellent,  and  the  sun  excessively  hot. 
We  walked  as  far  as  the  church.  The  firs  looked 
beautiful  among  the  snow  this  bright  day.  We  met 
the  Prince  in  a  carriole.  I  gathered  bunches  of 
berries  from  a  low  shrub  Dr.  Nooth  called  a  clither. 
People  cut  holes  in  the  ice  and  catch,  fish  through 
them.  Poisson  d'or  (gold  fish)  pickerall  are  the 
most  esteemed  fish. 


NOTE. — Superintendent-General  T.  M.  Nootii 
was  on  the  staff  of  the  Quebec  Hospital. 

Sun.  19th — Dined  at  Monsr.  Baby.  Met  Madame 
Tonacour  and  Monsr.  and  Madame  De  Salaberry,  etc. 

NOTE. — Colonel,  the  Honorable  Francois  Baby, 
Adjutant-General  of  Militia  of  Lower  Canada, 
was  born  in  Montreal,  4th  December,  1733.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Executive  and  Legislative  HON.  FRANCOIS  BABY. 
Councils  and  deputy  of  the  French-Canadians  to 
the  Court  of  Great  Britain  in  1773.  He  married  in  1786,  Delle 
Marie-Anne  Tarieu  de  Lanaudiere.  He  took  an  active  part, 
together  with  his  brother-in-law,  Charles  Tarieu  de  Lanaudiere,  then 
A.D.C.  to  Lord  Dorchester,  in  the  events  of  the  time.  Hi?  death 
occurred  at  Quebec  in  October,  1820. 

77 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


MME.  DE  SALABERBY. 


Monsieur  Ignace-Michel  L.  A.  de  Salaberry,  whose  father  settled 
in  Canada  in  1735,  was  born  at  the  Manor  House,  Beauport,  Que., 

5th  July,  1752,  and  was  edu- 
cated in  France.     He  married 

Catherine  Frangois  de  Hertel. 

Monsieur  de   Salaberry  was  a 

friend  of  the  Duke  of  Kent. 

Colonel  Charles  de  Salaberry, 

hero  of  the  Battle  of  Chateau- 

guay,  which  took  place  on  26th 

October,  1813,  was  the  son  of 

Monsieur  and  Madame  de  Sala- 
berry.     She  died  at  Beauport 

on    28th    January,    1824,    her 

husband's  death   taking  place 
MONS.  UE  SALABERRY.  on  22nd  March,  1825. 

Mon.  20th — The  heads  of  the  French  clergy  dined  with  Coll.  Simcoe 
— tire  Bishop,  Monsr.  Grave  the  Vicar-General,  Pere  Barre,  etc.  Pere 
Barre  quite  an  Irishman  and  too  jocose  for  his  station. 

NOTE. — From  his  wit  and  repartee,  Mrs.  Sim- 
coe evidently  thought  Father  P.  Felix  de  Berey, 
(pronounced  Barry)  an  Irishman.  He  was,  how- 
ever, born  in  Montreal,  on  10th  June,  1720,  and 
elevated  to  the  priesthood  in  1743.  His  father 
was  a  military  officer,  and  Father  de  Berey  was 
a  military  almoner,  wounded  on  the  battlefield 
in  ministering  the  last  Sacraments.  He  was 
the  last  Provincial  of  the  Recollets  in  Canada. 
De  Berey  gave  dinners  to  the  Governors,  even  to 
the  Duke  of  Kent,  and  proposed  a  toast  in  his 
honor.  He  was  invited  to  the 
officers'  mess  and  his  witty  re- 
marks and  brilliant  conversa- 
tion were  greatly  appreciated  there.  He  died 
18th  May,  1800. 

Tues.  21st — 'Madame  Baby,  Mons.  and  Madame  de 
Salaberry,  etc.,  dined  with  us  and  stayed  till  two  in 
the  morning.  Ther.  26  degrees  below. 

Sat.  25th — Walked  to  the  provision  store.  The 
scene  on  the  river  is  now  a  very  gay  one.  Numbers 
are  skating;  carrioles  driven  furiously,  as  the  Cana- 
dians usually  do;  and  wooden  huts  are  built  on  the 
snow,  where  cakes  and  liquor  are  sold,  and  they  have 
stoves  in  their  huts. 

Thurs.  March  1st— Walked  to  Pt.  Levy.  MoNS-  DE  SALABERRY. 

Fri.  2nd — I  gave  a  dance  to  forty  people.  The  Prince  was  present. 
We  have  left  the  house  we  had  in  St.  John  Street,  and  taken  one  the  back 
rooms  of  which  look  into  the  Ursuline  gardens.  By  removing  a  wooden 
partition  upstairs  we  have  made  a  room,  45  feet  long,  with  a  tea  room 


FATHER  DE  BEREY. 


SNOW  SHOEING  A  MODE  OF  TEAVEL 

and  a  card  room  adjoining,  which  makes  a  good  apartment  for  a  dance, 
with  a  supper  room  below.  The  Fusiliers  are  the  best  dancers,  well 
dressed,  and  the  best-looking  figures  in  a  ballroom  that  I  ever  saw.  They 
are  all  musical  and  like  dancing,  and  bestow  as  much  money,  as  other 
regiments  usually  spend  in  wine,  in  giving  balls  and  concerts,  which 
makes  them  very  popular  in  this  place,  where  dancing  is  so  favourite  an 
amusement  that  no  age  seems  to  exclude  people  from  partaking  of  it; 
and,  indeed,  I  find  giving  dances  much  the  easiest  mode  of  entertaining 
company,  as  well  as  the  most  pleasant  to  them.  Mr.  Talbot  (Lieut. 
Talbot)  manages  all.  the  etiquette  of  our  house,  and  is  au  fait  in  all  those 
points  which  give  weight  in  matters  of  no  moment. 

Sun.  4th — Capt.  Shaw,  of  the  Queen's  Rangers,  and  four  other  gentle- 
men arrived  from  Frederickstown,  in  New  Brunswick,  which  is  370  miles 
from  hence.  They  walked  on  snow  shoes  240  miles  in  19  days,  came  up 
the  river  St.  John,  and  crossed  many  small  lakes.  Their  mode  of  travel- 
ling was  to  set  out  at  daybreak,  walk  till  twelve,  when  they  stood  ten 
minutes  (not  longer,  because  of  the  cold)  to  eat.  They  then  resumed  walk- 
ing till  half-past  four,  when  they  chose  a  spot,  where  there  was  good  fire- 
wood, to  encamp.  Half  the  party  (which  consisted  of  12)  began  felling 
wood;  the  rest  dug  away  the  snow  till  they  had  made  a  pit  many  feet  in 
circumference,  in  which  the  fire  was  to  be  made.  They  cut  cedar  and 
pine  branches,  laid  a  blanket  on  them,  and  wrapping  themselves  in  another, 
found  it  sufficiently  warm,  with  their  feet  close  to  a  large  fire,  which  was 
kept  up  all  night.  Capt.  McGill,  who  set  out  with  them,  cut  his  knee  in 
felling  wood,  and  was  forced  to  stay  at  the  Madawaska  Settlement  (now 
Edmundston,  N.B.). 

One  of  the  attendants,  a  Frenchman,  used  to  the  mode  of  travelling, 
carried  60  Ibs.  weight  and  outwalked  them  all.  They  steered  by  the  sun, 
a  river,  and  a  pocket  compass.  Captain  Shaw  is  a  very  sensible,  pleasant 
Scotchman,  a  Highlander.  His  family  are  to  come  from  New  Brunswick 
to  Upper  Canada  next  summer. 

Capt.  Shaw  gave  me  a  description  of  the  moose  deer,  which  they  call 
here  "  Orignale,"  and  of  which  we  eat  the  moufle.  Their  legs  are  so 
long  and  their  bodies  so  heavy  that  they  step  to  the  bottom  of  the  snow, 
but  they  are  so  strong  that  they  notwithstanding  trot  10  miles  an  hour  and 
travel  through  the  most  unbeaten  country,  subsisting  on  the  moss  of  the 
trees  and  young  boughs.  They  travel  in  droves,  the 
strongest  going  first,  and  when  they  come  to  a  good 
place  for  browsing  stay  till  they  have  taken  all  the 
tender,  and  then  seek  another  station.  They  may 
be  tamed,  but  if  several  are  not  kept  together,  in 
the  spring  they  will  probably  return  to  the  woods. 
The  moose  deer  is  frequently  met  with  in  New  Bruns- 
wick, and  the  caribou,  which  is  so  light  an  animal 
as  scarcely  to  break  the  snow.  I  have  seen  a  caribou 
at  Mr.  Finlay's.  It  was  like  an  English  fawn. 

NOTE. — 'Captain  ^neas  Shaw  was  a  captain  in 
the  Queen's  Rangers  and  served  in  the  American 
War.    He  settled  in  York  (Toronto)  in  1793  and 
lived  in  a  dwelling  some  hundred  feet  northwest 
of  the  present  site  of  Trinity  College  on  Queen     COIOXKL  SH\\V 
Street.  He  became  Lieutenant-Colonel  in  1799.  He 
attained  the  rank  of  Major-General,  and  was  a  member  from  June, 
1793,  of  the  Executive  Council  of  Upper  Canada.     General  Shaw 
died  15th  February,  1815,  and  was  buried  in  St.  James'  Churchyard, 
on  the  west  side  of  the  cathedral.     His  grandson  is  Colonel  George 

79 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Shaw,  formerly  of  the  Post  Office  Department,  and  in  his  time  an 
active  member  of  the  militia. 

•Captain  John  MoGill  was  an  officer  of  the  Queen's  Bangers  under 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Simcoe  in  the  War  of  the  Eevolution.  He 
settled  in  Upper  Canada  and  was  Commissioner  of  the  Stores  in 
1793,  Inspector-General  of  Accounts  in  1805,  and  Eeceiver-General 
in  1818.  He  owned  the  site  on  Queen  Street  where  the  Metropolitan 
Church  now  stands,  and  built  a  commodious  cottage  upon  it.  This 
residence  was  known  as  "McGill  Cottage,"  and  in  1813,  when  the 
Americans  visited  York  the  women  and  children  of  the  town  were 
sent  for  safety  to  McGill  Cottage,  which  was  occupied  by  Captain 
McGill  and  his  wife,  who  was  a  sister  of  the  Honorable  George 
Crookshank.  A  sister  of  Captain  McGill  married  a  McCutcheon, 
their  sons  being  Peter  and  James  McCutcheon.  The  elder  son,  Peter, 
was  the  inheritor  of  the  bulk  of  the  property  in  Upper  Canada  of 
Honorable  Peter  McGill,  and  it  was  a  condition  of  his  will  that  Mr. 
McCutcheon  should  assume  the  name  "McGill."  The  Honorable  Mr. 
McGill  was  from  Dumfriesshire,  Scotland,  and  came  to  Canada  in 
1809.  He  was  President  of  the  Bank  of  Montreal  from  June.  1834, 
until  June,  1860,  and  died  in  September  of  that  year. 
The  Honorable  James  McGill,  founder  of  Mc- 
Gill College  in  Montreal,  was  not  related  to  the 
foregoing  family.  He  was  born  in  Glasgow,  in 
1744,  and  died  in  Montreal  in  1813. 

Bishop  Strachan,  of  Toronto,  also  married  a 
McGill,  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Wood,  of  Cornwall, 
and  widow  of  Dr.  Andrew  McGill  of  Montreal, 
but  she  was  not  connected  with  the  families  of 
either  John,  Peter  or  James  McGill. 

Many  references  to  the  McGill  families  in 
Canada  in  different  publications  conflict,  owing 

rlON.    J  AS.    JylCijILL.        .  .,  /»       ,         » i       •          n  •       »i       *  i 

to  the  fact  that  there  was  similarity  of 
Christian  names  in  all  the  families,  hence  the  detail  of  relation- 
ship given. 

Tues.  6th — We  dined  and  supped  at  the  Hon.  Hugh  Finlay's,  the 
Deputy  Postmaster-General  of  Canada  under  P.G.M.  of  Great  Britain. 

NOTE. — T'he  Honorable  Hugh  Finlay  was  Deputy  Postmaster- 
General  for  Canada  from  1774  to  1800.  He  had  served  from 
1750-1774  under  Benjamin  Franklin,  first  English  Deputy  Post- 
master-General for  the  British-American  Provinces. 

Wed.  7th — Drove  in  an  open  carriole  to  Coll.  Caldwell's.  I  gave  a 
dance  to  thirty  people  this  evening.  I  was  this  week  in  a  covered  carriole, 
driving  towards  the  Isle  of  Orleans,  but  part  of  the  river  having  frozen, 
the  ice  was  in  so  rough  a  state  that  I  was  quite  seasick  in  the  carriage. 
As  we  passed  the  furrows  of  ice,  the  learge  heaps,  collected  in  some  places 
many  feet  high,  formed  an  extraordinary  sight. 

Fri.  9th — Chief  Justice  Smith  dined  here.  The  Fusiliers  acted  "The 
Wonder  "  to-night. 

Tues.  13th — Supped  at  Mr.  Isaac  Ogden's,  Judge  of  the  Admiralty. 

80 


MRS.  SIMCOE'S  ROUND  OF  PLEASURE 

NOTE. — Honorable  Justice  Isaac  Ogden  of  Quebec  and  Montreal, 
Court  of  King's  Bench  district  of  Montreal,  appointed  by  Guy 
Carleton.  He  was  born  in  New  Jersey  in  1740.  In  1785,  he  was 
Judge  of  the  Admiralty  Court,  Quebec,  and  later 
returned  to  Montreal.  He  resigned  in  1818  and 
died  in  London,  Eng.,  in  1824. 

Wed.  14th — Supped  at  Mr.  Coffin's. 

NOTE. — Thomas  Ashton  Coffin  was  a  member 
of  the  celebrated  family  who  had  their  descent 
from  Trisitram  Coffin  of  Alwington,  south  of  the 
boundary  between  Somerset  and  Devon  in  Eng- 
land, who  settled  in  1643  in  New  England  at 
Salisbury  and  then  went  to  Nantucket,  at  that 
time  a  dependency  of  New  York.  Thomas  Ashton 

Coffin  was  private  secretary  of  Sir  Guy  Carleton  

(Baron  Dorchester  in  1786)  by  whose  side  he  sat  Hox  lsAAC  OGDEN 
in  the  last  boat  which  left  Castle  Garden  on  the 
evacuation  of  New  York  in  1783.  When  Dorchester  became  Gover- 
nor-General of  Canada  in  1786,  Coffin  accompanied  him  and  by  his 
influence  was  appointed  Secretary  and  Controller  of  Accounts  in 
Lower  Canada.  He  died  in  England  in  1810.  Miss  G.  L.  Coffin 
of  Montreal  is  a  connection  of  Thomas  Coffin. 

Thurs.  15th — Went  to  a  musical  party  and  a  dance  at  the  barracks, 
which  was  very  pleasant.  The  Fusiliers  all  dance  as  well  as  Count 
Schernischoff  or  any  famous  Russian. 

Another  mail  arrived,  and  no  letter  from  you,  my  dear  friend  (Mrs. 
Hunt,  who,  with  her  daughter,  Miss  Hunt,  took  charge  of  Mrs.  Simcoe's 
children  at  Wolford  during  the  absence  of  the  parents  in  Canada).  How 
is  it  that  you  I  esteem  so  wise  should  not  have  had  observation  enough  to 
have  found  out  by  the  newspapers  that  packets  go  to  New  York  and  Hali- 
fax every  month,  and  are  immediately  forwarded  from  thence  here?  Do 
you  not  remember  Lake  Champlain  and  Lake  George,  Hudson's  River, 
Skeneborough,  on  a  creek  of  that  name,  Albany  and  all  that  route  from 
New  York  to  Quebec,  which  you  have  so  often  drawn,  and  which  is  passed 
constantly  and  in  a  rapid  manner  when  the  lakes  are  frozen?  This  town 
is  now  supplied  with  fresh  cod  in  a  frozen  state  from  Boston,  distant  500 
miles,  and  it  is  sold  at  6d.  per  Ib.  We  'have  had  some  excellent  venison 
from  the  township  of  Matilda  (Iroquois,  in  Dundas  County).  I  daresay 
you  remember  that  name  on  the  map,  above  400  miles  from  hence.  I  find 
our  maps  to  be  little  better  than  sketches,  little  of  the  country  having  been 
surveyed.  The  surveyors  draw  slowly,  and,  I  am  told,  when  they  want  to 
suit  their  maps  to  the  paper,  do  not  scruple  cutting  off  a  few  miles  of  the 
river  or  adding  to  it. 

Coll.  Simcoe  has  had  a  letter  from  Capt.  Murray,  of  the  "  Triton," 
from  Halifax,  which  place  he  compares  to  Capua,  in  southern  Italy.  Coll. 
Simcoe  makes  the  same  complaint  of  Quebec,  where  he  finds  few  men  of 
learning  or  information,  literary  society  not  being  necessary  to  the  amuse- 
ment of  ladies.  I  am  very  well  off  amongst  the  women,  and  really  find  this 
a  delightful  place.  The  morning  Coll.  Simcoe  and  I  spend  together  in 
reading,  walking,  etc.  In  the  evening  I  go  to  balls,  concerts,  suppers,  and, 
when  I  am  with  French  families,  je  fais  la  conversation  d'une  fagon  d  pew 
pr<?s  parisienne  (I  speak  as  readily  as  a  Parisian) — as  Monsr.  -Baby  is 
pleased  to  say — and  to  have  everybody  I  see  assiduous  to  please  me,  and 

6  81 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

to  have  nothing  to  do  but  to  follow  my  own  fancy,  is  a  satisfactory  mode 
of  living,  not  always  attainable  on  your  side  of  the  Atlantic.  How  happy 
I  am. 

I  quite  enjoy  the  thoughts  of  the  long  journey  we  have  before  us  and 
the  perpetual  change  of  scene  it  will  afford,  but  the  people  'here  think  it  as 
arduous  and  adventurous  an  undertaking  as  it  was  looked  upon  to  be  by 
my  friends  in  England.  It  is  surprising  that  those  who  are  so  much 
nearer  to  a  country  should  esteem  it  as  impracticable  as  those  who  are  so 
many  thousand  miles  distant. 

Capt.  Murray  was  all  but  lost  in  going  to  St.  John,  and  from  thence  to 
Halifax.  The  day  after  he  left  Quebec  the  river  was  so  full  of  ice  his 
sailing  would  have  been  impossible.  No  ships  ever  left  Quebec  as  late  as 
the  "Triton.".  The  merchantmen  sail  on  the  30th  of  October.  Capt.  Shaw 
also  advises  me  not  to  believe  the  formidable  accounts  I  have  heard  of 
rattlesnakes,  of  which  he  has  seen  numbers  in  Carolina.  He  affirms  they 
never  bite  but  when  trod  upon  or  attacked,  and  the  wound  they  make  is 
cured  by  well-known  herbs,  as  horehound  and  juice  from  the  plantain 
plant. 

Sun.  18th — We  walked  from  seven  till  nine  this  morning  on  the 
Heights  of  Abram,  the  plain  on  which  Genl.  Wolfe  was  killed.  It  is  said 
he  was  shot  from  behind  a  fence  by  a  French  priest  who  is  still  living. 
The  troops  daily  practice  walking  on  these  plains  in  snowshoes.  The 
racket  is  made  of  deer  or  elk  skins.  The  frame  is  of  light  wood  an  inch 
thick,  21/£  feet  long,  14  inches  broad.  We  found  it  dry  at  this  early  hour 
on  the  track  the  troops  had  beaten. 

NOTE. — During  the  engagement  of  the  13th  September,  1759,  Wolfe 
received  three  wounds.  The  first  was  probably  from  the  Indians  on 
the  right,  the  second  from  the  French-Canadians 
who  were  advancing  in  the  centre;  and  the  third 
seems  to  have  been  from  the  Indians  or  Canadians 
in  the  bushes  on  Wolfe's  right,  sheltered  in  the 
only  bit  of  short  brushwood  on  the  top  of  the  cliff. 
The  statement  that  Wolfe  was  shot  by  a  French 
priest  behind  a  fence  is  absurd,  because  there 
were  no  fences  on  the  Plains,  nor  any  kind  of 
shelter  beyond  the  bushes  before  mentioned,  on 
the  cliff.  It  has  also  been  said,  and  the  state- 
ment often  repeated  by  newspapers,  that  Wolfe 
was  shot  by  one  of  his  own  men  in  revenge  for 

n™,    IT  wr,Tr        fome  punishment  which  Wolfe  had  inflicted  for 

ljrh,i\fc,KAL     WOLFE.          ...       _       '    .  ___.    .  -  .  _      _  _  , 

disobedience.  This  is  also  improbable,  because 
Wolfe,  at  the  time  of  his  fatal  wound,  was  at  the  head  of  his  army 
in  advance  of  Bragg's  Regiment.  As  he  received  the  wound  in  front, 
it  must  have  proceeded  from  the  enemy. 

Mon.  19th— We  dined  at  Mr.  William's,  the  Clerk  of  the  Council.  Went 
in  the  evening  to  the  concert,  and  returned  to  supper,  an  elegant  supper 
in  the  Council  Room,  after  which  there  was  music. 

Thurs.  22nd— Walked  to  "  Sans  Bruit."  Capt.  (Benjamin)  Fisher,  of 
the  Royal  Engineers,  lent  me  his  portfolio,  in  which  there  were  some  beauti- 
ful views  taken  in  the  Island  of  St.  Domingo;  I  almost  regretted  not  to 
have  been  in  the  West  Indies.  We  supped  at  Mr.  Ainslie's,  the  Collector 
of  Customs,  to-night. 

Sat.  31st— We  walked  to  Coll.  Caldwell's  before  breakfast,  and  returned 
as  far  as  "  Sans  Bruit "  in  a  carriole  and  dined  there.  The  most  unpleasant 

82 


MES.  SIMCOE  ENJOYS  QUEBEC  SCENERY 

time  of  the  year  is  now  commencing.  The  snow  melting  prevents  the  use 
of  carrioles,  and  there  is  still  too  much  to  use  caleches.  During  the  month 
of  April  the  people  are,  from  this  circumstance,  little  able  to  go  from 
their  houses;  besides  easterly  winds,  which  bring  rain,  prevail  very  much. 

Tues.  April  3rd — We  walked  to  Belmont  before  breakfast,  and  found 
the  road  dry,  but  in  the  middle  of  the  day  the  snow  was  so  melted  by 
the  excessive  heat  of  the  sun  that  we  stayed  there  until  eight  o'clock  and 
then  walked  home,  the  snow  being  then  perfectly  frozen  again. 

Wed.  4th — Mr.  Fisher,  of  the  Engineers,  showed  me  some  beautiful 
views  he  took  of  Windsor  Castle  for  Prince  Edward.  His  oil  painting  did 
not  please  me. 


BY  THE  RIVER,  QUEBEC,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.)   ' 

NOTE. — This  is  evidently  a  rapid  sketch  of  part  of  the  river  at 
Quebec,  1792.  The  building  on  the  right  is  the  Chateau  St.  Louis, 
and  on  the  left  is  shown  a  powder  magazine  near  the  King's  bastion. 

Sun.  8th — We  walked  a  mile  before  breakfast  about  Cape  Diamond. 
After  church  we  repaired  to  the  lines  with  Mr.  Talbot,  who  showed  us  an 
unfrequented  terrace  where  Sir  F.  Haldimand  began  to  make  a  walk  on 
the  side  of  this  noble  cliff,  which  is  crowned  by  fortified  works.  The  ter- 
race commands  the  St.  Lawrence  as  far  as  Cape  Tourmente',  eleven  leagues 
below  Quebec,  rocky  and  precipitous,  and  the  Isle  of  Orleans  to  the  east. 

The  shipping  and  the  Lower  Town  are  immediately  below  and  towards 
the  Heights  of  Abraham  the  blue  distant  hills  of  Vermont  are  seen,  and 
the  spray  from  the  fall  of  the  Chaudi&re  River  rising  in  Lake  Megantic 
and  joining  the  St.  Lawrence  about  seven  miles  from  Quebec.  The  rocks 
and  brushwood  that  adorn  the  precipitous  side  of  the  hill  form  a  fine 
foreground  to  this  grand  scene,  with  which  we  were  so  delighted  that  we 
came  to  view  it  again  in  the  evening,  and  did  not  return  home  till  it  was 
dark,  or  rather  starlight. 

NOTE. — The  commander  of  Quebec  is  styled  "Commander  of  the 
Fortress  of  Quebec  and  of  the  Town  Lines,"  which  means  the  wall8 
which  encircle  the  city.  The  "lines"  referred  to  in  this  passage  would 
be  some  part  of  the  grounds  immediately  within  the  stalls. 

83 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

Fri    13th— Walked   towards  Wolfe's  Cove   and   upon  Cape   Diamond. 
Dined  with  Mrs.  Winslow,  wife  of  the  Acting  Paymaster-General. 

NOTE.— The  Winslows,  one  of  the  best  known  families  on  the 
American  Continent,  settled  as  U.  E.  Loyalists  in  Eastern  Canada. 

Joshua  Winslow,  who  is  given 
in  the  Quebec  Directory  of 
1791  as  residing  at  12  .St. 
John  Street,  was  Paymaster- 
General  of  the  British  Forces 
in  North  America.  His  great- 
great-grandfather,  John  Win- 
slow,  born  at  Droitwich, 
England,  in  1597,  came  to 
America  in  1621,  settled  at 
Plymouth,  Mass.,  and  was  a 
merchant  and  shipowner.  He 
married  in  1624,  Mary,  daugh- 
ter of  James  Chilton,  who 
came  out  in  the  "  May- 
flower." Joshua  Winslow  mar- 
ried Anna  Green.  They  had 
a  daughter  Anna  who  while 
at  school  in  Boston  wrote 
an  interesting  diary.  Joshua 
Winslow  died  in  Quebec  in 
1801.  Edward  Winslow,  a 
brother  of  John  Winslow, 
was  Governor  of  Plymouth 
for  some  years. 
Fri.  20th — The  Prince  dined  with  us,  Gen'l.  Clarke,  Mrs.  Murray  and 

St.  Ours;  a  very  cold  evening  indeed.    As  the  cold  weather  and  the  short 

days  leave  us  people  cease  to  be  sociable,  and  no  kind 

of  gaiety  is  continued  but  a  few  dinner  parties.     I 

have  been  so  unaccustomed  to  pass  evenings  alone 

this  winter   that  I   do  not   like   relinquishing  balls, 

concerts,  suppers  and   cards. 

NOTE. — Honorable  Paul  Eoch  de  St.  Ours 
(sometimes  Eocque)  was  born  in  1747.  He  was 
Colonel  commanding  of  the  Assomption  Division 
of  the  Militia  in  Lower  Canada.  In  1787,  lie 
was  a  member  of  the  Legislative  Council.  His 
death  took  place  in  1814. 

Sun.  29th — We  walked  twice  this  day  to  Cape 
Diamond.  In  the  morning  we  saw  a  merchant  vessel 
sail  to  England,  the  "  Recovery,"  in  which  I  sent 
letters  by  Mrs.  Tosey,  the  Sussex  clergyman's  wife, 
to  you  and  other  friends.  Walking  on  Cape  Diamond 
after  a  rainy  day,  I  saw  amongst  the  distant  hills  to  the  north  a  oloud 
rise  in  a  conic  form  in  a  light  sky  until  it  united  with  black  clouds  above. 
We  thought  it  might  be  a  waterspout.  Last  week  the  thermometer  fell 

84 


CASCADE  NEAR  WOLFE'S  COVE,  1792. 
(From  a  Drawing  by  Mm.  Simcoe.) 


PAUL  ROCH  DE 
ST.  OURS. 


ARRIVAL  OF  CHIEF  JUSTICE  OSGOODE 

30  degrees  in  three  hours  and  54  in  eleven  hours.  A  beautiful  moth 
was  sent  to  me.  It  remained  all  day  in  a  torpid  state,  and  flew  away 
at  night. 

Mr.  Fisher,  of  the  Royal  Engineers,  exchanges  duty  with  Mr.  Wolfe,  in 
order  to  go  to  Niagara  to  take  views  of  the  Falls.  I  saw  mosquitoes  this 
evening  while  walking  on  the  ramparts.  They  are  like  gnats.  Last  week 
1  walked  to  Powell  Place  and  Woodfield.  The  woods  are  beautiful,  and  we 
went  near  to  Sillery,  that  pretty  vale  Emily  Montague  describes;  indeed, 
her  account  of  Quebec  appears  to  me  very  near  the  truth. 

A  boat  going  to  the  Isle  of  Orleans  was  overset  a  few  days  ago.  Four- 
teen passengers  were  drowned.  Accidents  often  happen  on  this  river  by 
carrying  too  much  sail.  When  the  wind  is  against  the  tide  it  is  very 
dangerous.  The  currents  are  excessively  strong. 

NOTE. — Powell  Place  was  owned  by  Sir  Henry  Watson  Powell, 
who  resided  there  from  1780-95.  It  was  renamed  Spencer  Wood  by 
the  Honorable  Michael  Henry  Percival,  a  relative  of  the  Honorable 
Spencer  Percival,  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  who  was  assas- 
sinated in  England  in  1812.  The  situation  was  most  picturesque, 
about  two  miles  from  the  city  walls,  on  the  south  side  of  the  St.  Louis 
Road.  It  is  now  the  residence  of  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Quebec. 
The  land  occupied  is  about  one-half  of  the  estate  as  it  was  when 
known  as  Powell  Place. 

The  "History  of  Emily  Montague,"  by  Mrs.  Frances  Brooke 
(Frances  Moore)  1724-89,  published  in  1769,  was  a  series  of  letters 
addressed  from  Sillery  by  Emily  Montague,  the  heroine,  to  her 
friend,  Arabella  Fermor,  to  military  admirers,  and  to  some  British 
noblemen,  friends  of  her  father.  The  work,  which  is  dedicated  to 
Guy  Carleton,  afterwards  Lord  Dorchester,  is  the  earliest  novel 
written  in  Canada.  Mrs.  Brooke  was  the  wife  of  Rev.  John  Brooke, 
D.D.,  Rector  of  Colney,  Norfolk,  and  Chaplain  to  the  garrison  at 
Quebec  in  1764-8.  It  is  said  that  the  "handsome  Colonel  Rivers"  who 
won  the  heart  of  Emily  Montague  was  none  other  than  Colonel  Henry 
Caldvvell.  In  all  probability  he  was  a  friend  of  the  novelist. 

Sat.  2nd  June — Mr.  Osgoode,  the  Chief  Justice 
of  Upper  Canada;  Mr.  Peter  Russell,  the  Receiver- 
General;  and  Mr.  White,  the  Attorney^General, 
arrived  from  England.  Mr.  Russell  has  his  sister 
with  him. 

Miss  Rolle  sent  me  a  doll  in  the  Duchess  of 
York's  Court  dress.  My  clothes  for  the  4th  of  June 
not  being  arrived,  I  made  myself  a  turban  like  the 
doll's. 

NOTE. — At  the  early   age  of  fifteen  William 
Osgoode  entered  Christ  College  as  a  commoner. 
He  studied  law,  became  M.A.  in  1777,  and  was 
called   to    the    bar   of   Lincoln's    Inn.     He    was 
appointed  first  Chief  Justice  of  Upper  Canada  in      CHIEF  JUSTICE 
1792,  his  active  judicial   duties  commencing  in        J    OSGOODE. 
August  of  that  year.     He  was  a  Legislative  Coun- 
cillor of  the  Province,  appointed  to  the  Council  in  July,  1792,  and 
in  the  following  September  was  appointed  Speaker.     In  consequence 

85 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

of  his  charge  to  a  grand  jury  that  slavery  ought  not  to  exist  in  the 
colony  of  Canada,  the  Legislature  of  Upper  Canada  passed  in  July, 
1793,  an  Act  entitled  "An  Act  to  prevent  the  further  introduction 
of  slaves,  and  to  limit  the  terms  of  contracts  for  service  within  this 
Province."  In  1794  Osgoode  became  Chief  Justice  of  Lower  Canada, 
retaining  the  office  until  1801,  when  he  resigned  and  returned  to 
England.  He  died  in  1824,  aged  seventy. 

The  Honorable  Peter  Russell  was  in  1792  ap- 
pointed Receiver-General  of  Upper  Canada  by  Gov- 
ernor Simcoe.     As  President  of  the  'Council  he 
succeeded  the  Governor  in  1796,  retaining  the  posi- 
tion until  1799.     In  accordance  with  Simcoe's  in- 
structions the  second  Parliament  of  the  Province 
met  at  York  on  1st  June,  1797,  and  several  acts 
were  passed  during  Russell's  administration.    His 
plan  was  to  follow  in  the  footsteps  of  Governor 
Simcoe,  with  whose  policy  he  was  familiar.     He 
died  at  his  home,  Russell  Abbey,  Toronto,  in  1808. 
John  White  was  Attorney- General  of  Upper 
HON.  PETER          Canada,  and  was  killed  in  a  duel,  3rd  January, 
RUSSELL.  1800. 

Mon.  June  4th — A  splendid  ball  at  the  Chateau,  but  the  heat  was  so 
great  that  I  was  very  near  fainting  after  having  danced  Money  Musk  and 
the  Jupon  rouge. 

Tues.  5th — This  afternoon  we  drove  to  Montmorency,  about  eight 
miles  from  Quebec,  and  drank  tea  there.  I  walked  a  little  way  up  the 
river,  which  dashes  over  a  very  rocky  bed  among  the  woods,  which,  being 
now  in  leaf,  made  the  accompaniment  of  the  falls  much  finer  than  when  I 
was  last  there. 


8(3 


jj 

M 


CHAPTER   VIII. 
JOURNEY  TO  UPPER  CANADA. 

The  pleasant  sojourn  of  seven  months  at  Quebec  was  "a  new 
chapter  in  my  life,"  said  the  Governor's  wife  in  a  letter  to  an  English 
friend.  The  kindness,  the  hospitality,  the  respect  and  the  courtesy 
which  had  been  paid  to  them  by  those  of  the  official  circles  in  the 
ancient  city  gave  untold  pleasure  to  the  newcomers.  The  Governor 
was  popular  because  he  was  a  man  not  only  of  extensive  military 
experience  but  also  of  wide  general  knowledge,  a  gifted  and  inter- 
esting conversationist,  and,  withal  affable  and  courteous  to  all  with 
whom  he  came  in  contact.  His  wife  made  friends  rapidly,  and  as 
became  the  wife  of  one  occupying  a  distinguished  position,  she  main- 
tained a  dignity  and  gentleness  of  manner  that  some  say  "was  born 
with  the  Gwillims,"  while  at  the  same  time  she  had  an  attractiveness 
that  was  always  remembered  by  the  many  friends  she  met. 

On  the  8th  of  June,  1792,  Governor  Simcoe,  with  his  wife  and 
party,  set  out  towards  his  post  in  the  Western  province.  Mrs.  Simcoe 
often  declared  that  she  required  a  deal  of  courage  to  entrust  herself 
and  her  children  to  the  Canadian  bateaux,  which  were  the  only  possible 
means  of  transportation. 

Fri.  8th  June — At  six  this  morning  we  left  Quebec,  walked  through 
Fort  Louis  Gate,  and  descended  the  hill  to  the  river,  where  we  embarked 
in  a  large  batteau  (bateau)  with  an  awning,  accompanied  by  Lts.  Grey 
and  Talbot.  Another  batteau  carried  the  children,  and  a  third  the  ser- 
vants and  baggage.  In  three  hours  we  reached  Pt.  aux  Trembles  (En 
Bas),  on  the  north  shore  of  the  river,  seven  leagues  above  Quebec,  landing 
a  mile  below  the  Maison  de  Poste.  A  small  tent  being  pitched,  we  break- 
fasted, and  afterwards  went  to  see  the  church,  which  is  a  neat  one  and 
contains  a  picture  of  St.  Cecilia,  given  by  Gen'l.  Murray,  which  is  highly 
esteemed.  We  took  an  early  dinner,  of  which  an  eel,  caught  here,  formed 
a  part,  and  as  we  had  just  finished  our  repast  al  fresco,  the  Bishop  of 
Caps,  who  resides  in  this  village,  came  to  wait  on  Coll.  Simcoe.  He  is  a 
man  more  esteemed  for  his  learning  than  religion;  being  once  accused 
of  having  Voltaire's  works  in  his  library,  he  replied:  "  Les  meilleurs  m6de- 
cins  tiennent  les  poisons  en  leur  boutique"  (The  best  doctors  keep  poisons 
in  their  dispensary).  He  apologized  for  not  inviting  us  to  his  house,  as 
it  was  repairing. 

We  waited  until  near  six  for  the  tide,  when  we  embarked,  and  passed 
some  beautiful  high  banks  covered  with  wood.  At  Jacques  Cartier,  on 
the  north  shore  of  the  river,  eight  leagues  above  Quebec,  between  Three 
Rivers  and  Quebec,  are  mills  on  a  river  which  flows  into  the  St.  Lawrence 
from  between  two  very  high  hills  much  enriched  by  wood.  It  is  an  ex- 
ceedingly strong  pass  and  a  picturesque  scene. 

The  evening  was  delightfully  calm.  My  admiration  of  the  setting  sun 
on  the  unruffled  surface  of  this  wide  river  was  interrupted  by  meeting 

89 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

a  boat,  which  brought  English  letters  forwarded  from  Montreal,  and  the 
satisfaction  of  reading  some  of  yours  (letters  from  Mrs.  Hunt  at  Wol- 
ford)  engaged  my  attention  as  long  as  it  was  light  enough  to  read. 

It  was  ten  o'clock  when  we  arrived  at  Cap  Sante,  on  the  north  shore. 
The  man  who  kept  the  Maison  de  Poste  was  so  ill  that  we  could  not  be 
admitted  there,  so  we  walked  towards  a  cottage  where  the  habitants  were 
going  to  bed,  but  with  all  possible  French  politesse  the  woman  removed 
her  furniture  and  children,  and  presently  accommodated  'us  with  two 
empty  rooms,  with  a  thousand  compliments  and  regrets  that  "  des  gens 
comme  nous"  (strangers)  should  'be  so  ill  lodged.  The  apartment  was  in- 
different enough,  but  as  we  travel  with  a  T>oydet,  which  is  a  folding  camp 
chair  as  large  as  a  mattress,  the  "  Triton's  "  cot,  blankets,  and  a  mosquito 
net  tent  to  hang  over  the  bed,  we  soon  furnished  a  room  comfortable 
enough  for  people  whom  a  long  day's  voyage  had  given  sufficient  inclina- 
tion to  sleep.  The  gentlemen  slept  in  a  batteau.  It  was  too  late  to  get 
our  provisions  from  the  boat,  and  we  supped  on  the  bread,  eggs  and  milk 
the  cottage  afforded. 

NOTE. — Cap  Sante  is  on  the  west  bank  of  the  mouth  of  the  Eiver 
Jacques  Cartier.  It  was  here  that  the  French  encamped  and  threw 
up  works  after  the  capitulation  of  Quebec.  John  Montressor's  map 
of  1760  shows  the  fort  on  the  bank  of  the  river.  In  his  diary  he 
says  that  when  serving  under  that  'mad  Murray'  he  disguised  him- 
self (being  then  a  captain  of  engineers)  as  a  drummer  boy  of  marines 
and  went  to  Jacques  Cartier  with  a  flag  of  truce,  by  which  means  he 
was  able  to  examine  the  works  and  direct  operations  against  them  a 
few  days  later  on. 

Sat.  9th — We  rose  at  six  this  morning,  and  walked  on  the  hill  which 
rises  abruptly  behind  this  house.  It  is  a  fine  turf,  with  large  trees  scat- 
tered over  it,  and  has  a  very  park-like  appearance.  To  the  east  the  view 
is  finely  terminated  by  the  church,  which  is  covered  with  tin,  as  is  usual 
in  this  country.  It  is  surprising  to  me  that  it  does  not  rust.  It  proves 
the  habitual  dryness  of  the  air.  The  effects  of  tin  roofs  and  steeples  are 
very  brilliant.  Beyond  Cap  Sante  the  tide  ceases.  We  embarked  at  nine 
and  passed  the  rapids  of  Richelieu,  after  which  the  steeple  of  the  church 
of  Deschambault,  12  leagues  above  Quebec,  embosomed  in  wood,  becomes 
a  fine  spot.  Coll.  Simcoe  wished  to  examine  the  ground  at  Deschambault 
with  reference  to  it  as  a  military  position.  I  went  on  shore  there  with 
him  while  the  gentlemen  proceeded  to  the  boat.  I  waited  at  the  Maison 
de  Poste  (for  I  was  indisposed)  while  Coll.  Simcoe  walked  to  the  point, 
and  in  about  an  hour  we  set  out  in  a  caleche — a  small  carriage,  'buggy,  on 
two  wheels,  with  a  hood,  goes  very  fast,  and  is  very  light  in  weight,  used 
in  the  Province  of  Quebec  amongst  the  habitants — and  drove  nine  miles 
through  a  beautiful  woody  country,  over  very  rough  roads,  to  Grondines, 
a  village  16  leagues  above  Quebec,  on  the  north  shore,  where  we  dined 
and  slept  at  the  house  of  Madame  Hamelin,  the  seigneuresse  of  this  village, 
whom  we  saw  in  the  evening  sitting  in  the  churchyard,  amid  a  large 
audience  of  peasants,  reading  and  commenting  on  some  handbills  dispersed 
by  a  Quebec  merchant  (Mr.  McCord),  a  candidate  to  represent  this  county 
(Hampshire)  at  the  next  election. 

NOTE. — Hampshire  was  one  of  the  original  divisions  of  the 
Province  of  Quebec  in  its  first  Parliament.  In  the  next  electoral 
changes  in  1829,  the  name  Portneuf  was  applied  to  the  county. 

90 


EN  KOUTE  TO  UPPER  CANADA 

John  McCord  was  a  leading  merchant  in  Quebec,  one  of  the 
pioneers,  son  of  John  McCord,  a  leader  of  the  English  party  after  the 
cession  of  Canada.  John  McCord,  Jr.,  appears  to 
have  thought  of  being  a  candidate  for  Hampshire 
in  1792,  but  apparently  changed  his  mind,  for  his 
name  is  not  given  in  the  Parliamentary  lists.  His 
brother,  Judge  Thomas  McCord,  was,  however, 
elected  in  1810  for  Montreal  West,  and  for  Bed- 
ford in  1817,  which  then  comprised  a  vast  tract. 
The  McCord  family  was  one  of  the  most  prominent 
in  Quebec. 

David  Ross  McCord,  K.C.,  of  Temple  Grove, 
Montreal,  is  a  great-grandson  of  John  McCord, 
Sr.,   and   grandson   of   Judge   Thomas   McCord. 
John  McCord,  Jr.,  of  whom  Mrs.  Simcoe  writes,     JOHN  MCCOBD,  JR. 
was  his  great-uncle. 

The  ruins  of  the  old  church  and  parsonage  at  Grondines  may 
still  be  seen  on  the  beach,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  newer  church 
of  1841. 

Sat.  9th — The  tone  and  air  decide  of  the  reader,  the  attention  of  the 
audience  and  the  Flemish  appearance  of  their  figures  would  have  afforded 
an  excellent  picture.  The  Canadian  women  are  better  educated  than  the 
men,  who  take  care  of  their  horses  and  attend  little  to  anything  else, 
leaving  the  management  of  their  affairs  to  the  women. 

I  saw  here  a  kind  of  mespilus,  or  medlar  tree,  which  bore  fruit 
almost  pear  shaped.  They  called  it  "  Poire  sauvage"  and  a  fruit 
"  superbe."  "  Magnifique  "  and  "  superbe  "  are  words  the  Canadians  apply 
on  all  occasions.  Nothing  could  less  call  for  such  an  epithet  than  the 
present  fruit.  A  pretty  wild  plant,  somewhat  like  buckwheat,  called 
"  herbe  d  la  puce,"  is  said  to  blister  the  hands  and  faces  of  those  who  touch 
it,  though  it  is  not  equally  poisonous  to  all  persona.  Here  I  met  with 
an  ugly  insect  of  the  beetle  kind,  called  "  frappc  d'abord."  which  fetches 
blood  wherever  it  strikes. 

Sun.  10th — We  left  Grondines  at  8.  The  current  becoming  very 
strong,  the  men  were  obliged  to  tirer  d  la  cordelle,  or  drag  the  boat  by 
ropes  on  a  narrow  beach  under  high,  woody  banks.  We  picked  up  pieces 
of  chalk  or  clay,  which  drew  like  crayon,  but  the  strokes  were  not  so  easily 
effaced.  I  saw  millions  of  yellow  and  black  butterflies,  called  New  York 
swallow-tails,  on  the  sand.  We  dined  in  the  boat  and  passed  St.  Pierre  les 
Becquets,  a  village  (in  Nicolet  County)  22  leagues  above  Quebec,  and 
its  church  on  a  very  bold  projecting  point  nearly  opposite  to  Batiscan  (in 
Champlain  County).  We  disembarked  this  evening  at  Cap  de  la  Mag- 
delaine,  the  most  dirty,  disagreeable  receptacle  for  mosquitoes  I  ever  saw, 
the  inhabitants  even  catching  wood  pigeons  in  a  most  disagreeable  manner. 

I  take  no  sketch  of  a  place  I  never  wish  to  recollect.  Mr.  Talbot  gave 
a  shilling  to  liberate  some  wood  pigeons  I  must  otherwise  have  seen  and 
heard  fluttering  most  disagreeably.  I  was  much  obliged  to  him  for  this 
polite  attention. 

NOTE. — Batiscan  is  in  Champlain  County,  81  miles  above  Quebec, 
on  the  north  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  near  Three  Rivers,  which  is 
95  miles  northeast  of  Montreal. 

Mon.  llth — We  rose  at  four  and  embarked,  and  went  a  league  to  Trois 
Rivieres,  in  the  County  of  St.  Maurice,  a  town  which  takes  its  name  from 

91 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

three  rivers— St.  Maurice,  Richelieu  and  St.  Lawrence — which  spring 
from  one  source  and,  after  having  flowed  some  miles  separately,  unite  and 
fall  into  the  St.  Lawrence  half  a  mile  below  the  town.  There  is  a  small 
convent  here,  and  they  work  remarkably  well  on  bark.  We  paid  a  great 
price  for  a  bad  breakfast  at  an  inn  kept  by  an  Englishman,  for  we  were 
not  so  lucky  as  to  go  to  the  French  Maison  de  Poste,  where  we  should 
have  fared  better  and  paid  less.  Three  leagues  from  hence  we  reached 
Point  du  Lac,  in  St.  Maurice  County,  at  the  entrance  of  Lake  St.  Pierre 
(St.  Peter),  which  is  about  15  leagues  long.  Three  leagues  farther  we 
stopped  to  dine  in  the  boat  near  Machiche,  in  a  small  cove,  where  the 
heat  was  intense  and  the  mosquitoes  numerous.  From  hence  we  passed 
extremely  flat  shores  and  confined  scenery.  The  gentlemen  were  impatient 
of  the  heat,  and  perpetually  wearying  the  conductor  of  the  batteau  with 
questions  as  to  'how  far  we  were  from  Cap  de  Loup,  complaining  of  the 
inconvenience  of  the  trajet,  meaning  journey  or  voyage.  At  length  he 
would  say  nothing  except  "  Mais  pourtant  il  ne  fait  pas  froid "  ( It  is 
nothing  compared  to  the  cold),  which,  indeed,  we  were  all  very  sensible 
of.  Went  on  shore  early  this  evening  at  Riviere  du  Loup.  (This  village 
and  river  is  the  same  in  name  as  Riviere  du  Loup,  in  Kamouraska  and 
Temiscouata  Counties.)  The  village  has  a  pretty  bridge,  and  lies  in  a 
flat,  cultivated  country.  We  were  but  ill  accommodated  here,  and  nothing 
amusing  occurred  but  Mr.  Talbot's  ineffectual  efforts  to  paddle  a  canoe 
across  the  river.  The  difficulties  he  met  with  in  this  first  attempt,  and 
the  handkerchief  tied  round  his  head,  a  la  Canadien,  diverted  me  much. 

Mr.  (Lieut.)  Grey  cut  his  finger,  and  applied  the  turpentine  from  the 
cones  of  the  balm  of  Gilead  fir,  a  remedy  for  wounds  greatly  esteemed. 
Collins  the  nurse  girl's  slow  manner,  characteristic  of  the  Western  States, 
diverted  us.  Being  desired  to  make  haste,  she  replied,  "  Must  I  not  put 
the  sugar  in  the  children's  breakfast?"  in  the  true  American  tone. 

NOTE. — Machiche  is  a  village  on  the  river  of  the  same  name  in 
St.  Maurice  County,  Quebec.  The  spelling  Machiche  is  the  common 
abbreviation  of  Yamachiche,  from  the  Algonquin,  meaning  a  muddy 
stream  or  river. 

Tues.  12th — We  embarked  at  four,  and  soon  after  we  left  Lake  St. 
Pierre,  stopped  at  Sorel  (on  right  bank  of  River  Richelieu,  at  mouth  of 
Lake  St.  Peter),  and  took  some  refreshment  at  Mr.  Doughty's,  a  clergy- 
man whose  wife  is  from  New  York,  and  the  house  was  the  cleanest  and 
the  neatest  I  have  seen. 

NOTE. — The  Rev.  John  Doughty  was  chaplain  in  the  King's 
Royal  Regiment  in  the  war  of  1775.  He  was  formerly  a  minister  of 
the  gospel  at  Schenectady  on  the  south  side  of  the  Mohawk  River 
in  the  State  of  New  York.  In  1781  he  went  to  England;  but 
returned  to  Canada  and  officiated  as  a  missionary  at  Sorel. 

The  situation  of  Sorel  is  so  flat  that  nothing  relieves  the  prospect  but 
the  masts  of  a  few  small  ships  building  here.  We  dined  in  the  boat,  and  the 
heat  was  excessive,  but  the  evening  calm  and  so  very  pleasant  as  almost  to 
persuade  me  it  is  worth  while  to  cross  the  Atlantic  for  the  pleasure  of 
voyaging  on  this  delightful  lake-like  river,  the  setting  sun  reflecting  the 
deepest  shades  from  the  shores  and  throwing  rich  tints  on  the  water. 
This  repose  is  finely  accompanied  by  the  songs  of  the  batteau  men,  which 
accord  in  time  to  the  regular  stroke  of  the  oars  and  have  the  best  effect 
imaginable.  No  wonder  Spenser,  Ariosto,  etc.,  dwelt  on  the  delight  of 
sailing  in  a  boat  on  lakes,  and  make  it  the  approach  to  islands  of  delight. 
After  a  day  of  fatigue,  where  strong  currents  require  peculiar  exertion, 
they  sing  incessantly  and  give  a  more  regular  stroke  with  the  oars  when 
accompanied  by  the  tunes.  This  practice  has  been  learned  from  Grand 

92 


INCIDENTS  ON  THE  JOURNEY 

Voyageurs,  or  Canadians  who  are  hired  by  the  North-West  Company  to 
take  canoes  to  the  Grand  Portage  beyond  Lake  Superior.  Now  and  then 
an  Indian  halloo  breaks  the  often-repeated  notes,  and  enlivens  the  sound. 
We  admired  one  of  their  songs,  "  Trots  filles  d'un  Prince "  (Three 
Daughters  of  a  Prince),  so  much  that  we  desired  it  to  be  often  repeated. 

NOTE.— Edmund  Spencer,  a  celebrated  English  poet,  1552-1595). 
Ariosto  Ludovico,  1474-1533,  a  celebrated  Italian  poet,  author  of 
"Orlando  Furioso." 

Our  attention  was  engaged  by  hearing  firing  from  the  shore.  The 
batteau  men  said,  "Com  we  il  faut  a  Mon'sr  le  Oouverneur"  (It  is  a  wel- 
come to  Monsieur,  the  Governor),  but  who  paid  this  respect  we  did  not 
find  out. 

We  reached  the  Maison  de  Poste  at  Dautray  (Dautre)  on  north  shore, 
just  out  of  Lake  St.  Peter,  west,  before  sunset,  pitched  the  little  tent,  and 
admired  rich  tints  and  deep  reflections  from  the  opposite  shore.  We  met 
with  tolerably  good  rooms  here.  Mr.  Littlehales,  Coll.  Simcoe's  Military 
Secretary,  overtook  us  here,  and  brought  with  him  letters  from  you  (Mrs. 
Hunt)  which  made  me  very  happy.  He  travelled  post  from  Quebec,  where 
he  arrived  in  the  last  vessel. 

NOTE. — Major  E.  B.  Littlehales,  who  was  Military  Secretary  to 
Governor  Simcoe  during  the  period  of  his  residence  in  Canada,  was 
an  excellent  official  of  the  Crown  as  well  as  of 
Governor  Simcoe,  in  preparing  plans  and  obtain- 
ing information  respecting  the  newly  settled 
country,  the  affairs  of  which  his  chief  was  called 
upon  to  administer.  He  was  also  an  author  of 
some  repute,  being  the  writer  of  the  "  Journal 
of  an  Exploring  Excursion  from  Niagara  to 
Detroit,"  first  given  to  the  public  in  1834,  though 
the  expedition  took  place  in  1793. 

Major  Littlehales,  who  returned  to  England 
on  the  recall  of  Governor  Simcoe,  was  shortly 
afterwards  promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant- 
colonel,  and  in  1801  became  Under-Secretary  of 
the  Military  Department  in  Ireland,  which  position  SIB  E  B  B\KKR 
he  held  until  1820.  In  1802  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Littlehales  was  created  a  Baronet,  and  by  Royal  License  in  1817 
assumed  the  surname  of  Baker  in  lieu  of  that  of  Littlehales,  on 
inheriting  the  property  of  Ranston  in  Dorsetshire,  thus  being  for 
the  rest  of  his  life  Sir  Edward  Baker  Baker.  His  grandson,  Sir 
Randolph  Littlehales  Baker,  M.P.  for  North  Dorset  and  residing 
at  Blandford,  Dorset,  England,  is  the  present  baronet, 

Wed.  13th — We  set  out  at  four  in  the  morning.  In  the  afternoon  we 
saw  the  Blue  Mountains  of  Chambly,  a  village  in  Chambly  County,  on  the 
Richelieu  River,  five  leagues  from  Montreal,  and  Beloeil  Mountain,  a  con- 
siderable elevation  in  the  County  of  Rouville,  seven  leagues  from  Mont- 
real, both  of  which  we  noticed  with  pleasure,  not  having  before  seen  any 
distant  view  during  our  voyage. 

We  passed  Varennes  (in  Vercheres  County),  a  large  village  and  hand- 
some church  on  the  shore,  six  leagues  below  Montreal.  That  of  Cap 
Sante".  twelve  leagues  above  Quebec,  was  built  in  imitation  of  it.  At  eight 

93 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  S1MCOE 

we  reached  Pointe  aux  Trembles  (En  haut),  on  the  island  of  Montreal,  and 
ten  leagues  from  Dautray.  Here  we  went  on  shore,  intending  to  go  by 
land  the  remaining  three  leagues  to  Montreal.  We  found  Capt.  Stevenson 


CHAMBLY,  ON  THE  ST.  LAWRENCE,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

just  arrived  in  Mr.  Frobis'her's  phaeton,  sent  for  me,  as  a  hired  caliche 
is  a  wretched  conveyance  on  the  excessive  rough  roads  around  Montreal. 
Notwithstanding  the  merits  of  the  phaeton  and  the  river,  I  every  moment 


VARENNES,  ON  THE  ST.  LAWRENCE,  1792. 

(From  a  Draicing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

expected  to  have  been  thrown  out  by  the  violent  jerks  in  passing  over  the 

ruts  in  this  bad  road. 

At  eleven  o'clock  we  arrived  at  Montreal,  and  after  a  little  delay, 

occasioned  by  the  lateness  of  the  hour,  we  got  into  Government  House, 
and  I  was  delighted  with  the  size  and  loftiness  of 
the  rooms,  which  are  so  much  better  than  any  I  have 
been  in  at  Quebec.  On  the  road  we  passed  a  group 
of  Indians  sitting  around  a  fire  near  the  river,  which  in 
this  dark  night  afforded  a  good  subject  for  a  picture. 

NOTE. — Joseph  Frobisher  was  one  of  those 
who  in  the  winter  of  1783-4,  with  Simon  Mc- 
Tavish,  formed  what  has  been  known  in  Canadian 
history  as  the  "North- West  Company."  He  was 
the  first  to  proceed  to  the  great  unknown  West, 
and  went  as  far  as  the  Churchill  River.  Up  to 
1774,  all  the  Indians  of  that  vast  region  were 
accustomed  to  carry  their  furs  to  the  Hudson's 
Bay.  Mr.  Frobisher  meeting  several  bands  of  In- 
dians on  the  way  thither  induced  them  to  trade 
with  him.  He  remained  two  years  in  the  country,  enduring  great 
hardships,  but  established  a  firm  trade  with  the  red  men.  He  re- 
turned in  1776,  and  during  these  two  years,  so  plentiful  were  the 

94 


JOSEPH  FROBISHEB. 


CHATEAU  DE  RAMEZAY 

furs  and  on  such  advantageous  terms  were  they  bought  that  when 
he  arrived  in  Montreal  he  had  secured  what  at  that  time  was  con- 
sidered a  competency.  His  brother  Benjamin,  who  died  in  1787, 
travelled  even  further  west  and  was  the  first  white  man  who  ever 
reached  "Isle  a  la  Croix." 

In  1798,  Joseph  retired  from  commercial  life.  He  had  come  from 
England,  and  with  James  McGill  was  a  vestryman  of  what  was  then 
called  the  "Protestant  Congregation  of  Montreal."  This  afterwards 
became  Christ  Church,  erected  in  Notre  Dame  Street,  and  burned 
down.  It  is  now  the  English  Cathedral  on  St.  Catherine  Street.  He 
and  John  Richardson  represented  the  East  Ward  of  Montreal  in  the 
first  Parliament  of  the  Province  of  Lower  Canada  in  1792-6.  His 
son  represented  St.  Laurent  District  in  1804. 


GOVEENMENT  HOUSE — CHATEAU  DE  RAMEZAY,  MONTREAL. 
(From  "Hochelatja  Depicta") 

Sun.  17th — The  joy  I  felt  in  finding  myself  in  spacious  apartments  was 
checked  the  next  day  by  finding  the  heat  more  insufferable  than  I  had  ever 
felt.  The  thermometer  continued  at  96  for  two  days,  and  the  heat  was 
not  ill-described  by  a  sentinel  who  exclaimed,  "  There  is  but  a  sheet  of 
brown  paper  between  this  place  and  hell."  In  the  town  are  abundance  of 
merchants'  storehouses,  the  doors  and  windows  of  which  are  iron,  and 
many  of  the  houses,  as  well  as  churches,  are  covered  with  tin.  By  these 
circumstances,  I  believe,  the  heat  is  increased.  The  Government  House  is 
built  on  arches,  under  which  are  very  large  offices,  which  might  be  made 
very  comfortable  summer  apartments. 

NOTE. — The  Government  House  referred  to  was  the  building  now 
known  as  the  Chateau  de  Ramezay.  The  earliest  view  of  the  Gov- 
ernment House,  Montreal,  is  found  in  "Hochelaga  Depicta,"  pub- 
lished in  1839,  but  it  is  not  very  accurate.  The  elaborate  railing 
and  coping  of  the  wall  shown  do  not  date  back  so  far.  . 

It  was  the  residence  of  Claude  de  Ramezay,  Governor  of  Montreal, 
from  its  erection  in  1705  until  his  death  in  1724,  and  although 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Madame  de  Ramezay  made  several  attempts  to  get  the  Government  to 
purchase  it  for  a  Governor's  residence,  she  never  succeeded.  So  in 
1745  the  heirs  sold  it  to  "La  Compagnie  des  Indes,"  which  company 
made  it  the  headquarters  of  the  fur  trade  in  Canada,  and  so  it  con- 
tinued until  the  conquest.  The  company's  further  trade  in  'Canada 
having  been  interdicted,  it  sold  "India  House"  to  William  Grant,  who 
in  1774  leased  it,  and  four  years  later  sold  it  to  the  Government. 
Governor  Haldimand  often  resided  in  it,  and  no  doubt  others  too, 
but  there  is  not  much  documentary  history  relating  to  it  from  its 
purchase  in  1778  until  about  1820,  when  sundry  items  began  to 
appear  in  the  estimates  for  the  repairs  and  the  upkeep  of  the  Govern- 
ment House  at  Montreal.  Later  Mrs.  Monk,  widow  of  a  petty  officer 


MONKLANDS,  A  FORMER  GOVERNMENT  HOUSE,  MONTREAL. 
(From  "  Montreal  After  250  Yearn.") 

in  one  of  the  regiments  of  the  line  who  had  been  keeper  of  stores  at  St. 
Johns,  was  appointed  housekeeper  to  the  Government  House.  She 
was  the  mother  of  the  celebrated  Maria  Monk. 

On  the  complaint  of  Lord  Aylmer,  Governor-General,  in  1831, 
that  the  Government  House  was  in  bad  repair,  and  so  destitute  of 
furniture  that  it  necessitated  great  expense  in  moving  his  furniture 
to  and  from  Montreal  every  time  he  visited  the  place,  a  bill  was  passed 
authorizing  the  expenditure  of  £300  to  £400  in  furnishing  the  Gov- 
ernment House  and  a  large  sum  to  put  it  in  repair.  A  commission 
was  appointed  to  supervise  this  expenditure  and  plans  and  specifica- 
tions were  made  for  elaborate  repairs  which  included  the  addition  of 
another  storey,  but  the  amount  required  so  exceeded  the  vote  that 
little  was  done  and  the  amount  appeared  as  an  unexpended  balance 
on  the  estimates  for  several  years  afterwards. 

96 


THE  TOWN  OF  MONTREAL 

In  1837,  the  house  was  made  the  headquarters  of  the  special 
council  which  was  appointed  during  the  rebellion  and  sat  there  until 
1841.  The  Governor,  then  of  necessity  a  regular  resident  in  the 
city,  occupied  a  rented  house  on  the  opposite  corner.  In  1845,  when 
the  seat  of  government  of  the  united  provinces  was  moved  from 
Kingston  to  Montreal,  the  building  was  set  apart  for  departmental 
offices  and  Monklands  acquired  for  the  Government  House.  It  was 
then  that  some  of  the  changes  that  characterize  the  Chateau  de 
Ramezay  of  to-day  were  made.  In  1894  the  Chateau  was  sold  by  the 
Provincial  Government  and  purchased  by  the  Corporation  of  the  City 
of  Montreal,  and  in  1895  the  Numismatic  and  Antiquarian  Society 
obtained  the  building  for  the  purpose  of  founding  an  Historical 
Portrait  Gallery  and  Museum. 

Monklands  was  built  by  the  Monk  family  and  was  situated  at 
Cote  St.  Antoine  on  the  side  of  the  mountain.  The  house  is  now 
called  the  Ville  Marie  Convent  and  is  the  boarding  school  of  the 
Nuns  of  the  Congregation.  On  each  side  the  nuns  have  had  large 
additions  made  but  the  house  still  remains  just  as  it  was  when 
Government  House.  In  the  fire  which  destroyed  the  Convent  some 
years  ago,  the  original  building  escaped. 

Mon.  18th — I  was  so  oppressed  by  the  heat  that  it  diminished  the 
pleasure  of  driving  on  the  mountain  of  Montreal.  A  mile  from  the  town 
it  rises  in  the  midst  of  a  plain,  like  the  Wrekin,  one  of  the  highest  points 
in  Shropshire.  The  view  from  it  is  remarkably  fine,  commanding  a  vast 
extent  of  river  diversified  by  islands.  The  towns  of  Longueuil,  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  river,  and  L'Assomption,  etc.,  are  opposite,  and  the 
distance  terminated  by  the  Blue  Hills  of  Chambly. 

The  town  of  Montreal  is  large,  and  the  spires  of  the  churches,  covered 
with  tin,  give  a  brilliancy  to  the  scene  and  look  like  mosques.  The  country 
around  is  much  cultivated,  and  orchards  cover  nearly  all  the  top  of  the 
mountain.  Capt.  Stevenson  carried  us  two  miles  beyond  the  fine  prospect 
towards  La  Chine  (Lachine),  which  is  three  leagues  above  Montreal,  I 
think  merely  to  show  how  bad  the  road  was,  and  we  returned  about  nine 
o'clock  to  Mr.  Probisher's  villa  on  the  side  of  the  mountain,  and  drank 
tea  there. 

In  going  from  hence  to  Montreal  we  saw  the  air  filled  with  fire  flies, 
which,  as  the  night  was  dark,  appeared  beautiful,  like  falling  stars.  I 
dined  at  Mr.  Frobisher's  house  in  the  town,  where  the  chairs  were  the 
same  as  I  have  seen  sold  in  London  for  four  guineas  each. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Frobisher's  villa,  or  country  house,  which  Mrs.  Simcoe 
speaks  of  as  being  on  the  side  of  the  mountain,  was  named  Beaver 
Hall  and  was  situated  on  the  ridge  of  the  Beaver  Hall  Hill,  near 
the  present  position  of  Belmont  Street,  Montreal.  It  was  on  the 
line  of  the  latter  street  and  across  the  line  of  the  present  street  called 
after  it,  Beaver  Hall,  which  latter  was  on  the  site  of  Frobisher's 
avenue  leading  to  the  house.  It  blocked  the  present  Beaver  Hall 
(street). 

Tues.  19th — I  dined  with  La  Baronne  de  Longueuil  at  a  pretty  house 
she  and  Mr.  Grant  have  built  on  the  north  shore  of  her  island  of  St. 
Helen's,  opposite  the  east  end  of  Montreal.  Though  the  distance  is  so 
short,  the  current  is  so  strong  that  the  passage  is  rather  alarming.  The 
island  is  four  miles  in  circumference,  and  the  views  from  many  points 

7  97 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


very  pretty.  Montreal  and  Longueuil  are  good  objects  to  view  from  it. 
La  Baronne  has  the  only  hothouse  I  have  seen  in  Canada.  Ice  houses  are 
very  general  here,  but  seldom  used  for  the  purpose  of  furnishing  ice  for 
a  dessert.  They  use  the  ice  to  cool  liquors  and  butter, 
and  the  ice  houses  are  used  for  larders  to  keep  meat. 

NOTE. — The  third  Baron  de  Longueuil,  Charles 
Jacques  Le  Moyne,  died  while  on  active  military 
service  in  1755.  His  infant  daughter,  Marie 
Charles  Joseph,  born  some  months  later,  inherited 
the  title  as  fourth  Baroness.  Her  mother  (Marie 
Fleury  d'Eschambault,  of  a  noble  French  family), 
known  as  the  Dowager  Baroness,  married  a  second 
time,  in  1770,  Honorable  William  Grant,  Receiver- 
General,  while  the  daughter  became  the  wife  in 
DOWAGER  BARONESS  1781  of  Captain  David  Alexander  Grant,  nephew 
DE  LONGUEUIT..  Of  the  Receiver-General. 

Shortly  after  her  marriage  with  Honorable 
William  Grant  the  Dowager  Baroness  built  a  resi- 
dence on  the  picturesque  family  property  on  St. 
Helen's  Island.  It  was  here  Mrs.  Simcoe  was 
entertained  during  her  first  visit  to  Montreal,  and 
where  in  all  probability  she  met  the  younger 
people. 

It  is  stated  that  the  fourth  Baroness  in  her 

own  right,  a  much  loved  person  in   the  family 

and  respected  in  Montreal  society  of  her  day,  did 

not  assume  rank  until  the  death  of  her  mother 

in  1818.     In  her  marriage  contract,  however,  she     HON.  WM.  GRANT. 

is    styled    "Mademoiselle    Marie    Charles    Joseph 

Lemoine  de  Longueuil,  Baroness  de  Longueuil 
et  Dame  de  Beloeil,  fille  majeure  usante  et  jouis- 
sante  de  ses  droits,"  which  shows  clearly  that  she 
assumed  title  on  attaining  her  majority.  The 
contract  further  states  that  she  was  sole  inheritor 
of  the  name,  arms  and  estate  of  the  third  Baron. 
There  is  no  portrait  of  the  fourth  Baroness 
in  existence,  except  the  one  as  an  old  lady,  here 
given,  while  her  mother's  picture  is  from  an  oil 
painting  made  comparatively  early  in  life. 

Mrs.  M.  Arklay  Fergusson  of  Ethiebeaton, 
Scotland,  Mrs.  Fairclough,  wife  of  Prof.  Rushton 
Fairclough,  Stanford  University,  Cal.,  and  Mrs. 
J.  Maule  Machar,  Kingston,  Ont.,  are,  on  their 
mother's  side,  great-great-granddaughters  of  the 

third  Baron  de  Longueuil,  while  Madame  F.  Falret  de  Tuite,  Reginald, 

Baron  de  Longueuil,  John  Grant  de  Longueuil  and  Mademoiselles 

de  Longueuil,  Pau,  France,  bear  the  same  relation  through  their 

98 


FOURTH  BARONESS 
DE  LONGUEUIL. 


THROUGH  THE  EAPIDS  IN  BATEAUX 

father.  Mrs.  Machar's  husband  was  the  only  son  of  the  late  Rev. 
Dr.  Machar,  at  one  time  principal  of  Queen's  University,  Kingston, 
and  only  brother  of  Agnes  Maule  Machar,  the  well-known  Canadian 
authoress.  The  nephew  of  the  present  Baron  is  heir  to  the  title 
and  property. 

Fri.  22nd — We  went  from  Montreal  to  La  Chine  (Lachine),  ten  miles 
of  very  rough  road,  in  Mr.  Frobisher's  carriage.  The  river  from  Montreal 
to  La  Chine  is  so  shallow  and  full  of  rocks,  and  currents  so  strong  that 
the  boats  always  go  up  unloaded,  the  baggage  being  sent  in  waggons. 
Sir  John  Johnson,  the  agent  for  Indian  Affairs,  has  a  neat-looking  house 
in  this  village. 

We  slept  at  a  very  indifferent  house,  to  which,  as  it  bore  the  name  of 
an  inn,  we  did  not  bring  our  beds  or  provisions,  and  were  the  worse  off  as 
to  lodging.  I  disliked  the  dirty  appearance  of  the  bed,  and  slept  on  a 
blanket  upon  the  table.  Opposite  this  place  and  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river  is  Caughnawaga,  a  village  of  Indians  who  are  Catholics  (in  Laprairie 
County,  on  south  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence).  They  have  a  neat  church 
there. 

Sat.  23rd — We  embarked  at  six.  Soon  afterwards  left  Pointe  Claire 
and  Isle  Perrot  (15  miles  from  Montreal,  an  island  in  the  River  St. 
Lawrence,  S.W.  of  the  island  of  Montreal,  between  the  Lake  of  the  Two 
Mountains  and  Lake  St.  Louis)  to  the  north,  and  saw  the  junction  of  the 
Ottawa  or  Grand  River,  which  divided  Upper  and  Lower  Canada  with 
the  St.  Lawrence,  the  former  pouring  its  dirty  coloured  water  into  the 
transparent  stream  of  the  St.  Lawrence  at  the  St.  Anne's  rapids,  above 
the  island  of  Montreal. 

NOTE. — Besides  the  Ottawa  or  Grand  River  here  mentioned,  there 
is  another  Grand  River  (known  also  as  the  Ouse)  in  Ontario,  which 
empties  into  Lake  Erie. 

We  soon  arrived  at  the  Cascades,  the  commencement  of  the  rapids 
above  La  Chine.  The  term  "  rapid  "  is  meant  to  describe  shallow  water, 
strong  currents  and  a  rocky  bottom,  which  causes  the  whole  surface  of 
the  water  to  appear  foaming  and  white,  like  breakers  at  sea.  The  batteau 
men  kept  as  close  to  shore  as  possible,  and  by  dint  of  exertion  and  labour 
they  pole  and  tow  the  boat  up  against  the  current.  We  went  on  shore  at 
the  Cascades,  and  walked  a  mile  through  a  wood  and  saw  the  boats  pass 
some  tremendous  rapids  near  this  place,  where  Gen'l.  Amherst  lost  eighty 
men  during  the  last  war  by  coming  down  without  conductors  in  the  boats. 
Saw  a  swordfish  in  a  little  stream  near  the  mill.  After  our  re-embarking 
we  came  to  a  very  strong  current  at  Point  au  Diable  (a  prominent  head- 
land four  miles  west  of  the  Cedars  village). 

The  gentlemen  walked  to  lighten  the  boat.  I  was  tired  by  the  heat, 
and  laying  my  head  on  a  trunk  in  the  boat,  I  slept  till  the  rapid  was  past. 
Two  leagues  from  hence  we  met  with  one  more  formidable,  so  that  the 
baggage  in  the  boats  was  moved  into  waggons,  and  we  went  in  a  caleche 
as  far  as  the  Cedars,  a  village  ten  leagues  above  Montreal,  where  there  is 
a  tolerable  inn,  at  which  we  slept.  M.  de  Longueuil  has  a  seigneurie 
near  this  place.  These  properties,  estates  or  grants  of  land  were  given  to 
the  old  French  families  who  had  settled  in  the  Province  of  Quebec,  by 
Louis  XIV.  Seigneur  was  the  title  for  the  Lord  of  the  Manor. 

Sun.  24th — Seven  miles  from  Les  Cedres  is  Coteau  du  Lac  (or  St. 
Ignace,  a  village  in  Soulanges  County,  37  miles  south-west  of  Montreal), 
where  we  passed  through  locks.  A  few  troops  are  stationed  in  a  house 
here.  Opposite  to  it  is  an  island  called  Prison  Island.  It  was  so  called 
from  some  rebels  having  been  confined  on  it  during  the  last  war,  some  of 
whom  escaped  by  swimming  across  the  rapids  by  which  it  is  surrounded. 

99 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

NOTE. — This  island  is  at  the  mouth  of  Lake  St.  Francis,  an 
expansion  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  midway  between  the  west  part  of 
Grand  Isle  and  the  estuary  of  the  River  de  L'Isle. 

A  few  miles  beyond  this  entered  Lake  St.  Francis,  and  saw  a  part 
of  the  blue  ridge  of  the  endless  mountains.  Four  leagues  from  Coteau  de 
Lac  is  Pointe  au  Bodet,  the  centre  of  Lake  St.  Francis  and  the  commence- 
ment  of  Upper  Canada. 

NOTE. — Pointe  au  Bodet  is  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  St.  Francis, 
in  the  Seigneury  of  Monsieur  de  Longueuil,  and  a  little  east  of  the 
cove  in  which  is  the  boundary  line  between  the  Provinces  of  Quebec 
and  Ontario. 

We  arrived  here  about  sunset,  and  at  a  small  inn  on  the  Point  found 
the  principal  inhabitants  of  the  Township  of  Glengarry  (Highlanders  in 
their  national  dress).  They  came  to  meet  the  Governor,  who  landed  to 
speak  to  them.  They  preceded  us  in  their  boat,  a  piper  with  them,  towards 
Glengarry  House,  Mr.  McDonell's,  where  the  gentlemen  went,  but  the 
wooden  awning  of  our  boat  being  blown  off  by  a  violent  and  sudden  squall 
arising,  we  were  glad  to  make  towards  the  shore  as  fast  as  possible  at 
Pointe  Mouille  on  Lake  Francis,  west  of  Pointe  au  Bodet,  and  thought  our- 
selves lucky  that  the  boat  had  not  been  overset.  We  met  with  a  miserable, 
wretched,  dirty  room  at  a  Highlander's,  the  only  house  within  some  miles. 

NOTE. — Colonel  John  Macdonell  was  a  captain  in  Butler's  Rangers 
(his  father  having  first  settled  in  America  at  the  breaking  out  of  the 
Revolutionary  War).  In  1792  he  was  elected  member  for  Glengarry 
and  was  afterwards  Speaker  of  the  first  House  of  Assembly  of  Upper 
Canada.  He  was  lieutenant-colonel  commanding  the  2nd  Royal 
Canadian  Volunteers,  recruited  in  17%  and  disbanded  after  the 
Peace  of  Amiens.  He  married  Helen,  daughter  of  Henry  Yates,  at 
one  time  Governor  of  the  State  of  New  York.  Colonel  Macdonell 
built  one  of  the  first  stone  houses  in  Ontario  at  a  point  on  the  St. 
Lawrence  below  Cornwall  and  west  of  Pointe  au  Bodet.  The  house  was 
burned  down  in  1813  but  the  ruins  still  remain  and  the  point  is 
known  as  Glengarry  Point  or  Stonehouse  Point. 

Colonel  John  Macdonell  of  Glengarry  has  been  frequently  confused 
with  Colonel  John  Macdonell  who  was  killed  at  Queenston  Heights 
in  1812.  The  latter,  however,  was  a  nephew  of  the  first  Speaker,  and 
J.  A.  Macdonell,  K.C.,  of  Alexandria,  Ont.,  is  a  great-grandnephew 
of  Colonel  John  Macdonell,  the  First  Speaker,  and  a  grandnephew 
of  Colonel  John  Macdonell,  the  Attorney-General  who  was  also  A.D.C. 
to  General  Brock.  He  was  killed  with  that  officer  at  Queenston, 
and  buried  under  the  monument  erected  on  the  Heights.  A.  McLean 
Macdonell,  K.C.,  Toronto,  is  also  a  great-grandnephew  of  the  first 
Speaker  of  the  Legislature  of  this  Province,  while  A.  Claude  Mac- 
donell, K.C.,  M.P.,  is  a  near  kinsman. 

Mon.  25th — We  breakfasted  with  Mr.  McDonell,  four  leagues  from 
Pointe  Mouille;  his  new  house  (Glengarry)  he  has  not  finished,  and 
resides  in  that  which  he  first  erected  on  his  ground.  A  Catholic  priest, 
his  cousin,  was  there,  who  has  lived  five  years  among  the  Iroquois  Indians 
at  St.  Regis  (near  Cornwall).  They  have  a  church,  and  he  performs 

100 


WITH  THE  INDIANS  AT  ST.  EEGIS 

divine  service  in  the  Iroquois,  of  which  he  is  a  perfect  master,  and  he 
says  their  attention  to  the  church  service  is  very  great,"  and  the  women 
sing  psalms  remarkably  well.  After  breakfast  we  proceeded  a  league  to 
Coll.  Gray's,  from  whence  the  Governor  went  to  the  Isle  of  St.  Regis,  to 
visit  the  Indians  at  their  village,  where  they  received  him  with  dancing 
in  a  fierce  style,  as  if  they  wished  to  inspire  the  spectators  with  terror  and 
respect  for  their  ferocious  appearance.  We  slept  at  Coll.  Gray's,  at  Gray's 
Creek,  four  miles  below  Cornwall. 

NOTE. — The  Catholic  priest  to  whom  Mrs.  Simcoe  refers  was  the 
Rev.  Roderick  Macdonell,  well  known  as  "Mr.  Roderick,"  a  cousin 
of  Colonel  John  Macdonell.  He  was  educated  at  the  Scots  College, 
Valladolid,  and  was  first  priest  in  Glengarry,  being  stationed  at 
St.  Regis  on  the  south  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  a  short  distance 
below  Cornwall.  This  was  always  an  Indian  settlement. 

James  Gray,  known  as  Colonel  Gray,  was  born  in  Scotland  and 
served  in  the  British  Army  for  26  years.  In  1763  he  was  captain 
in  the  42nd  or  Black  Watch  Regiment,  and  was  afterwards  major 
of  the  1st  Battalion  of  the  King's  Royal  Regiment  of  New  York. 
He  settled  at  what  is  known  as  Gray's  Creek,  near  Cornwall.  He 
died  on  llth  May,  1796.  Colonel  Gray's  son,  Robert  Isaac  Dey  Gray, 
was  the  first  Solicitor-General  for  Tipper  Canada.  His  name  was 
second  on  the  list  of  charter  members  of  the  Law  Society  of  Upper 
Canada,  1797.  In  1804,  he  was  lost  in  the  "Speedy"  on  Lake 
Ontario  on  his  way  to  Presqu'  Isle,  where  an  Indian  was  to  be  tried 
for  murder. 

Tues.  26th — Capt.  Munro  came  here  and  brought  a  horse  of  Mr.  Dun- 
can's for  me  to  ride.  As  it  would  be  very  tedious  to  go  up  the  Long  Sault 
in  the  boat,  we  propose  riding  beyond  that  and  another  rapid  called 
Galettes.  We  set  off  about  ten  o'clock.  On  our  way  we  passed  through 
Cornwall  (22  leagues  south-west  of  Montreal),  a  settlement  four  miles 
from  Coll.  Gray's.  There  are  about  fifteen  houses 
and  some  neat  gardens  in  them;  and  rode  eleven 
miles  to  Mr.  Macdonell's  at  the  Long  Sault,  his  farm 
being  very  near  that  Grand  Rapid,  whidh  rapid  con- 
tinues a  mile;  the  whole  of  the  river  foaming  like 
white  breakers,  and  the  banks  covered  with  thick 
woods,  is  a  very  fine  sight. 

NOTE. — Captain  Munro  was  the  Honorable 
John  Munro  of  Matilda,  a  member  of  the  first 
Legislative  Council.  Born  in  Scotland  in  1731, 
he  came  to  America  in  the  48th  Regiment  in  1756. 
As  a  magistrate  he  had  come  into  fierce  opposition 
before  the  Revolutionary  War  with  Seth  Warner 
and  Ethan  Allan  in  northern  New  York.  He  was 
captain  in  the  King's  Royal  Regiment  of  New  HON.  JOHN  MI:NKO. 
York  and  lost  in  consequence  of  the  Rebellion  a 
large  area  of  land  near  Fort  Bennington,  N.  Y.  In  the  Canada 
Archives,  1891,  will  be  found  a  report  by  him  (1784)  on  the  lands 
of  New  Brunswick.  By  one  daughter  who  married  Colonel  Eustache 
de  Lotbiniere  he  was  the  ancestor  of  Sir  Henry  Joly  and  the  Har- 
woods  of  Montreal ;  Major  W.  F.  W.  Carstairs  of  Strathcona,  and 

103 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

J.  S.  Carstairs  of  Toronto,  are  descendants' of  another  member  of 
his  numerous  family. 

The  Long  Sault  Rapids  are  in  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  between 
Barnhart  and  Long  Sault  Island,  twelve  miles  above  Cornwall.  They 
are  about  nine  miles  long. 

Mrs.  Macdonell  sang  Erse  songs  very  pleasingly,  and  her  children  and 
servants  speak  no  language  but  Erse,  the  language  of  the  descendants  of 
the  Gaels  or  Celts  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland;  Gaelic,  belonging  to  Erse 
(Irish).  I  wish'd  they  had  not  thought  it  necessary  respect  to  dine  very 
late.  There  are  wolves  and  bears  in  this  part  of  the  country.  They  some- 
times carry  off  sheep,  calves  or  pigs,  but  do  not  attack  men. 

Mr.  Duncan's  (Oapt.  Richard  Duncan,  late  of  55th  Regt.)  horse 
carried  me  very  well.  It  is  certainly  necessary  to  have  a  horse  of  the 
country  to  pass  the  bridges  we  everywhere  met  with,  whether  across  the 
creeks  (very  small  rivers)  or  swamps.  The  bridges  are  composed  of 
trunks  of  trees  unhewn,  of  unequal  sizes,  and  laid  loosely  across  pieces 
of  timber  placed  lengthways.  Rotten  trees  sometimes  give  way  and  a^ 
horse's  leg  slips  through,  and  is  in  danger  of  being  broken.  The  horse  1* 
am  now  riding  had  once  a  fall  through  an  old  bridge.  He  now  goes  very 
carefully.  Coll.  Gray  tells  me  that  the  juice  of  horehound  and  plantain,  a 
tropical  plant  yielding  fruit  extensively  serviceable  for  food,  cures  the 
bite  of  a  rattlesnake.  A  negro  in  Carolina  obtained  his  freedom  in  the 
last  war  for  the  discovery.  We  had  black  bass  for  dinner.  Great  num- 
bers are  caught  near  the  rapids.  They  are  extremely  good,  nearly  as 
large  as  carp,  as  firm  as  a  dory  and  of  very  good  taste,  but  we  dined  too 
late  to  be  pleasant.  I  suppose  it  was  meant  for  respect. 

NOTE. — Honourable  Richard  Duncan,  whose  memory  still  survives 
in  Dundas  County  as  "Judge  Duncan,"  and  whose  daughter's  name 
is  perpetuated  in  Mariatown,  now  really  an  outlying  part  of  Morris- 
burg,  came  to  America  in  1755.  He  became  a  captain  in  Sir  John 
Johnson's  corps,  and  married  a  sister  of  Captain  (afterwards  Colonel) 
Thomas  and  Captain  William  Fraser.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first 
Legislative  Council. 

When  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  on  her  way  west  to  Niagara  Mr.  Duncan 
presented  her  with  a  horse  named  "Jack"  which  was  taken  to  Navy 
Hall  and  used  during  her  residence  there. 

Wed.  27th — We  rode  ten  miles  to  a  tolerable  inn,  where  a  dinner  was 
prepared,  but  we  were  engaged  to  dine  and  sleep  at  Capt.  John  Munro's, 
who  had  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  twelve  miles  beyond  this  place. 
The  first  eight  we  went  in  the  boat,  and  the  remaining  four  we  rode. 

An  Irish  Captain  gave  us  a  basket  of  wild  strawberries,  which  were 
as  large  and  as  well  flavoured  as  the  best  scarlet  strawberries  in  gardens 
in  England.  We  passed  Capt.  Duncan's  house  a  mile  before  we  came  to 
the  Rapid  Plat,  close  to  which  is  Capt.  Munro's.  His  wife  is  a  Dutch 
woman,  and  the  house  was  excessively  neat  and  clean,  and  one  of  his 
daughters  very  handsome.  We  went  to  see  Mr.  Munro's  sawmill,  where 
a  tree  was  cut  into  16  planks  an  inch  thick  in  an  hour. 

NOTE. — In  the  list  of  Justices  of  the  Peace  appointed  June  10th, 
1793,  are  found  the  names  of  William  and  John  Fraser,  Richard 
Duncan,  John  Munro  and  James  Gray. 

The  cutting  of  a  log  into  sixteen  planks  twelve  feet  long  and  an 
inch  thick,  would  in  a  saw  mill  to-day  take  three  minutes. 

104 


CANADIAN  WHEAT  IN  1792 

Thurs.  28th — We  set  out  on  horseback  this  morning;  took  some  re- 
freshments at  Mr.  T.  Frasier's,  six  miles  from  the  Long  Sault,  and  then 
rode  five  miles  to  Mr.  W.  Frasier's,  where  we  dined.  His  house  is  just 
beyond  Les  Galettes  (Galoos  or  Gallops,  off  Pointe  Gallop),  the  last  rapid 
on  this  side  of  Lake  Ontario. 

NOTE. — Colonel  Thomas  Eraser,  born  in  Scotland,  was  a  son-in- 
law  of  Hon.  John  Munro.  Before  enlisting  in  McAlpine's  Corps, 
in  which  he  served  as  lieutenant,  his  record  is  given  as  "a  farmer 
of  property  in  the  Province  of  New  York,  lost  by  the  Rebellion."  He 
served  during  the  Eevolutionary  War,  at  the  close  of  which  he 
received  a  grant  of  land  in  Grenville.  In  1796  he  was  chosen  as  a 
non-resident  member  for  Dundas.  Two  of  the  leading  military  officers 
of  Dundas,  John  Munro  and  Richard  Duncan,  being  out  of  reach, 
the  electors  determined  to  select  a  representative  military  officer 
residing  outside  of  their  townships,  and  so  Thomas  Fraser  was  chosen. 

Captain  William  Fraser,  also  a  Loyalist,  was  a  brother  of  Colonel 
Thomas  Fraser. 

Thurs.  28th — I  observed  on  my  way  hither  that  the  wheat  appeared 
finer  than  any  I  have  seen  in  England,  and  totally  free  from  weeds.  Mr. 
Frasier  mentioned  an  instance  of  the  fertility  of  the  soil.  One  of  his 
fields  having  produced  a  great  quantity  of  wheat,  and  that  what  fell  out 
in  reaping  had  the  next  year  produced  a  very  fine  crop,  without  the  field 
having  been  plowed  or  sown.  There  are  many  Dutch  and  German 
farmers  about  here,  whose  houses  and  grounds  have  a  neater  and  better 
appearance  than  those  of  any  other  people.  This  afternoon  we  proceeded 
in  the  boat  to  Monsr.  Lorimer's,  an  agent  for  Indian  Affairs,  where  we 
had  good  venison  but  indifferent  lodging.  Coll.  Simcoe  stopped  on  the  way 
to  look  at  Isle  Royale. 

NOTE. — Chevalier  Lorimer  was  an  interpreter  of  the  Indian 
Department  in  1797. 

Isle  Royale  is  between  Gallop  Island  and  River  de  la  Yielle 
Galette,  near  Point  Patterson. 

Fri.  29th— We  embarked  early  and  met  the  26th  Regt.  in  a  brigade  of 
boats.  We  stopped  to  speak  to  Capt.  Talbot,  who  is  in  Prince  Edward's 
family.  He  had  been  to  see  the  Falls  of  Niagara,  and  was  returning  with 
the  26th  Regt. 

NOTE. — Captain  Talbot  was  one  of  Prince  Edward's  suite,  when 
in  Canada.  He  is  previously  mentioned  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  when  staying 
in  Quebec,  as  Prince  Edward  was  then  residing  there,  at  Montmor- 
ency  House,  near  the  Falls.  In  August,  1790,  the  26th  proceeded 
to  Niagara  and  in  June,  1792,  returned  to  St.  John's.  Captain  Talbot 
was  not  an  officer  of  the  26th,  nor  was  he  related  to  Mr.  Talbot, 
private  secretary  of  Colonel  Simcoe.  In  the  Quebec  Directory  of 
1791,  there  appears  "Captain  Talbot,  H.R.H's  suite  4  Ann  St." 

Fri.  29th — We  passed  to-day  some  rocks  beautifully  variegated  with 
yellow  and  grey  tints.  1  believe  clay  was  among  it.  We  saw  a  number 
of  fine  hemlock  spruce  trees.  They  are  an  exceedingly  handsome  tree, 
like  yew,  but  of  a  lighter  foliage,  though  as  dark  a  colour,  and  grow  to  a 
more  immense  height  than  the  English  people  can  suppose  probable.  We 
came  to  so  miserable  a  house  where  we  were  to  lodge  to-night,  within 
a  league  of  Grenadier  Island,  that  we  preferred  pitching  a  tent  for  our- 

105 


D1AKY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


selves,  letting  the  children  sleep  in  the  boat,  and  left  the  house  for  the 
gentlemen.  While  the  tent  was  pitching  I  fished  and  caught  a  small 
perch.  Many  people  carry  trolling  lines,  or  lines  which  run  out  of  a 
small  fishing  wheel  or  pulley  lying  out  of  the  stern  in  their  boat,  and 
catch  abundance  of  black  bass  and  other  fish  all  the  way  up  the  St. 
Lawrence.  Capillaire  or  maidenhair  fern  and  its  species  grows  in  great 
perfection  throughout  this  country.  Much  surprised  to  find  the  blankets 
so  wet  in  a  tent,  although  the  weather  had  been  dry. 

NOTE. — Grenadier  Island,  one  of  the  Thousand  Islands,  is  four- 
teen miles  above  Brockville,  and  is  about  five  miles  long. 

Sat.  30th — After  passing  Grenadier  Island  we  came  to  the  Thousand 
islands.  The  different  sizes  and  shapes  of  these  innumerable  isles  have  a 
pretty  appearance.  Some  of  them  are  many  miles  in  extent,  many  of 
them  only  large  enough  to  contain  four  or  five  trees,  pine  or  oak,  growing 
on  a  grey  rock,  which  looks  very  pretty,  variegated  by  the  different  mosses 
with  which  the  crevices  are  filled. 

We  passed  the  river  Gananowui  (Gananoque),  and  half  a  mile  beyond 
it  came  to  Carey's  house,  which  was  so  dirty  a  house  that  we  again  pitched 
the  tent,  which,  notwithstanding  it  rained  incessantly  the  whole  evening 
and  the  greatest  part  of  the  night,  kept  us  quite  dry,  and  I  slept  vastly 
well.  I  was  surprised  to  find  how  wet  the  bed  clothes  were  in  the  tent 
when  I  rose,  and  yet  I  caught  no  cold,  though  these  nights  were  the  first  in 
which  I  slept  in  a  tent.  In  spite  of  the  rain  Coll.  Simcoe  went  to  the  mill 
on  the  Gananowui  River  near  its  mouth,  where  a  harbour  might  be  made 
for  shipping.  This  river  has  communication  a  great  way  back  with  the 
river  Rideau,  and  by  some  lakes  to  the  Ottawa  River.  These  and  other 
advantages  make  this  one  of  the  most  eligible  situations  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  town,  but  Sir  John  Johnson  obtained  a  grant  of  the  land  here- 
about, which  prevents  the  probability  of  any  such  improvements  being 
made  by  Government. 

XOTE. — Judge  McDonald,  of  Brockville,  informs  me  that  ac- 
cording to  a  statement  said  to  have  been  made  in  1854  by  one  Mrs. 
Charlotte  Jameson,  then  the  oldest  inhabitant  of  Gananoque,  Joel 
Stone  was  the  first  white  person  who  ever  resided  on  the  peninsula 

on  the  west  side  of  the 
Gananoque  River.  He  was 
landed  from  a  French 
bateau  and  left  to  his 
own  resources.  Fortun- 
ately a  resident  on  a 
nearby  island  espied  the 
handkerchief  with  which 
Stone  was  signalling  for 
help  and  sent  two  Indians 
to  rescue  him.  They 
took  him  over  to  the  is- 
land where  a  Frenchman 


CAREY'S  HOUSE,  GANANOQUE. 

(From  a  drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 


named  Carey,  an  uncle  of 
Mr.  Jameson,  lived  alone  in  a  hut.  Eventually  Mr.  Stone  and  Carey 
removed  to  the  mainland,  and  the  latter  kept  a  house  of  public  enter- 
tainment. The  place  was  only  accessible  by  open  boat,  while  no  bread 
could  be  obtained  except  hard  biscuits.  For  Mr.  Stone  and  for 

106 


J  i 


WITHIN  SIGHT  OF  KINGSTON 

travellers,  they  kept  a  kind  called  King's  biscuit,  while  for  the  others 
they  provided  navy  biscuit.  They  kept  two  cows  and  exchanged  the 
milk  with  the  bateau  men  for  biscuit,  and  exchanged  the  latter  again 
with  the  Indians  for  fish,  venison,  game  and  wild  fruit.  Carey 
had  been  formerly  a  waiter  and  knew  how  to  cook  and  wait  upon 
gentlemen,  so  that  he  and  Stone  were  tolerably  comfortable.  One 
day  when  they  were  all  absent,  the  building  and  Mr.  Stone's  effects 
were  burned,  and  this  was  the  means  of  breaking  up  their  family 
arrangement,  as  Carey  took  a  farm  two  miles  above  Gananoque  at 
Jameson's  or  Sheriff's  Point,  and  lived  there  with  his  sister,  Mrs. 
Sheriff,  and  a  little  girl,  afterwards  Mrs.  Jameson.  The  picture 
shown  is  of  Carey's  house  at  Gananoque. 


VIEW  NEAR  GANANOQUE,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Sun.  July  1st — We  rose  very  early  this  morning  in  order  to  take  a 
view  of  the  mill  at  Gananowui  before  we  proceeded  on  our  way  to  Kings- 
ton. The  scenery  about  the  mill  was  so  pretty  that  I  was  well  repaid  for 
the  trouble  of  going.  Then  we  returned  to  our  large  boat  and  proceeded. 
After  passing  Grande  Island  and  Isle  Cauchois,  we  drew  near  to  Kingston, 
which  we  were  aware  of  before  we  saw  the  houses,  as  we  discerned  the 
white  waves  of  Lake  Ontario  beyond,  looking  like  a  sea,  for  the  wind 
blew  extremely  fresh. 

NOTE. — Wolfe  Island,  three  miles  from  Kingston,  was  called  by 
the  French  Grande  Island.  General  Simcoe  in  his  proclamation, 
1792,  directed  it  to  be  called  Wolfe  Island.  Howe  Island,  nine  miles 
from  Kingston,  was  called  by  the  French  Isle  Cauchois,  and  was 
named  by  General  Simcoe  or  his  advisers,  Howe  Island,  after  Lord 
Howe. 

109 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Kingston  is  six  leagues  from  Gananowui,  and  is  a  small  town  of 
about  fifty  wooden  houses  and  merchants'  storehouses.  Only  one  house 
is  built  of  stone.  It  belongs  to  a  merchant.  There  is  a  small  garrison 
here  and  a  harbour  of  ships.  They  fired  a  salute  on  our  arrival,  and  we 
went  to  the  house  appointed  for  the  commanding  officer,  at  some  distance 
from  the  barracks.  It  is  small  but  very  airy,  and  so  much  cooler  than 
the  great  house  in  Montreal  that  I  was  very  well  satisfied  with  the  change. 
The  Queen's  Rangers  are  encamped  a  quarter  of  a  mile  beyond  our  house, 
and  the  bell  tents  have  a  pretty  appearance.  The  situation  of  this  place  is 
entirely  flat,  and  incapable  of  being  rendered  defensible.  Therefore,  were 
its  situation  more  central,  it  would  still  be  unfit  for  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment. 


110 


CHAPTEK    IX. 
SIMCOE  TAKES  OATH  OF  OFFICE. 

Kingston  in  1792  was  the  most  important  spot  on  the  map  of 
Canada,  west  of  Montreal.  It  was  not  only  the  military  but  the 
commercial  centre  of  the  new  province  and  occupied  that  position 
for  many  years.  The  Legislature  of  the  Province  of  Canada  after 
the  Union  Act  of  1841  held  three  sessions  there  from  14th  June, 
1841,  until  5th  March,  1844,  when  the  seat  of  government  was  re- 
moved and  the  settlements  west  on  the  lake  secured  in  natural  course 
the  trade  that  from  humble  beginnings  has  to-day  a  volume  ever 
increasing  with  the  great  tide  of  population. 

Kingston  is  situated  at  the  head  of  the  St.  Lawrence  at  the  outlet 
of  Lake  Ontario.  The  harbor  is  an  excellent  one,  and  ships  of  any 
size  can  be  accommodated  in  perfect  safety.  In  1672  the  place  was 
known  as  Cataraqui,  and  visited  by  De  Courcelles,  the  Governor  of 
New  France.  He  was  succeeded  by  Count  Frontenac  and  the  fort 
was  built  by  him  and  named  in  his  honor.  This  fort  was  held  by 
the  French  until  1758,  when  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British 
under  Colonel  Bradstreet. 

In  1783  a  number  of  Loyalist  emigrants  under  Captain  Michael 
Grass  settled  in  what  is  now  the  Township  of  Kingston.  The  sur- 
veys were  made  by  Deputy  Surveyor  John  Collins.  The  town  plot 
was  laid  out  in  1783.  The  first  picture  of  Cataraqui  showing  what 
was  left  of  Fort  Frontenac,  was  made  in  1783.  It  was  styled  "a 
southwest  view  of  Cataraqui  drawn  by  James  Peachey,  Ensign  60th 
Regiment.  Takan  by  Louis  Kotte." 

About  1788  Kingston  was  selected  by  the  British  Government  as 
a  military  and  naval  station — the  principal  one  on  Lake  Ontario. 
Surveyor  Collins  in  his  report  to  Lord  Dorchester  did  not  favor  the 
selection  of  Kingston  as  the  best  situation  for  vessels,  "as  it  lies 
open  to  the  lake  and  has  not  very  good  anchorage  near  the  entrance, 
so  that  vessels  are  obliged  to  run  a  good  way  up  for  shelter  from  the 
most  frequent  winds."  Collins,  therefore,  proposed  Carleton  Island, 
as  it  "afforded  the  best  shelter."  Lord  Dorchester  thought  other- 
wise, and  Haldimand  Cove  between  Point  Frederick  and  Point 
Henry,  opposite  Kingston,  was  selected  as  the  site  for  the  dockyard 
and  storehouses. 

In  1792,  according  to  Mrs.  Simcoe,  the  town  contained  about 
fifty  houses.  In  1795,  the  Duke  de  la  Rochefoucauld-Liancourt  vis- 
ited Kingston  and  wrote  that  it  had  "about  129  or  130  houses." 

Mrs.  Simcoe  made  three  pictures  of  the  town,  dated  1792,  1794 
and  1796.  The  first  is  a  sketch  from  the  water-front,  evidently  made 
from  a  distance.  The  view  in  1794  is  al?o  from  the  water-front,  but 
shows  distinctly  the  principal  houses,  including  the  steeple  and  belfry 

111 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

of  the  first  church,  known  from  1820  as  St.  George's,  while  her  latest 
picture  was  taken  from  a  point  between  Fort  Frederick  and  Main 
Street,  Kingston,  looking  toward  the  northwest. 

Mon.  2nd — We  went  across  the  bay  this  morning  to  see  the  shipyard. 
There  are  two  gunboats  lately  built  on  a  very  bad  construction.  Coll. 
Simcoe  calls  them  the  "  Bear  "  and  the  "  Buffalo,"  as  they  are  so  unscien- 
tifically built,  and  intends  they  shall  aid  in  carrying  provisions  to  Niagara. 
The  present  establishment  of  vessels  on  this  lake  consists  of  the  "  Onon- 
daga "  and  "  Mississaga,"  named  after  the  Indian  tribes,  top-sailed 
schooners  of  about  80  tons,  and  the  "Caldwell,"  named  after  Coll.  Cald- 
well,  which  is  a  sloop.  They  transport  all  the  troops  and  provisions  from 
hence  for  the  garrison  of  Niagara,  Forts  Erie  and  Detroit.  They  land 
them  at  Niagara,  from  whence  those  for  the  higher  ports  are  forwarded 
nine  miles  across  a  portage  by  land  to  Fort  Chippawa,  three  miles  above 
the  Falls  of  Niagara,  from  whence  they  are  embarked  in  boats  and 

KEY  TO  ILLUSTRATION  ON  OPPOSITE  PAGE. 

No.  1  represents  a  small  house,  but  of  the  owner  or  occupant  nothing 
is  known.  It  is  near  the  site  of  the  old  Recollet  Church,  which  appears  to 
have  been  removed  or  destroyed. 

No.  2  represents  the  Commandant's  house,  which  was  on  the  line  of 
Queen  Street  not  far  from  Bagot  Street. 

No.  3  represents  the  barracks  built  by  Count  Frontenac  inside  the  fort, 
the  walls  of  which  are  designated  by  No.  4.  The  barracks  appear  to  have 
been  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  fort.  The  wall  of  the  fort  in  the  original 
picture  is  partly  dark  shaded  and  partly  light.  The  light  part  represents 
the  south-west  side  of  the  wall,  the  dark  the  south-east  side. 

No.  5  is  a  round  tower  built  within  the  bastion  at  the  corner  of  the 
fort.  This  was  the  south  bastion.  The  tower  was  built  of  strong  rubble 
masonry,  and  continued  in  existence  until  1832,  when  it  was  razed  to  the 
ground.  The  site  of  the  tower,  indicated  by  the  circular  stone  work,  is 
distinctly  visible  to-day  in  the  barrack  square  close  to  the  ball  alley. 

No.  6  is  a  three-cornered  building,  which  was  built  of  stone  in  front 
of,  and  a  protection  to,  the  entrance  to  the  fort,  which  was  on  the  north- 
east side,  facing  Barriefield.  One  angle  pointed  towards  Barriefield,  and 
the  building  was  constructed  in  this  shape  in  order  to  divert  the  fire  of 
guns  which  might  be  directed  against  the  gate. 

No.  7  represents  a  storehouse  with  a  wharf  in  front  of  it,  which 
formerly  belonged  to  Mr.  Forsythe. 

No.  8,  further  east,  represents  the  storehouse  owned  by  the  Honorable 
Richard  Cartwright,  with  a  wharf  in  front  of  it.  The  adjoining  building 
also  probably  belonged  to  him.  Beyond  this  storehouse  the  land  runs  to 
a  point  and  then  sweeps  into  the  left,  forming  a  bay,  which  has  now 
been  nearly  all  filled  up,  on  which  are  the  Montreal  Transportation  Com- 
pany's shipyard,  Anglin's  mill  and  other  works.  The  other  houses  are 
probably  engineers'  or  officers'  quarters,  or  houses  occupied  at  the  time 
by  inhabitants. 

NOTE. — This  drawing  or  sketch  was  taken  twenty-five  years  after 
the  bombardment  of  the  fort  by  Bradstreet  (1758),  and  the  walls 
bear  traces  in  the  picture  of  the  bombardment.  Bradstreet's  batteries 
were  placed  one  to  the  west  of  the  house  marked  "I,"  another  on  the 
high  ground  behind  the  house  marked  "2,"  No.  1  being  about  the 
site  of  the  present  market-place,  and  the  other  on  the  high  ground, 
on  Queen  Street,  near  the  corner  of  Bagot  Street. 

It  is  claimed  by  some  old  inhabitants  of  Kingston  that  Forsythe's 
wharf  was  at  the  foot  of  Brock  Street  where  Folger's  Wharf  now  is. 

112 


GOVERNOR  TAKES  OATHS  OF  OFFICE 

carried  18  miles  to  Fort  Erie,  from  whence  vessels  take  them  to  Detroit, 
at  the  extremity  of  Lake  Erie,  which  is  about  250  miles  in  length. 

Coll.  Simcoe  went  on  board  the  "  Onondaga,"  and  says  we  shall  find 
tolerable  accommodation  in  her  when  we  go  to  Niagara,  though  he  is  much 
disposed  to  row  round  Lake  Ontario  in  a  boat,  but  everybody  about  us 
opposes  the  scheme  as  tedious  and  dangerous.  Probably  those  who  are  of 
the  party  do  not  like  the  trouble  of  such  a  voyage,  and  I  suppose  Coll. 
Simcoe  will  go  at  last  in  a  vessel  rather  than  oppose  these  Sybarites  of 
Italy,  devoted  to  luxury  and  pleasure. 


A  DISTANT  VIEW  OF  KINGSTON  IN  1792. 

(From  a  Dratving  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

I  gathered  a  very  sweet  and  pretty  white  flower,  the  petals  of  the 
texture  of  orange  flowers,  five  petals,  ten  chives,  tipped  with  orange  colour, 
the  style  pink,  the  leaves  a  light  green,  growing  from  the  root,  eight  or 
ten  flowers  on  short  foot  stalks  on  a  long  stalk,  seed  vessel  round  and 
small.  Some  ladies  came  to  see  me  in  the  evening.  I  walked. 

Tues.  3rd — There  are  Mississaga  Indians  here.  They  are  an  unwar- 
like,  idle,  drunken,  dirty  tribe.  I  observe  how  extremes  meet.  These 
uncivilized  people  saunter  up  and  down  the  town  all  day  with  the  ap- 
parent nonchalance,  want  of  occupation  and  indifference  that  seems  to 
possess  the  London  beaux  in  Bond  Street. 

Sat.  7th — I  walked  this  evening  in  a  wood  lately  set  on  fire  by  some 
unextinguished  fires  being  left  by  some  persons  who  had  encamped  there, 
which  in  dry  weather  often  communicates  to  the  trees.  Perhaps  you  have 
no  idea  of  the  pleasure  of  walking  in  a  burning  wood,  but  I  found  it  so 
great  that  I  think  I  shall  have  some  woods  set  on  fire  for  my  evening 
walks.  The  smoke  arising  from  it  keeps  the  mosquitoes  at  a  distance, 
and  where  the  fire  has  caught  the  hollow  trunk  of  a  lofty  tree  the  flame 
issuing  from  the  top  has  a  fine  effect.  In  some  trees  where  but  a  small 
flame  appears  it  looks  like  stars  as  the  evening  grows  dark,  and  the  flare 
and  smoke,  interspread  in  different  masses  of  dark  woods,  has  a  very 
picturesque  appearance,  a  little  like  the  poet  Tasso's  "  enchanted  wood." 

Sun.  8th — The  Governor  went  to  church  and  took  the  oaths  prepar- 
atory to  acting  as  Governor. 

NOTE. — The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  Minutes  of  the  first 
Executive  Council  of  Upper  Canada  held  on  July  8th,  1792,  from 

115 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

the  records  of  the  Archives  Department  at  Ottawa,  with  reference  to 
Governor  Simcoe  taking  the  oaths. 

"UPPER  CANADA. 

"Kingston,  July  8th,  1792. 

"His  Excellency  John  Graves  Simcoe,  Esqr.,  Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor  of  the  Province  of  Upper  Canada,  Colonel  commanding  the 
forces  in  the  said  Province,  etc.,  etc.,  etc.,  having  appointed  the 
Protestant  Church,  as  a  suitable  place,  for  the  reading  and  publishing 
of  His  Majesty's  Commissions.  He  accordingly  repaired  thither 
attended  by 

The  Honourable  William  Osgoode,  Chief  Justice, 

The  Honourable  James  Baby, 

The  Honourable  Peter  Russell, 

together  with  the  Magistrates,  and  principal  inhabitants,  when  the 
said  Commission  appointing  His  Excellency,  (GUY)  LORD  DOR- 
CHESTER Captain  General  and  Governor-in-Chief,  etc.,  etc.,  etc., 
of  Upper  and  Lower  Canada,  and  also  the  Commission  appointing 
the  said  John  Graves  Simcoe,  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  Province 
of  Upper  Canada  were  solemnly  read  and  published. 

"His  Excellency  then  took  the  Oaths  mentioned  in  an  Act  of 
Parliament  passed  in  the  first  Year  of  His  late  Majesty  King  George, 
as  altered  and  explained  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  6th  year  of  the 
reign  of  his  present  Majesty,  and  also  made,  and  subscribed  the 
declaration  mentioned  in  an  Act  of  Parliament  made  in  the  Twenty- 
fifth  year  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  for  preventing  the  dangers 
which  may  happen  from  Popish  Recusants.  The  Oath  for  the  due 
execution  of  his  place  and  trust  was  administered  to  him  by  the  Hon. 
W.  Osgoode,  Chief  Justice,  and  he  also  took  the  Oath,  required  by  an 
Act  passed  in  the  7th  and  8th  years  of  the  reign  of  King  William  III. 
to  be  taken  by  Governors  of  Plantations  to  do  their  utmost  that  the 
laws  relating  to  the  plantations  be  duely  observed." 

The  Protestant  church  referred  to  was  opened  in  1792.  The 
Synod  authorities  at  Kingston  state  that  the  earliest  minutes  of  the 
vestry  extant,  dated  1820,  designate  the  church  as  St.  George's.  In 
1827,  the  building  was  removed  to  make  room  for  business  houses, 
and  the  present  St.  George's  Cathedral  was  erected  on  the  corner  of 
King  and  Johnson  Streets.  It  was,  however,  called  St.  George's 
Church  until  1862,  when  Kingston  was  made  the  seat  of  a  diocese. 
The  Cathedral  was  enlarged  in  1892,  the  deep  chancel  and  apse  being 
added.  In  1899  the  building  was  destroyed  by  fire,  only  the  walls 
remaining.  It  was  rebuilt  in  1900. 

The  British  Whig  office,  306-10  King  Street,  formerly  called 
Church  Street,  now  stands  where  the  first  church  stood.  Its  front 
was  where  the  rear  wall  back  of  the  printing  office  rests.  The  King- 
ston News  of  some  years  ago  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the 
inception  and  erection  of  the  church,  which  reads: 

116 


THE  FIRST  CHURCH  IN  KINGSTON. 

"On  April  15th,  1791,  a  meeting  was  held  in  Kingston  (the  record 
does  not  say  where,  but  most  probably  in  the  house  of  Dr.  Stuart), 
to  consider  the  desirability  of  building  a  church  and  to  procure  the 
necessary  means  to  do  so.  Besides  the  Rev.  John  Stuart,  there  were 
present  at  this  meeting,  Richard  Cartwright,  senior;  Richard  Cart- 
wright,  junior;  James  Richardson,  Joseph  Anderson  and  Archibald 
Thomson.  It  was  decided  to  build  a  church  and  the  contract  was 
awarded  to  Archibald  Thomson,  who,  by  the  way,  was  not  a  churchman, 
but  a  Presbyterian,  though  probably  not  a  very  strict  one,  as  for  the 
short  period  he  remained  in  Kingston  after  the  church  was  opened 
he  was  a  pewholder  therein.  Archibald  Thomson  was  of  Scottish 
birth,  having  been  born  at  Moudie  Hill,  Canobie,  Dumfriesshire. 
About  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  he  and  two  of  his  brothers, 
Andrew  and  David,  emigrated  to  the  American  colonies  when  they 
were  very  young  men,  probably  just  before  the  Revolutionary  War. 
At  its  close  they  left  the  United  States  and  settled  in  Upper  Canada, 
Archibald,  the  one  we  are  referring  to,  coming  to  Kingston.  He 
was  father  of  Hugh  C.  Thomson,  an  active  business  and  newspaper 
man  in  Kingston  from  1814  until  his  death  in  1834.  Early  in  1793 
Archibald  Thomson,  who  was  a  U.  E.  Loyalist,  left  Kingston  and 
removed  to  Markham,  where  he  resided  until  his  death.  He  is  buried 
in  St.  Andrew's  churchyard  in  Scarborough,  some  twelve  miles  from 
Toronto. 

"Another  meeting  was  held  on  October  25th,  1791,  at  which  was 
present  the  Rev.  J.  Stuart,  Messrs.  Christopher  Georgen,  James 
Richardson,  Win.  Atkinson  and  Archibald  Thomson.  Resolutions 
were  unanimously  passed  as  follows : 

"First — That  the  money  subscribed  for  the  purpose  of  erecting 
a  church  should  be  immediately  applied  to  that  use. 

"Second — In  consequence  of  the  foregoing  resolutions,  a  car- 
penter is  to  be  employed  to  erect  a  frame  building  of  40x32  feet  in 
the  clear.  To  weather  board,  shingle  and  floor  it;  also  to  ceil  and 
sash  it. 

"As  has  been  stated  Archibald  Thomson  was  the  builder,  and  the 
total  cost  was  less  than  $600.  The  church  was  opened  in  March,  1792. 
Among  the  first  pewholders  were  Peter  Smith,  William  Coffin,  Allen 
McLean,  John  Baird,  Robert  Macaulay,  Neil  McLean,  two  pews; 
Honorable  Richard  Cartwright,  who  also  had  two  pews.  The  rent  of 
the  pews  was  $4  a  year,  or  one  pound,  Halifax  currency.  In  1795, 
Robert  Macaulay  and  Peter  Smith  were  the  churchwardens.  Nothing 
occurred  to  mar  the  harmony  that  existed  among  the  congregation. 
That  was  before  the  days  of  surpliced  choirs  and  choral  services,  and 
when  it  would  have  been  an  unheard-of  innovation  had  the  clergyman 
preached  a  sermon  less  than  half  an  hour  in  duration.  As  regards 
the  musical  arrangements  a  hundred  years  since,  at  first  there  was  a 
barrel  organ,  which  some  little  time  after  was  replaced  by  a  manual. 
Whether  the  organist  was  accompanied  by  a  bass  viol  and  flute,  history 
sayeth  not,  but  it  is  more  than  likely  such  was  the  case. 

117 


DIAEY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 


-"On  June  13th,  1795,  a' public  meeting  was  held  of  the  parish- 
ioners, when  so  much  had  the  congregation  increased  that  it  was 
resolved  to  extend  the  church  by  putting  in  a  gallery,  and  this  was 
done." 

.  The  son  of  Hugh  €.  Thomson,  editor  of  the  Kingston  Herald,  was 
the  late  Rev.  C.  E.  Thomson  of  St.  Mark's  Church,  Toronto  Junction, 
who  in  1903  was  the  president  of  the  TJ.  E.  Loyalists  Association  of 
Ontario.  K.  G.  Thomson  of  Norwood,  Ont.,  is  a  son  of  the  late  Rev. 
C.  E.  Thomson,  and  a  great-grandson  of  Archibald  Thomson. 

Tues.  10th — The  Council  met.  I  walked  this  evening.  Some  Indians 
arrived  from  a  distance.  They  fired  a  salute  with  muskets,  which  was 
returned  with  a  cannon. 

Wed.  llth — The  Indians  came  to  dance  before  the  Governor,  highly 
painted  and  in  their  war  costume,  with  little  clothing.  They  were  near 
enough  to  the  house  for  me  to  hear  their  singing,  which  sounded  like  a 
repetition  in  different  dismal  tones  of  he',  he',  'he',  and  at  intervals  a 
savage  whoop.  They  had  a  skin  stretched  on  sticks  imitating  a  drum, 
which  they  beat  with  sticks.  Having  drank  more  than  usual,  they  con- 
tinued singing  the  greatest  part  of  the  night.  They  never  quarrel  with 
white  people  unless  insulted  by  them,  but  are  very  quarrelsome  amongst 
themselves.  Therefore,  when  the  women  see  them  drunk  they  take  away 
their  knives,  and  hide  them  until  they  become  sober. 

This  evening  I  walked  through  a  pretty  part  of  the  wood  and  gathered 
capillaire  and  a  very  pretty,  small  flower,  five  white  petals  of  an  exceeding 
firm  texture,  the  purple  short  chives  which  support  the  anther  of  the 
flower  proceeding  from  a  purple  rim  that  surrounds  a  very  prominent  green 
seed-vessel,  on  long  foot  stalks;  from  the  top  of  the  stalk  the  leaves  spear 
shaped,  sawed,  polished,  of  the  darkest  green,  and  almost  as  firm  as  holly; 
numerous.  It  grows  in  very  shady  places,  an  evergreen.  I  _was  driven 
home  by  the  bite  of  a  mosquito  through  a  leather  glove.  My  arm  inflamed 
so  much  that  after  supper  I  fainted  with  the  pain  while  playing  at  chess 
with  Capt.  Littlehales. 

Fri.  13th — Mrs.  Macaulay,  the  garrison  surgeon's  wife,  drank  tea  with 
me.  She  is  a  naval  officer's  daughter,  and  a  very  agreeable  woman. 

NOTE. — Dr.  James  Macaulay,  born  in  Scotland  in  1759,  entered 
the  army  as  surgeon  to  the  33rd  Regiment,  about  1785.  He  came 
to  Canada  with  the  Queen's 
Rangers  and  was  stationed  at 
Kingston  and  Niagara.  Sub- 
sequently he  received  the  ap- 
pointment as  deputy  inspector- 
general  of  hospitals.  In  the 
army  list,  1795,  he  is  given  as 
"Surgeon  James  M'Aulay,  on 
garrison  duty."  Dr.  Macaulay 
was  twice  married,  first  in 
1790  to  Elizabeth  Tuck  Hay- 
ter,  and  second  in  1817  to 
Rachel  Crookshank.  He  had 
issue  by  his  first  wife  only, 
namely: — (Hon.)  John  Sim- 
coe,  Colonel  of  the  Royal  Engineers;  (Sir)  James  Buchanan,  first 
Chief  Justice  of  Common  Pleas,  Upper  Canada;  George,  a  barrister- 

118 


DK.  MACAULAY. 


MBS.    MACAULAY. 


ONE  OF  THE  PIONEER  MISSIONARIES 

at-law ;  and  Allan,  a  clergyman ;  Elizabeth,  who  married  Judge 
Hagerman;  Mary,  who  married  John  William  Gamble,  of  Wood- 
bridge;  Ann,  who  married  Dr.  Peter  Diehl,  and  Sarah  Hayter,  who 
became  the  wife  of  John  S.  Cartwright.  Two  sons  of  the  last  named- 
are  James  S.  Cartwright,  K.C.,  Master  in  Chambers,  Toronto,  and 
John  R.  Cartwright,  K.C.,  Deputy  Attorney-General.  Of  the 
daughters  of  Honorable  John  Simcoe  Macaulay,  Sarah  Sophia  Bing- 
ham,  Henrietta  Emma  and  Mrs.  Purcell  (Elizabeth  Mary)  live  in 
England. 

When  Toronto  became  the  seat  of  government  instead  of  Niagara, 
Dr.  Macaulay  settled  in  the  former  place  with  his  family. .  Teraulay 
Street,  Toronto,  preserves  the  last  syllable  of  Hayter  and  the  two 
last  syllables  of  Macaulay. 

Sat.  14th — Mr.  Scadding  caught  a  beautiful  green  grass  snake,  which 
was  harmless.  After  keeping  it  a  day  or  two  he  let  it  go.  The  way  of 
clearing  land  in  this  country  is  cutting  down  all  the  small  wood,  pile  it 
and  set  it  on  fire.  The  heavier  timber  is  cut  through  the  bark  five  feet 
above  the  ground.  This  kills  the  tree,  which  in  time  the  wind  blows  down. 
The  stumps  decay  in  the  ground  in  the  course  of  years,  but  appear  very 
ugly  for  a  long  time,  though  the  very  large,  leafless  white  trees  have  a 
singular  and  sometimes  a  picturesque  effect  among  the  living  trees.  The 
settler  first  builds  a  log  hut  covered  with  bark,  and  after  two  or  three 
years  raises  a  neat  house  by  the  side  of  it.  This  progress  of  industry  is 
pleasant  to  observe. 

Sun.  15th — I  went  to  church  twice.  The  clergyman,  Mr.  Stuart,  is 
from  the  United  States.  He  preached  good  sermons  with  an  air  of  serious 
earnestness  in  the  cause  which  made  them  very  impressive. 

NOTE. — Dr.  John  Stuart  was  born  in  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  in  1740. 
He  was  originally  a  Presbyterian,  but  later  sought  for  admission 
in  the  Church  of  England,  was  admitted  to  Holy 
Orders  in  1770  and  appointed  as  a  missionary  to 
the  Indians  at  Fort  Hunter  on  the  Mohawk  River 
for  eight  years.  He  translated  part  of  the  New 
Testament  and  Book  of  Common  Prayer  into  the 
language  of  the  Mohawks;  came  to  St.  Johns  in 
the  Province  of  Quebec  in  October,  1781;  was 
appointed  chaplain  to  the  garrison  at  Kingston 
and  arrived  there  in  August,  1785,  and  was  the 
first  incumbent  of  the  Protestant  church  in  King- 
ston, which  was  erected  in  1791.  He  died  in 
Kingston  on  15th  August,  1811,  and  was  succeeded 
as  Archdeacon  by  Dr.  John  Strachan,  afterwards 

n  f\  •   j  *   rf*  i  TJ_    •  i      j_       f  rCE\ .  JOHN  oTUAHT. 

first  Bishop  of  Toronto.  It  is  somewhat  of  a  co- 
incidence that  Bishops  Strachan  and  Bethune,  like  Archdeacon 
Stuart,  were  sons  of  parents  who  belonged  to  the  Church  of  Scotland. 
Archdeacon  Stuart's  son,  Rev.  George  O'Kill  Stuart,  was  born  at 
Fort  Hunter  in  1776;  ordained  in  1800  by  the  Bishop  of  Quebec, 
and  in  1801  was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  York,  where  he  became  first 
rector  of  the  Anglican  church,  now  St.  James  Cathedral,  Toronto.  He 
was  appointed  rector  at  Kingston  in  1812,  was  the  Bishop  of  Quebec's 

119. 


DIAEY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

"official"  in  Upper  Canada  and  later  Archdeacon  of  York,  and  was 
the  first  Dean  of  the  See  of  Ontario.     He  died  in  1862. 

Mon.  16th — We  sailed  half  a  league  this  evening  in  a  pretty  boat  of 
Mr.  Clark's,  attended  by  music,  to  Garden  Island,  opposite  Kingston. 

NOTE. — Garden  Island  is  immediately  west  of  Wolfe  Island, 
whose  western  portion  is  opposite  Kingston.  In  French  maps  it  is 
called  "He  aux  Forets." 

Wed.  18th— We  sailed  towards  the  mills. 

NOTE.— The  grist  mills,  "Kingston  Mills,"  were  in  1782-3  built  by 
Mr.  Robert  Clarke  for  the  Government,  some  five  miles  back  from 
Kingston,  at  the  site  of  the  first  lock  of  the  Rideau  Canal,  where 
a  waterfall  furnishes  the  only  water  power  in  this  vicinity. 

Thurs.  19th — The  Governor  went  to-day  to  see  Carleton  Island,  nearly 
opposite  the  shore  from  Kingston,  where  there  were  extensive  fortifica- 
tions, now  dismantled.  The  island  was  afterwards  discovered  to  be 
within  American  territory.  Returned  at  six  with  wild  raspberries,  which 
were  exceedingly  fine.  Carleton  Island  abounds  with  them  and  straw- 
berries and  plums,  while  the  air  is  esteemed  so  healthy  that  the  people  go 
there  to  get  rid  of  the  ague,  a  complaint  which  is  very  prevalent  in  this 
province.  The  flowering  raspberry  grows  wild  here,  and  bears  a  very 
insipid,  flat  fruit.  Mr.  Fisher,  of  the  Engineers,  is  here  on  his  way  to 
Quebec  from  Niagara.  He  showed  us  some  beautiful  sketches  he  has 
taken  of  the  Falls  of  Niagara. 

NOTE. — Carleton  Island  lies  near  Wolfe  Island,  opposite  King- 
ston, close  to  the  south  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

Sat.  21st — There  are  no  rides  about  Kingston,  or  any  pleasant  walks 
that  we  'have  met  with.  Sailing  is,  therefore,  our  only  amusement.  To-day 
we  were  prevented  by  rain  from  going  to  the  mills  on  the  Cataraqui.  It  is 
in  the  interest  of  the  people  here  to  have  this  place  considered  as  the  seat 
of  Government.  Therefore  they  all  dissuade  the  Governor  from  going  to 
Niagara,  and  represent  the  want  of  provisions,  houses,  etc.,  at  that  place, 
as  well  as  the  certainty  of  having  the  ague.  However,  he  has  determined 
to  sail  for  Niagara  to-morrow. 

Mon.  23rd — At  eight  this  morning  we  went  on  board  the  "Onondaga" 
— (Commodore  Beaton,  the  naval  officer  who  has  charge  of  the  armed 
vessels  on  Lake  Ontario.  We  sailed  with  a  light  wind.  A  calm  soon 
succeeded,  and  we  anchored  seven  miles  from  Kingston.  The  men  who 
navigate  the  ships  on  this  lake  have  little  nautical  knowledge,  and  never 
keep  a  log  book.  This  afternoon  we  were  near  aground.  The  lake  is 
beautifully  transparent.  We  saw  the  bottom  very  plainly. 

Tues.  24th — A  wet  day  and  a  foul  wind.  I  played  at  chess  or  at  cards 
all  the  day.  Our  Devonshire  steward  was  surprised  to  find  in  the  ship's 
steward  an  acquaintance,  Charles  Trump,  who  had  left  Kentisbeare,  the 
village  six  miles  west  from  Wolford,  16  years  ago. 

Wed.  25th — A  clear,  cold  day;  made  little  way — a  head  wind.  I  saw 
the  spray  of  the  Falls  of  Niagara  rising  like  a  cloud.  It  is  40  miles 
distant. 


120 


CHAPTER     X. 
MRS.  SIMCOE'S  ARRIVAL  AT  NIAGARA. 

Thursday,  the  twenty-sixth  of  July,  1792,  was  a  day  that  created 
no  little  stir  in  the  little  hamlet  at  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River, 
which  was  to  become  the  home,  at  least  for  a  few  years,  of  the  first 
Governor  of  Upper  Canada. 

Navy  Hall  had  not  any  charms  from  an  architectural  standpoint. 
It  was  about  as  primitive  in  construction  as  the  log  cabin  of  the 
pioneers.  Still,  the  group  of  four  frame  buildings  that  Mrs.  Simcoe 
closely  scanned  as  the  "Onondaga"  came  up  the  river,  had  at  least 
the  merit  of  being  well  built  in  every  detail. 

The  best  picture  extant  of  Navy  Hall  is  that  of  1792  made  by 
Mrs.  Simcoe,  the  original  of  which  is  now  in  the  Royal  Library  in  the 
British  Museum.  There  is  another  view,  a  water-color,  made  by 
Mrs.  Simcoe,  13th  Setember,  1794,  on  board  the  sloop-of-war 
"Mississaga,"  while  lying  just  outside  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara 
River. 

The  group  of  buildings  known  as  Navy  Hall  stood  on  the  brink 
of  the  river,  just  below  Fort  George,  the  fortification  commenced  in 
1796,  whose  guns  commanded  the  old  French  fort  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river.  The  buildings  were  four  in  number,  as  shown  in 
maps  and  drawings  of  1792-6-9,  and  also  on  a  map  made  by  Sur- 
veyor-General Chewett  in  1804.  One  building  only  is  shown  in  the 
plans  of  1817-19-35.  There  is  only  one  map,  dated  1851,  on  which  it 
is  not  called  Navy  Hall.  The  old  building  shown  in  the  picture  was 
removed  about  1862  from  its  original  site  to  its  present  location. 
When  the  terminus  of  the  Southern  Railway,  now  the  Michigan 
Central,  was  to  be  changed  it  was  found  that  the  tracks  would  go 
partly  through  the  oak  grove  and  this  old  building.  In  order  to  save 
the  relic  of  olden  time,  permission  was  obtained  from  the  Govern- 
ment to  remove  the  building.  It  was  then  removed  back  into  the 
enclosure  of  Fort  George  near  the  old  Ferry  House.  In  doing  so  the 
building  was  placed  parallel  with  the  river  instead  of  an  end  slanting 
to  it.  An  old  lady,  a  Mrs.  Quade,  who  was  born  at  Niagara  in  1804, 
and  lived  there  till  1829,  in  visiting  the  town  in  later  years  said  to 
her  children  as  they  passed  the  old  building,  "There  is  the  old  Par- 
liament House,"  so  that  there  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  the  building 
is  one  of  the  four  buildings  comprising  Navy  Hall  in  1792-6. 

The  principal  building,  longer  than  the  others,  stood  nearly  at 
right  angles  to  the  river,  while  the  remaining  three  were  to  the 
northwest  and  parallel  to  the  river.  These  buildings  were  built  for 
the  use  of  the  commanders  of  the  sloops-of-war  on  Lake  Ontario, 
not  so  much  for  residential  purposes  as  for  the  housing  of  stores  to 

121 


DIAEY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

supply  the  vessels  when  cruising  on  the  western  part  of  the  lake. 
The  principal  supplies  for  these  vessels  were,  however,  kept  at 
Kingston,  the  colonial  naval  centre  in  early  days. 

The  site  is  fixed  beyond  doubt  by  the  report  of  Captain  Gother 
Mann  of  the  Eoyal  Engineers,  who  on  22nd  September,  1789,  after 
reporting  as  to  the  condition  of  Fort  Niagara  on  what  is  now  the 
American  side  of  the  river  stated  that  "a  survey  of  the  heights  also, 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  about  Navy  Hall,  has  been  made 
with  a  view  to  ascertain' the  best  system  of  fortifying  the  same  so  as 
to  establish  a  permanent  post  there,  and  which  might  also  counteract 
the  designs  of  an  enemy  in  his  attack  on  the  Fort  of  Niagara." 
Gother  Mann  further  reported  on  1st  March,  1790,  that  "the  ground 
above  Navy  Hall,  if  chosen  for  a  principal  post,  will  admit  a  wall 
of  good  capacity,  but,  as  it  will  be  retired  from  the  river,  there  must 
be  subordinate  batteries  on  the  banks  thereof  to  command  the  passage ; 


ONLY  REMAINING  BUILDING  OF  NAVY  HALL  GKOUP. 

(From  a  Drawing  [1887]  in  the  J.  Rois  Robertson  collection.) 

it  will  be  about  sixteen  hundred  yards  distant  from  the  Fort  at  Niag- 
ara, which,  though  within  the  distance  of  annoying  an  enemy,  could 
not  prevent  his  carrying  on  operations  against  the  Fort."  The  result 
of  this  recommendation  was  the  erection  of  Fort  George,  the  earth- 
works of  which  are  still  standing  and  have  received  but  little  care 
from  the  Dominion  Government. 

The  buildings  of  Navy  Hall  did  not  favorably  impress  the  Duke 
de  -la  Rochefoucauld-Liancourt  during  his  visit  to  Niagara  in  1795. 
In  his  writings  he  refers  to  the  Governor's  residence,  where  he  was 
a  guest  for  some  time,  as  a  "small,  miserable  wooden  house,  which 
was  formerly  occupied  by  the  commissaries."  There  seems  to  be  no 
doubt  that  all  the  buildings  comprising  Navy  Hall  except  one  which 
is  still  standing,  .with  alas,  part  of  the  roof  fallen  in,  were  burnt 
by  the  Americans  in  1813. 

122 


FIEST  VIEW  OF  NAVY  HALL. 


Thurs.  26th  July — At  nine  this  morning  we  anchored  at  Navy  Hall, 
opposite  the  garrison  of  Niagara,  which  commands  the  mouth  of  the 
river.  Navy  Hall  is  a  house  built  by  the  Naval  Commanders  on  this  lake 
for  their  reception  when  here.  It  is  now  undergoing  a  thorough  repair  for 
our  occupation,  but  is  still  so  unfinished  that  the  Governor  has  ordered 
three  marquees  to  be  pitched  for  us  on  the  hill  above  the  house,  which  is 
very  dry  ground  and  rises  beautifully,  in  parts  covered  with  oak  bushes. 

A  fine  turf  leads  on  to  woods,  through  which  runs  a  very  good  road 
leading  to  the  Falls.  The  side  of  our  hill  is  terminated  by  a  very  steep 
bank  covered  with  wood,  a  hundred  feet  in  height  in  some  places,  at  the 
bottom  of  which  runs  the  Niagara  River.  Our  marquees  command  a 
beautiful  view  of  the  river  and  the  garrison  on  the  opposite  side,  which, 
from  its  being  situated  on  the  point,  has  a  fine  effect,  and  the  poorness  of 
the  building  is  not  remarked  at  this  distance,  from  whence  a  fine  picture 
might  be  made. 

The  Queen's  Rangers  are  encamped  within  half  a  mile  behind  us. 
In  clear  weather  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  may  be  discerned.  The 
trees  which  abound  here  are  oak,  chestnut,  ash,  maple,  hickory,  black 
walnut. 

NOTE. — Here  Fort  George  stands.  Below,  the  path  slopes  from 
Fort  George  to  the  river.  The  part  "covered  with  oak  bushes"  is 
now  (1911)  called  Paradise  Grove.  The  last  troops  to  occupy  Fort 
George  were  the  Eoyal  Canadian  Bifles,  about  1856. 

Sun.  29th — There  is  no  church  here,  but  a  room  has  been  built  for  a 
Freemasons'  Lodge,  where  divine  service  is  performed. 

NOTE. — There  has,  for  many  years  past,  been  a  difference  in 
opinion  as  to  the  exact  site  of  the  building  in  Niagara  occupied  by 
the  Masonic  Lodge  in  1792-3.  It  is  contended  by  some  that  on  the 
northwest  corner  of  King  and  Prideaux  Streets,  a  tavern  was  built, 
and  next  to  it  the  Freemasons'  Hall.  This  is  borne  out  by  the  fact 
that  the  Land  Board  of  Niagara  in  1791  gave  permission  to  erect 
a  tavern  at  the  east  corner  of  the  town,  near  the  river,  and  a  Masonic 
Lodge  next  to  it.  On  the  other  hand  however,  in  the  Crown  Lands 
Department  in  a  list  of  the  lots  of  1795,  lot  33  is  marked  "The  Lodge" 
and  in  another  document  lot  33  (northwest  corner  of  King  and 
Prideaux  Streets)  is  marked  "Freemasons'  Lodge."  The  site  of  the 
present  lodge  is  one  block  from  the  first  lodge,  and  it  might  be 
that  although  the  Land  Board  gave  permission  to  build,  the  hall 
may  not  have  been  erected  there.  It  is  practically  an  unsolved  mys- 
tery where  the  lodge  met  the  first  two  years,  but  certain  it  is  that 
in  1792  there  was  a  Freemasons'  Lodge,  and  both  tradition  and 
the  two  documents  mentioned  point  to  the  north  side  of  the  lower 
end  of  King  Street  as  the  place  of  meeting. 

Mo/i.  30th — At  eight  this  morning  we  set  off  in  caliches  to  go  to  the 
Falls,  fourteen  miles  from  hence.  We  stopped  and  breakfasted  at  Mr. 
Hamilton's,  a  merchant  who  lives  two  miles  from  here  at  the  landing 
(Queenstown),  where  the  cargoes  going  to  Detroit  are  landed  and  sent  by 
land  eleven  miles  to  Fort  Chippawa. 

We  had  a  delightful  drive  through  the  woods  on  the  bank  of  the 
river,  which  is  exceedingly  high  the  whole  way.  As  we  approached  the 
landing  I  was  struck  with  the  similarity  between  these  hills  and  the 
banks  and  those  of  the  River  Wye  about  Symond's  Yat  (the  name  of  a 

125 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

rising  ground  or  eminence  overlooking  the  Wye),  and  the  lime  rock 
near  Whitchurch,  both  in  Herefordshire,  which  differs  very  little,  except 
in  the  superior  width  and  clearness  of  the  Niagara  River. 

NOTE. — Honorable  Robert  Hamilton,  son  of  Rev.  John  Hamilton, 
was  the  Deputy  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  the  First  Provincial 
Grand  Lodge  of  Freemasons,  under  Mr.  William  Jarvis.  He  was  a 
merchant  at  Niagara,  a  member  of  the  Land  Board  in  1791  at  that 
place,  a  member  of  the  first  Executive  Council  of  the  civil  govern- 
ment in  1792,  and  a  man  prominent  in 
affairs  in  that  part  of  Upper  Canada.  He  was 
also  the  first  judge  of  the  district  of  Nassau. 
Lord  Dorchester  formed  western  Canada  into  four 
districts,  of  which  one  was  Nassau,  and  it  was 
located  between  the  river  Trent  on  the  east  and 
I  ^ny^-j  I,  a  line  extending  from  Long  Point  north  from  the 
>^Bdi|  western  boundary,  which  included  the  Niagara 
i[  '",  ^n  ^m\  peninsula. 

*   ^™  In  1797,  the  lodges  at  Niagara  elected  Hamil- 

ton as  Provincial  Grand  Master  in  the  place  of 
Mr.  William  Jarvis,  although  the  records  after 
that  date  give  the  name  of  the  latter  officer 
as  continuing  in  the  office  to  which  he  had  been  appointed. 
Mr.  Simon  McGillivray,  however,  in  a  letter  which  he  wrote 
to  the  Grand  Master  of  England,  in  1822,  states  that  after  Mr. 
Jarvis  removed  to  York  "the  lodges  at  Niagara  held  a  meeting 
and  elected  the  late  Robert  Hamilton  Provincial  Grand  Master," 
but,  he  added,  "Jarvis  retained  his  warrant."  It  is  possible  that  the 
lodges  did  this  in  1797  and  at  a  subsequent  meeting  in  1799-1800 
re-elected  Jarvis,  for  in  a  circular,  dated  29th  March,  1803,  "R.  W. 
Bro.  William  Jarvis,  Esq.,  G.  Master,"  is  given. 

During  the  American  revolution,  Mr.  Hamilton,  in  partnership 
with  Mr.  (afterwards  Hon.)  Richard  Cartwright,  established  a  store 
on  Carleton  Island,  near  the  military  post  which  was  known  as  Fort 
Haldimand,  and  carried  on  an  extensive  trade  with  the  Indians. 
Soon  after  the  close  of  the  war  Mr.  Hamilton  removed  to  Queenston, 
and  was  appointed  one  of  the  local  judges,  having  Lieutenant-Colonel 
John  Butler  as  his  colleague  on  the  bench. 

Captain  Patrick  Campbell,  who  visited  Niagara  in  December, 
1790,  says: 

"Mr.  Robert  Hamilton,  a  gentleman  of  the  first  rank  and  property 
in  the  neighbourhood,  and  one  of  the  Governor's  Council,  came  also  to 
wait  on  me  and  invite  me  to  his  house,  an  honour  I  readily  embraced. 
He  and  Mrs.  Hamilton  were  so  very  obliging  as  to  go  along  with  me  in 
their  oak  sled  to  see  the  Grand  Falls  of  Niagara." 

Hamilton  built  a  large  stone  residence  at  Queenston,  a  brewery 
and  a  warehouse.  In  1792  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Legis- 
lative Council  for  the  new  Province  of  Upper  Canada,  an  office  he 
retained  until  his  death.  For  some  time  he  distinguished  himself 
in  connection  with  Mr.  Cartwright,  his  old  partner,  also  a  member, 

126 


MRS.  SIMCOE  AT  QUEENSTOWN 

by  opposing  Government  measures,  thereby  incurring  Lieutenant- 
Governor  Simcoe's  lively  displeasure.  In  one  of  the  Governor's  des- 
patches he  denounces  Hamilton  as  an  "  avowed  republican,"  but  when 
it  was  hinted  that  certain  privileges  would  be  taken  away  from  them 
the  opposition  ceased.  Governor  Simcoe  acknowledged  that  he  had 
received  much  valuable  information  from  Mr.  Hamilton  respecting 
.the  commerce  of  the  country  and  particularly  the  Indian  trade  of  the 
far  West. 

Mr.  Hamilton  married  about  1786,  Catherine  (Askin)  Robertson, 
widow  of  John  Robertson.  There  were  five  children  by  this  marriage; 
Robert,  of  Queenston;  (Hon.)  George,  who  in  1812  moved  to  Bur- 
lington Bay,  where  he  became  the  founder  of  the  city  of  Hamilton ; 
James,  of  London;  Alexander  and  Samuel.  Hamilton  took  as  his 


RESIDENCE  OF  HONORABLE  ROBERT  HAMILTON  ON  THE 
NIAGARA  RIVER  ROAD,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

second  wife  Mary  (Herkimer)  McLean,  widow  of  Neil  McLean,  and 
had  issue,  Joseph,  Peter  Hunter  and  (Hon.)  John,  of  Kingston,  one 
of  whose  sons,  Clark  Hamilton,  was  formerly  collector  of  the  port  of 
Kingston ;  while  another  was  the  late  Judge  J.  M.  Hamilton,  County 
Judge  of  Halton. 

Mon.  30th — Mr.  Hamilton  has  a  very  good  stone  house,  the  back 
rooms  overlooking  on  the  river.  A  gallery,  the  length  of  the  house,  is  A 
delightful  covered  walk,  both  below  and  above,  in  all  weather.  After  an 
excellent  breakfast  we  ascended  an  exceedingly  steep  road  to  the  top  of 
the  mountain,  which  commands  a  fine  view  of  the  country  as  far  as  the 
garrison  of  Niagara  and  across  the  lake.  From  hence  the  road  is  entirely 
flat  to  the  Falls,  of  which  I  did  not  hear  the  sound  until  within  a  mile  of 

127 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

them.  They  are  heard  at  Navy  Hall  before  the  rain  when  the  wind  is 
easterly,  though  the  Falls  are  to  the  S.W.  of  Niagara.  The  fall  is  said 
to  be  but  170  feet  in  height.  The  river  previously  rushes  in  the  most 
rapid  manner  on  a  declivity  for  three  miles,  and  those  rapids  are  a  fine 
sight.  The  fall  itself  is  the  grandest  sight  imaginable  from  the  immense 
width  of  waters  and  the  circular  form  of  the  grand  fall,  to  the  left  of 
which  is  an  island,  between  it  and  the  Montmorency  Fall,  so  called  from 
being  near  the  size  of  the  fall  of  that  name  near  Quebec.  A  few  rocks 
separate  this  from  Fort  Schlosser  Fall,  on  the  American  side  of  the  river, 
which,  passing  over  a  straight  ledge  of  rock,  has  not  the  beauty  of  the 
circular  form  or  its  green  colour,  the  whole  centre  of  the  circular  fall 
being  of  the  brightest  green,  and  below  it  is  frequently  seen  a  rainbow. 

NOTE. — By  the  interposition  of  two  islands  the  river  Niagara  is 
separated  into  three  falls,  that  of  the  Great  Horseshoe  on  the  west 
or  British  side,  and  those  of  Fort  Schlosser  and  Montmorency  on  the 
eastern  or  American  side.  The  three  falls,  with  the  islands,  describe 
a  crescent. 

Mon.  30th — I  descended  an  exceedingly  steep  hill  to  get  to  the  Table 
Rock,  from  whence  the  view  of  the  Falls  is  tremendously  fine.  Men  some- 
times descend  the  rocks  below  this  projecting  point,  but  it  is  attended 
with  great  difficulty  and  perhaps  little  picturesque  advantage.  The 
prodigious  spray  which  arises  from  the  foam  at  the  bottom  of  the  fall 
adds  grandeur  to  the  scene,  which  is  wonderfully  fine,  and  after  the  eye 
becomes  more  familiar  with  the  objects  I  think  the  pleasure  will  be  greater 
in  dwelling  upon  them.  After  taking  some  refreshment  on  Table  Rock, 
we  went  three  miles  to  Chippawa  Fort,  admiring  the  rapids  all  the  way. 
The  Chippawa  River,  which  falls  here  into  the  St.  Lawrence,  is  a  dull, 
muddy  river  running  through  a  flat,  swampy  country. 

NOTE. — The  St.  Lawrence  Eiver  may  be  said  to  rise  at  the  source 
of  the  St.  Louis,  which  flows  into  Lake  Superior.  It  receives  different 
names  in  different  parts  of  its  course.  Between  Lake  Superior  and 
Huron  it  is  called  the  St.  Mary;  between  Lake  Huron  and  Erie,  the 
St.  Clair  and  Detroit ;  between  Lake  Ontario  and  Erie,  the  Niagara ; 
and  between  Lake  Ontario  and  the  ocean  it  takes  the  name  of  St. 
Lawrence.  The  part  of  the  river  below  Kingston  is  called  some- 
times "The  Lake  of  the  Thousand  Islands." 

People  cross  from  Chippawa  to  Fort  Schlosser,  but  great  caution 
is  necessary,  the  current  is  so  extremely  strong,  and  if  they  did  not  make 
exactly  the  mouth  of  the  Chippawa  the  force  of  the  water  below  it  would 
inevitably  carry  them  down  the  Falls  without  redress.  Eight  soldiers, 
who  were  intoxicated,  met  with  this  accident  in  crossing  the  river  some 
years  since.  Their  bodies  were  taken  up  entire  some  distance  below  the 
Falls.  An  Indian  was  asleep  in  his  canoe  near  Fort  Schlosser.  The  canoe 
was  tied  to  a  tree;  some  person  cut  the  rope;  he  did  not  wake  until  the 
canoe  had  got  into  the  strong  current.  He  found  all  his  endeavours  to 
paddle  ineffectual,  and  was  seen  to  lay  himself  down,  resigning  himself  to 
his  fate,  and  was  soon  carried  down  the  Fall. 

In  the  evening  we  returned  to  Mr.  Hamilton's  and  slept  there.  I 
suffered  exquisite  pain  all  the  day  from  a  mosquito  bite,  which  the  extreme 
heat  increased,  and  at  night  my  sleeve  was  obliged  to  be  cut  open.  I  did 
not  see  any  rattlesnakes,  though  many  ladies  are  afraid  to  go  to  the  Table 
Rock,  as  it  is  said  there  are  many  of  these  snakes  near  it.  There  are 
crayfish  in  very  small  pools  of  water.  Mr.  McDonnell  said  that  pounded 
crayfish  applied  to  the  wound  was  a  cure  for  the  bite  of  a  rattlesnake. 

Tues.  31st — Returned  to  dine  in  our  marquee.  Information  is  received 
from  Prince  Edward  that  he  will  be  here  the  20th  of  August,  which  will 

128 


FORMING  NEW  FRIENDSHIPS 

prevent  our  going  to  Detroit  immediately,  as  the  Governor  had  intended. 
Here  are  numbers  of  winged  grasshoppers.  They  are  hard,  scaly  and 
ugly  as  rhinoceros,  and  the  colour  of  dead  leaves.  The  high  grounds 
above  Navy  Hall  are  so  covered  with  them  that  the  whole  field  appears 
in  motion. 

Wed.  Aug.  1st— We  dined  with  Major  and  Mrs.  Smith  (the  Major  was 
afterwards  the  Colonel  of  the  regiment).  He  is  in  the  5th  Regt,  and 
commands  the  garrison.  Lt.  Smith,  his  son,  is  married  to  a  beautiful 
Irish  woman.  A  great  many  officers  of  the  5th  are  married.  Though  the 
buildings  look  so  well  from  the  other  side,  I  found  the  quarters  very 
indifferent. 

Mrs.  Smith  has  two  tame  racoons.  They  resemble  a  fox,  are  exceed- 
ingly fat  animals,  with  bushy  tails.  It  is  remarkable  that  they  have  a 
joint  in  the  nose.  When  they  eat  they  use  their  fore  feet,  as  monkeys  do. 
I  also  saw  a  flying  squirrel,  which  I  did  not  admire.  Its  tail  was  like  a 
rat's,  and  the  eyes  very  large.  I  thought  the  ground  squirrel  much  prettier. 
The  black  squirrel  is  large  and  quite  black.  It  is  as  good  to  eat  as  a 
young  rabbit. 

NOTE. — Major  John  Smith,  afterwards  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
Fifth  Foot,  was  commandant  of  the  fortress  of  Niagara,  where  he  died 
in  1795.  His  son,  Lieutenant  Smith,  was  subsequently  Sir  D.  W. 
Smith,  Surveyor-General,  Upper  Canada.  Mrs.  Simcoe  speaks  of 
Lieutenant  Smith  being  married  "to  a  beautiful  Irish  woman,"  who 
was  his  first  wife,  Anne,  daughter  of  John  O'Reilly,  Ballykilchrist, 
County  Longford,  Ireland.  The  5th  Regiment  of  Foot  or  Northum- 
berland Fusiliers,  of  which  Lieutenant-Colonel  Smith  was  in  com- 
mand at  Niagara  from  1792  until  his  death,  was  formed  in 
1674,  fought  in  Flanders  and  also  in  the  war  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion. In  1774  the  regiment  landed  in  Boston;  in  1778  was  in 
various  parts  of  the  West  Indies  and  returned  to  England  in  1781. 
In  1787  the  regiment  embarked  for  Canada  and  in  1790  was  quar- 
tered at  Detroit,  whence  it  was  removed  in  June,  1792,  to  Niagara. 
It  was  here  reviewed  by  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  Kent  and  General 
Simcoe,  who  reported  to  the  commander-in-chief  that  it  was  the 
"most  fit  for  actual  service."  The  regiment  remained  at  Niagara 
till  that  fort  was  given  up  to  the  Americans  in  1796,  when  it  was 
ordered  to  Quebec.  In  1797  it  returned  to  England. 

Fri.  3rd — The  Governor  set  out  this  evening  to  sleep  at  the  Landing 
(Queenstown),  intending  to  go  to-morrow  to  Fort  Erie,  thirty  miles.  Mr. 
Talbot  (Gov.  Simcoe's  private  secretary)  drove  me  to  the  Landing,  and  we 
returned  to  supper  at  Navy  Hall.  We  saw  a  fine  bald  eagle  on  the  wing. 

Sat.  4th — The  Governor  returned  to  dinner  quite  unexpectedly,  having 
heard  that  the  vessels  he  meant  to  have  seen  had  sailed  from  Fort  Erie 
to  Detroit.  Mrs.  Macaulay  drank  tea  with  me.  The  weather  is  so  exceed- 
ingly hot  that  I  am  quite  oppressed  by  it,  and  unable  to  employ  myself. 
I  am  sorry  I  have  not  a  thermometer  to  ascertain  the  degree  of  heat.  We 
have  a  very  large  bower,  composed  of  oak  boughs,  in  which  we  dine,  it 
being  greatly  cooler  than  a  tent.  We  like  this  place  much  better  than 
Kingston.  Mrs.  Hamilton  and  her  sister,  Miss  Askin,  daughters  of  Coll. 
John  Askin,  a  wealthy  merchant  of  Detroit,  dined  with  us.  They  are 
French  women  from  Detroit. 

NOTE. — John  Askin,  or  Erskine,  a  kinsman  of  John   Erskine, 
Earl  of  Mar,  who  headed  the  revolt  in  1715  in  favor  of  the  Old  Pre- 
131 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

tender,  emigrated  to  America  about  1759  and  was  a  merchant  at 
Albany.  About  1762-3,  he  with  others,  came  with  supplies  to  the 
relief  of  the  British  besieged  by  Pontiac  at  Detroit.  In  1764,  he 
went  as  King's  Commissary  to  Michillimackinac  and  in  1780  returned 
to  Detroit  to  engage  in  trade.  In  1787  Askin  was  captain  of  militia 
for  Detroit,  in  1796  was  lieutenant-colonel  of  militia  for  the  Wes- 
tern District,  and  in  1801,  was  colonel  in  the  same  corps.  He  was 
also  one  of  the  magistrates  of  the  District.  On  the  evacuation  of 
Detroit  by  the  British  in  1796  he  came  to  Canada. 
Colonel  Askin  married  first  a  French  lady  whose 
name  cannot  be  ascertained  and  by  her  had  three 
children,  John,  Catherine  (Robertson)  who  be- 
came the  wife  of  Honorable  Robert  B.  Hamilton, 
of  Niagara,  and  Madeleine,  who  married  Dr. 
Richardson,  of  the  Queen's  Rangers.  The  chil- 
dren by  his  second  wife,  Marie  Archange  Barthe, 
were  Therese,  who  married  Colonel  Thomas  Mc- 
Kee,  son  of  Colonel  Alexander  McKee,  Deputy 
Superintendent-General  of  Indian  Affairs;  Ar- 
c  change,  married  Colonel  Meredith,  of  the  Royal 

Artillery,  afterwards  commandant  at  Halifax; 
Adelaide,  married  Colonel  Elijah  Brush,  of  the  Michigan  Militia; 
Charles,  captain  in  Colonel  Clark's  Lincoln  Militia,  married  Monique 
Jacobs;  James,  colonel  of  militia;  Alexander,  artillery  driver,  1812- 
15;  Eleanor,  married  Richard  Pattison,  of  Sandwich,  captain  of 
militia.  A.  H.  Askin,  of  "Strabane,"  near  Walkerville,  is  a  son  of 
Charles;  J.  "Wallace  Askin,  of  Sandwich,  is  a  grandson  of  James, 
while  William  Johnson  McKee,  of  Windsor,  is  a  great-grandson  of 
Therese  Askin. 

Mon.  6th — The  Queen's  Rangers  are  encamped  at  the  Landing,  and 
are  employed  in  building  huts  near  the  river  to  live  in  next  winter.  It  is 
a  very  picturesque  place.  The  Governor  crossed  the  water  from  thence, 
and  ascended  a  very  steep  road  to  see  the  remains  of  the  French  fort  at 
Lewis-ton. 

From  thence  there  is  a  fine  view  towards  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario, 
50  miles  distant.  Near  this  fort  are  tumuli,  or  earth  mounds,  where 
bones  have  been  dug  up,  and  it  is  supposed  to  have  been  an  Indian  bury- 
ing place.  I  received  some  shaddocks,  a  species  of  orange,  from  the  West 
Indies,  which  I  considered  an  excellent  fruit. 

NOTE. — The  original  corps  known  as  "Rogers'  Rangers"  was 
raised  in  Connecticut  and  the  vicinity  of  New  York  by  Colonel 
Robert  Rogers,  under  whom  it  served  in  the  war  with  the  French. 
Their  strength  was  at  one  time  400,  all  Americans  and  all  Loyalists. 
In  1776  Rogers  was  appointed  Governor  of  Michillimackinac.  He 
was  succeeded  in  his  command  of  the  Rangers  by  Colonel  French 
and  afterwards  Major  Weymess,  whom  Major  Simcoe  succeeded.  The 
latter  reorganized  the  corps  as  the  Queen's  Rangers  and  it  fought 
under  him  in  the  war  of  the  American  Revolution.  It  was  dis- 
banded in  1782.  The  Queen's  Rangers  of  Niagara  history  were  a 

132 


A  STORM  AT  NIAGARA 

different  body.  They  were  raised  in  Canada  from  old  soldiers  of 
the  regular  regiments,  strengthened  by  a  detachment  of  ex-soldiers 
from  English  regiments,  which  was  drafted  and  came  out  to  Canada 
with  William  Jarvis,  the  first  Provincial  Secretary,  in  1792.  They 
were  camped  at  Queenstown  in  1792  and  in  August  of  1793  the 
two  divisions  of  the  regiment  were  stationed  at  York,  now  Toronto. 
The  British  War  Office  ordered  the  disbandment  of  the  regiment  in 
1802.  There  was  a  Masonic  Lodge  in  this  regiment,  known  as  No. 
3  on  the  Provincial  Masonic  Register.  Provincial  Secretary  Jarvis, 
who  was  the  Provincial  Grand  Master  for  Upper  Canada,  issued  a 
warrant  establishing  this  lodge  in  1793.  It  ceased  work  in  1802  at 
the  time  the  regiment  was  disbanded. 


NIAGARA  RIVER  AT  QUEENSTOWN,  1792. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simeoe.) 

Fri.  17th — I  desired  to  drive  out  last  evening,  though  everybody  fore- 
told an  approaching  thunderstorm,  which  indeed  came  on  with  great 
violence  when  we  were  half  way  to  the  Landing.  I  feared  that  the  lightning 
would  make  the  horse  run  away,  but  he  only  started  at  every  flash.  The 
recollection  that  it  was  my  own  determination  brought  me  into  danger  was 
very  unpleasant.  However,  we  got  back  safe  and  in  time  to  save  the 
marquees  from  being  blown  down.  Mr.  Grey's  and  Mr.  Talbot's  were  over- 
set, but  the  Governor  preserved  ours  by  having  the  cords  held  until  the 
violence  of  the  storm  was  over.  The  tents  were  so  near  the  river  that  we 
were  afraid  they  would  be  blown  into  it. 

We  were  iso  cold  and  wet  we  were  glad  to  drink  tea.  It  was  quite 
dark,  and  too  windy  to  allow  of  our  burning  candles,  and  when  the  forked 
flashes  of  lightning  enlightened  the  air  I  was  able  to  drink  tea.  I  wrapped 
myself  up  in  two  or  three  great-coats,  and  intended,  if  the  tent  was  blown 
down,  to  take  shelter  under  the  great  dinner  table.  The  rain  and  wind 
did  not  cease  for  two  hours,  and  we  had  no  means  of  drying  our  clothes 
and  were  obliged  to  sleep  in  a  wet  tent.  However,  we  have  not  caught 
cold. 

135 


DIAEY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

1  received  a  very  pretty  set  of  Nankeen  china  from  England  to-day, 
and  in  an  hour  after  it  was  unpacked  the  temporary  kitchen  (an  arbour 
of  oak  boughs)  took  fire,  and  in  the  hurry  of  moving  the  china  it  was 
almost  all  broken.  Luckily  the  weather  was  calm,  or  the  tents  might 
have  taken  fire.  We  are  in  daily  expectation  of  the  Prince.  The  canvas 
houses  are  not  arrived  or  Navy  Hall  finished,  and  the  dilemma  has  been 
whether  to  give  him  the  marquees  for  his  residence  or  the  damp  house. 
We  have  decided  to  take  the  latter  ourselves,  so  here  we  came  in  a  cold, 
blowing,  dismal  night. 

I  sat  by  myself  in  a  miserable,  unfinished,  damp  room,  looking  on 
the  lake,  where  it  blew  quite  a  gale,  the  "  Bear,"  a  gunboat,  tossing  about 
terribly,  and  not  a  cheerful  thought  passing  through  my  mind,  when  1 
had  the  happiness  of  receiving  a  letter  from  you,  which  raised  my  spirits, 
though  for  some  hours  after  that  pleasure  I  felt  more  dejected  than  at  all 
other  times,  from  the  recollection  of  absence  from  my  friends. 

The  "  Bear,"  a  Government  sloop,  is  arrived  from  Irondiquet  Bay 
and  the  Genesee  River,  both  in  New  York  State,  and  brought  two  families 
from  Carolina  to  settle  in  this  province.  They  have  had  a  most  terrible 
passage,  being  obliged  to  stay  under  the  hatchway  almost  all  the  time. 

Sat.  18th — We  crossed  the  river;  from  a  green  bank  had  a  very  pretty 
view  of  Navy  Hall. 

Mon.  20th— Cold  weather.     We  walked. 

Tues.  21st — Very  cold;  we  walked  by  the  side  of  the  lake,  which  is 
quite  like  a  sea  beach,  only  the  marine  smell  is  wanting. 

Tues.  Sept.  18th — Prince  Edward  came  here  the  21st  of  August.  He 
went  to  the  Fort  at  Niagara,  and  when  a  salute  was  fired  the  Governor 
was  standing  very  near  the  cannon,  and  from  that  moment  was  seized 
with  so  violent  a  pain  in  his  head  that  he  was  unable  to  see  the  Prince 
after  that  day,  and  kept  his  room  for  a  fortnight.  He  had  a  gouty  pain  in 
his  hand  before,  and  it  is  supposed  the  shock  of  the  cannon  firing  so 
immediately  above  him  fixed  the  disorder  in  his  head.  He  is  now 
recovered,  and  has  a  pain  in  his  foot,  which  perhaps  would  more  effectu- 
ally relieve  his  head  if  it  were  more  violent. 

Lord  Garlies  and  Capt.  Markham  stayed  here  a  week,  but  the  Governor 
was  not  well  enough  to  see  them  more  than  once. 

NOTE. — Prince  Edward,  afterwards  Duke  of  Kent,  arrived  at 
Navy  Hall  to  visit  General  Simcoe,  August  21,  1792.  On  the  23rd 
he  went  to  Fort  Niagara  to  review  the  troops,  and 
on  the  26th  he  sailed  for  Kingston. 

George,  Viscount  Garlies,  was  the  eldest  son 
of  the  7th  Earl  of  Galloway.  He  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  "Winchelsea"  with  Sir  John  Jervis' 
fleet  in  the  West  Indies  and  was  mentioned  for 
distinguished  conduct.  He  became  8th  Earl  in 
November,  1806.  He  died  27th  March,  1834, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son  Eandolph. 

John  Markham,  second  son  of  William,  Arch- 
bishop of  York,  was  in  command  of  the  "Blonde" 
with  Jervis'  West  Indian  fleet  and  was  mentioned 
VISCOUNT  GARLIES  in  ^patc*168  31st  April,  1794,  for  distinguished 
conduct  in  the  attack  on  St.  Pierre. 

Wed.  19th— I  send  you  May  apple  seeds.  I  think  it  is  the  prettiest 
plant  I  have  seen;  the  leaves  extremely  large,  of  a  bright  green;  the 
flower  consists  of  five  white  petals  of  the  texture  of  orange  flowers,  but 
three  times  larger;  ten  yellow  chives  round  a  large  seed  vessel,  which 

136 


MAJOR  LITTLEHALES  VISITS  PHILADELPHIA 

becomes  a  fruit  of  the  colour  and  near  the  size  of  a  magnum  bonum  plum, 
the  seeds  resembling  a  melon.  The  flower  is  on  a  short  foot  stalk,  one  or 
two  sitting  between  the  leaves.  They  grow  near  the  roots  of  old  trees  in 
good  land.  The  fruit  is  ripe  in  August.  Manitou  means  the  "  Evil  Spirit " 
or  "Devil"  in  the  Iroquois  language;  Niche  is  "friend,"  and  sago  "How- 
do-you-do?"  These  are  the  Indian  words  I  have  learnt. 

Sun.  Nov.  4th — We  have  had  a  great  many  whitefish.  They  are  caught 
here  from  October  to  April.  In  summer  they  go  into  deeper  water.  They 
are  most  exquisitely  good.  We  all  think  them  better  than  any  other  fresh 
or  salt  water  fish;  they  are  so  rich  that  sauce  is  seldom  eaten  with  them, 
but  it  is  a  richness  that  never  tires,  it  is  of  so  delicate  a  kind.  They  are 
usually  boiled,  or  set  before  the  fire  in  a  pan  with  a  few  spoonfuls  of 
water  and  an  anchovy,  which  is  a  very  good  way  of  dressing  them.  The 
sturgeon  are  about  six  feet  long.  Those  that  are  caught  here  are  infinitely 
better  than  those  which  go  to  the  sea;  cooks  who  know  how  to  dress 
parts  of  them,  cutting  away  all  that  is  oily  and  strong,  make  excellent 
dishes  from  sturgeon,  such  as  mock  turtle  soup,  veal  cutlets,  etc.,  and  it 
is  very  good  roasted  with  bread  crumbs.  The  5th  Regt.  have  caught  100 
sturgeon  and  600  whitefish  in  a  day  in  nets. 

A  great  many  settlers  come  daily  from  the  United  States,  some  even 
from  the  Carolinas,  about  2,0'00  miles.  Five  or  six  hundred  miles  is  no 
more  considered  by  an  American  than  moving  to  the  next  parish  is  by  an 
Englishman.  Capt.  Duncan  has  sent  me  the  horse  I  rode  to  Mr.  Frazier's. 
Mr.  Talbot  went  with  Coll.  Butler  to  distribute  presents  to  the  Indians 
at  Buffalo  Creek,  near  Buffalo.  He  bought  a  very  pretty  fawn  skin  of  one 
of  them  for  me,  and  I  made  it  into  a  tippet.  He  also  brought  me  a  cake 
of  dried  hurtleberries  made  by  the  Indians,  which  was  like  Irwin's  patent 
black  currant  lozenges,  but  tastes  of  smoke. 

The  Indians  make  very  long  speeches  at  their  councils.  One  of  them, 
named  Cowkiller,  spoke  for  five  hours  in  a  late  debate  between  them  and 
the  people  of  the  United  States. 

I  have  seen  some  translations  of  speeches,  full  of  well-expressed,  fine 
sentiments,  marking  their  reliance  on  the  Great  Spirit.  They  appear  to 
have  great  energy  and  simplicity  in  their  speeches. 

NOTE. — Buffalo  Creek  is  south  of  Buffalo  City,  near  New  Am- 
sterdam, and  four  miles  above  Fort  Schlosser. 

Cowkiller  was  a  Seneca  Chief,  and  a  speaker  at  a  council  meeting 
February  7th,  1794,  at  Buffalo  Creek. 

iMon.  Nov.  5th — The  ships  sail  for  Kingston  this  week,  and  remain 
there  closed  up  by  the  ice  in  that  harbour  until  April.  The  Governor  will 
now  have  less  to  write,  and,  I  hope,  fewer  headaches.  The  winter  express 
indeed  will  afford  an  opportunity  of  sending  some  despatches.  It  arrives 
here  from  Quebec  late  in  January,  and  after  going  to  Detroit  returns  here; 
it  was  established  for  the  use  of  the  merchants,  and  travels  on  snowshoes, 
coming  by  way  of  Fort  Oswego.  Capt.  Stevenson  has  gone  to  England, 
and  Mr.  Littlehales  to  Philadelphia,  to  see  Mr.  Hammond,  the  British 
Ambassador  to  the  United  States. 

NOTE. — George  Hammond  was  sent  in  1791  by  Lord  Grenville, 
Secretary  for  Foreign  Affairs,  to  Philadelphia  to  act  as  Minister 
plenipotentiary  to  the  United  States.  Although  only  twenty-eight, 
Hammond  was  the  first  British  minister  accredited  to  the  United 
States.  Thomas  Jefferson,  the  American  Secretary  of  State,  re- 
garded his  arrival  as  a  "friendly  movement."  The  conflicting  claims 
of  the  two  countries  in  giving  effect  to  the  Treaty  of  1783  involved 

139 


DIARY  OP  MES.  SIMCOE 

Jefferson  and  Hammond  in  very  serious  controversy.  In  1795 
Hammond  left  America  to  become  Under-Secretary  at  the  Foreign 
Office  in  London. 

Tues.  Nov.  6th — I  have  met  with  a  beautiful  blue  flower  near  the 
river.  The  edges  of  the  petal  are  finely  sawed.  The  cardinal  flower,  which 
grows  in  the  wettest  and  most  shady  places,  is  a  beautiful  colour.  I 
am  told  the  Indians  use  the  roots  medicinally. 

I  send  you  some  seeds  of  the  wild  asparagus.  It  may  be  eaten  when 
very  young;  afterwards  it  becomes  poisonous.  The  milky  cotton  in  the 
seed  vessel  is  very  pretty,  and  makes  excellent  pillows  and  beds.  I  hope 
you  will  ;grow  enough  to  stuff  a  muff.  I  do  not  know  how  to  describe  the 
flower,  it  is  so  unlike  anything  I  ever  saw. 

Mon.  26th — We  have  had  very  little  snow,  which  is  melted;  the 
weather  is  again  as  the  autumn,  has  continued  very  mild  and  pleasant. 
Mr.  Bouchette  has  surveyed  Toronto  Harbour.  It  is  35  miles  from  hence 
across  the  lake. 

NOTE. — Commodore  Jean  Bouchette  was  horn  at  Quebec  on  the 
5th  July,  1736.  He  was  the  son  of  Marc  Bouchette,  who  held  a  Gov- 
ernment appointment  under  the  French  regime.  The  family  is  of 
Breton  extraction,  being,  according  to  tradition,  descended  from 
Jean  Bouchet,  who  wrote  chronicles  at  the  time  of  Joan  of  Arc. 
When  Sir  G-uy  Garleton  was  forced  by  the  Americans  to  withdraw 
from  Montreal  in  1775,  Bouchette  took  the  'Governor-General  and 
two  aides,  all  disguised  as  peasants,  in  an  open  boat  to  Quebec.  A 
flotilla  of  eleven  boats  was  captured  by  .the  enemy. 

In  1783,  Bouchette  was  placed  in  command  on  Lake  Ontario  and 
established  the  Naval  Docks  at  Kingston.  He  held  this  position  until 
his  death  in  1804.  There  appears  to  have  been  some  difference  of 
opinion  between  General  Simcoe  and  Commodore  Bouchette  as  to 
the  respective  merits  of  Toronto  and  Kingston  as  the  naval  base 
on  Lake  Ontario,  the  latter  declaring  that  as  the 
American  base  was  at  Sackett's  Harbour,  the 
British  forces  should  be  concentrated  at  Kingston. 
Bouchette  married  in  1772  Angelique  Duhamel. 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Joseph  Bouchette,  son  of 
the  Commodore,  began  his  career  in  the  provincial 
navy  under  his  father.  He  made  the  first  survey 
of  the  harbor  of  Toronto  in  May,  1793,  received 
his  appointment  as  second  lieutenant  in  the  fol- 
lowing year,  serving  in  the  navy  until  1796.  In 
1797,  he  commanded  an  armed  row-galley  which 
cruised  between  Montreal  and  Quebec.  His 
reports  seem  to  have  led  to  the  arrest  of  Colonel 
McLean,  afterwards  executed  as  a  spy.  He  took 
a  military  course  in  1800.  In  1804,  he  was 
appointed  Surveyor-General  of  Lower  Canada,  raised  a  regiment, 
Quebec  Volunteers,  in  1812,  and  in  1813  was  appointed  lieutenant- 
colonel  and  transferred  to  staff  and  intelligence  service.  In  August, 
1814,  Bouchette  left  for  England,  and  while  there  was  nominated 

140 


THAYENDANEGEA 

Surveyor-General  under  the  several  articles  of  the  Treaty  of  Ghent, 
for  establishing  the  boundary  between  the  United  States  and  His 
Majesty's  possessions  in  America.  He  published  maps  of  Canada  and 
two  works — "Topography  of  Lower  Canada,"  in  one  volume,  8vo, 
London,  1815;  and  "Topography  of  the  British  Dominions  in  North 
America,"  3  volumes,  4to,  London,  1831-2.  He  married  Adelaide, 
daughter  of  Charles  Chaboillez  of  the  North- West  Company,  and  had 
three  sons,  Joseph,  Deputy-Surveyor-General;  Frank,  68th  Light 
Infantry,  and  Robert  Shore  Milnes,  Commissioner  of  Customs  until 
1875.  The  surviving  representatives  of  the  family  in  Canada  are 
Errol  Bouchette,  F.R.S.C.,  of  Ottawa,  a  writer  on  economics  and 
sociology,  and  Robert  Shore  Milnes  Bouchette  of  Montreal. 

Wed.  28th — Went  to  the  Fort  this  morning.  Mrs.  Macaulay  drank 
tea  with  me,  and  I  had  a  party  at  whist  in  the  evening.  The  partition 
was  put  in  the  canvas  houses  to-day,  by  which  means  I  have  a  bedroom 
in  it  as  well  as  a  sitting-room.  These  rooms  are  very  comfortable,  about 
thirty  feet  long.  The  grates  did  not  answer  for  burning,  and  I  have  had 
a  stove  placed  instead,  though  as  yet  a  fire  has  not  been  wanted.  The 
weather  is  so  mild  that  we  have  walked  in  the  garden  from  eight  till  nine 
in  the  moonlight  these  last  two  evenings. 

Mon.  3rd  Dec. — The  Governor  went  to  the  Landing,  and  I  went  to 
the  Fort  to  see  Capt.  Darling's  stuffed  birds.  The  most  beautiful  of 
them  he  called  a  meadow  lark,  the  size  of  a  blackbird,  the  colours 
the  richest  yellow,  shaded  to  orange  intermixed  with  black;  the 
Recollect,  a  light  brown  with  a  tuft  on  its  head  and  the  tips  of  the 
wings  scarlet,  like  sealing  wax;  a  blackbird  with  scarlet  on  the  wings — 
they  abound  here  in  swamps;  a  scarlet  bird  called  a  King  bird,  the  size  of 
a  small  thrush;  a  bird  like  a  canary  bird,  but  the  colours  much  brighter; 
a  grand  Due  Owl.  Among  the  animals  there  was  a  skunk  like  a  pole- 
cat, with  black  and  white  marks. 

NOTE. — Henry  Darling  was  ensign  in  the  5th  Regiment  in  1780. 
In  April,  1783,  he  had  rank  as  lieutenant  in  the  army,  and  in  the 
regiment  the  following  September.  He  eventually  became  General. 
In  September,  1793,  he,  with  Lieutenant  Pilkington  of  the  Royal 
Engineers,  Lieutenant  Givins  of  the  Queen's  Rangers,  and  Mr.  Alex- 
ander Aitkin,  Deputy  Provincial  Surveyor,  accompanied  Governor 
Simcoe  to  Matchedash  Bay. 

iSun.  9th — Capt.  Brant  (Thayendanegea),  Chief  of  the  Six  Nations 
Indians,  dined  here.  He  has  a  countenance  expressive  of  art  or  cunning. 
He  wore  an  English  coat,  with  a  handsome  crimson  silk  blanket,  lined 
with  black  and  trimmed  with  gold  fringe,  and  wore  a  fur  cap;  round  his 
neck  he  had  a  string  of  plaited  sweet  hay.  It  is  a  kind  of  grass  which 
never  loses  its  pleasant  scent.  The  Indians  are  very  fond  of  it.  Its  smell 
is  like  the  Tonquin  or  Asiatic  Bean. 

NOTE. — Joseph  Brant's  Indian  name  Thayendanegea  denotes 
strength  and  is  translated  "Two  sticks  of  wood  bound  together."  He 
was  born  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio  in  1742,  where  his  parents  were 
engaged  in  a  hunting  expedition.  The  home  of  the  family  was  at 
Canajoharie  Castle,  the  central  of  the  three  castles  of  the  Mohawk? 
in  their  native  Mohawk  valley.  Brant's  father,  who  was  a  full- 
blooded  Mohawk  of  the  Wolf  tribe,  died  when  the  lad  was  quite 

141 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 


THAYENDANEGEA. 


young.  The  widow  married  a  second  time  an  Indian  whose  Christian 
name  was  Barnet,  hence  the- contraction  Brant.  Joseph  was  educated 
at  "Moor  Charity  School"  in  Lebanon,  Connecti- 
cut. He  accompanied  Sir  William  Johnson  with 
the  army  during  several  expeditions  against  the 
French,  and  took  part  in  many  of  the  encounters 
between  the  revolutionists  and  the  Indian  tribes. 
His  allegiance  to  Britain  so  provoked  the  Ameri- 
cans that  the  valley  of  the  Mohawks,  the  original 
home  of  Brant's  people,  suffered  more  than  any 
other  part  of  the  country  during  the  war. 

In  1776  he  visited  England  and  was  presented 
to  the  Court.  He  proudly  declined  to  kiss  the 
King's  hand,  but  remarked  that  he  would  gladly 
thus  salute  the  Queen.  While  in  England  he  was 
initiated  into  Freemasonry  in  "The  Falcon  Lodge" 
in  Princess  St.,  Leicester  Fields,  London,  and  presented  by  George 
III.  with  a  Masonic  apron. 

After  the  war,  he,  with  a  greater  part  of  the  Mohawks,  and  a 
number  of  Indians  from  the  other  five  tribes,  withdrew  to  Canada, 
where  the  Six  Nations  subsequently  received  grants  of  land  on  the 
Bay  of  Quinte  and  the  Grand  River.  Brant  had  a  grant  of  land  near 
Wellington  Square,  now  Burlington,  Ontario,  where  he  built  a  dwell- 
ing long  known  as  Brant  House. 

In  1785  through  his  efforts  a  wooden  church  was  erected  at  the 
Mohawk  village  near  Brantford,  where  was  placed  the  first  "  church- 
going  bell"  that  ever  tolled  in  Upper  Canada. 

In  1791-2,  when  Governor  Simcoe  arrived  as  Lieutenant-Governor 
of  Upper  Canada,  he  was  the  bearer  of  a  letter  of  introduction  to 
Brant  from  the  Duke  of 
Northumberland,  who 
had  been  adopted  by  the 
Mohawks  under  the  In- 
dian name  "Thorighwe- 
geri,"  or  the  Evergreen 
Brake.  This  name  in- 
volves the  very  pretty 
conceit  that  a  titled  house 
never  dies. 

In  the  years  1791-2 
Brant  was  energetically 
negotiating  for  peace  be- 
tween the  Indian  tribes 
and  the  United  States. 
Governor  Simcoe  on  his 


to  Detroit  in   1793 


BRANT   HOUSE  AT  BURLINGTON,   ONT. 

(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  fioss  Robertgon 
collection.) 


way  t( 

had  a  conference  with  him  at  the  Council  House  in  the  Mohawk 
village  on  the  Grand  Eiver.     An  important  conference  between  the 

142 


GOVERNOR  SIMCOE  WALKS  TO  BURLINGTON  BAY 

United  States  Commissioners  and  the  Indian  chief  was  held  at  Navy 
Hall,  Niagara,  and  a  subsequent  conference  was  held  at  Detroit.  He 
died  in  Brant  House  on  the  24th  November,  1807,  aged  64,  and  his 
remains  were  interred  in  a  vault  on  the  south  side  of  the  Mohawk 
Church  on  the  Grand  River. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  Brant,  although  a  chief  by  courtesy  and 
ability,  and  always  so  called,  was  not  such  by  descent. 

Mon.  10th — The  Governor  set  out  to  walk  to  Burlington  Bay  (now 
Hamilton,  Ont),  at  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario,  about  fifty  miles  from  hence. 

Sat.  15th — Mrs.  Macaulay  gave  me  an  account  of  a  subscription  ball 
she  was  at,  which  is  to  be  held  in  the  town  of  Niagara  every  fortnight 
during  the  winter.  There  were  fourteen  couples,  a  great  display  of  gauze, 
feathers  and  velvet,  the  room  lighted  by  wax  candles,  and  there  was  a 
supper  as  well  as  tea. 

Sun.  16th — I  sat  up  all  night  to  read  poems  of  Louis  Velez  de  Guevara, 
the  Spanish  poet  and  dramatist  (1570-1644),  and  the  history  of  Prince 
Ctesiphon,  and  some  pages  of  "Don  Quixote";  went  to  bed  in  my  clothes 
at  six,  rose  at  nine,  dressed,  breakfasted  at  ten. 

Mon.  17th — The  Governor  returned  at  five  to-day  from  his  walk  to 
Burlington  Bay.  The  shores  of  the  lake  are,  for  a  great  distance,  as  high 
as  the  Falls  of  Niagara,  and  several  small  rivers,  falling  from  that  height, 
make  picturesque  scenes.  He  was  delighted  with  the  beauty  of  the 
country  and  industry  of  the  inhabitants.  He  lodged  every  night  in  houses, 
where  he  was  accommodated  with  a  clean  room  and  a  good  fire. 

Sun.  23rd — I  left  Trojan,  my  hound,  in  my  room  while  I  went  to 
dinner,  and  he  tore  to  pieces  my  best  map  of  Canada  and  the  United 
States,  which  I  had  taken  great  pains  to  draw.  I  must  paste  it  together 
again,  but  its  appearance  is  spoiled.  The  Governor  made  some  very  pretty 
verses  on  the  occasion. 

Sat.  29th— Coll.  Simcoe  walked  to  the  Landing  and  Fort  Schlosser, 
opposite  Chippawa.  The  weather  is  so  mild  we  breakfasted  with  the  door 
open  into  the  garden. 

NOTE. — Simcoe  must  have  crossed  the  river  at  Queenston  Landing 
and  thence  walked  to  Fort  Schlosser  on  the  American  shore,  about 
a  mile  and  a  half  above  the  Falls,  almost  opposite  Chippawa.  It  was 
built  by  Colonel  Schlosser  of  the  British  Army  in  1760  to  replace 
the  second  Fort  Little  Niagara  which  had  been  burned  by  order  of 
General  Pouchot,  who  was  in  command  of  Fort  Niagara  in  1759  when 
the  British  besieged  the  greater  fort.  This  second  Fort  Little  Nia- 
gara was  a  short  distance  down  stream  from  the  site  of  Fort  Schlosser. 
Both  forte  were  at  the  upper  end  of  the  portage  which  ran  from 
Lewiston  to  that  point.  Queenston  and  Lewiston  were  called  the 
Lower  Landings,  and  Chippawa  and  Schlosser  the  Upper  Landings, 
on  the  Canadian  and  American  shores  respectively.  In  1792,  the 
first  Fort  Little  Niagara  (abandoned  in  1751)  was  merely  the 
remains  of  a  blockhouse,  and  the  second  Fort  Little  Niagara  but  a 
memory.  Fort  Schlosser,  an  earthwork  fort,  was  at  that  time 
garrisoned,  though  it  was  never  a  strong  fort.  The  eleven  block- 
houses (shown  on  the  map)  built  by  Montresor  in  1764,  were  in 
1792  in  a  dilapidated  condition,  and  when  given  up  in  1796  at  the 
end  of  the  "hold  over"  period,  were  almost  useless.  There  are  now 
no  remains  of  Fort  Schlosser,  which  stood  near  the  river  bank.  A 

143 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOB 


MAP  OF  NIAGARA 
RIVER 

Showing  First  Fort,  Little 
Niagara  at  C,  built  in 
"745- 

Second  Fort,  Little  Niagara, 
built  1751,  and  road  ex- 
tended to  it  in  1763. 

L-leven  Block  Houses  built 
along  Portage  Road  in 
1764  by  Montressor,  and 
new  part  of  Portage  Road, 
built  in  1764,  marked  with 
a  dotted  line  from  letter 
H  to  Fort  Schlosser. 


ESCARPMENT    LEWISTON 


NIAGARA 
FALLS 


CHIPPAWA 


B:« 

h  i 

«  & 

t/2 

O 
ft 

^ 

O 

W 

03 


144 


NEAR  FORT  SCHLOSSER 


stone  chimney,  however,  which  stood  a  short  distance  away,  still 

exists.     It  was  moved  about  a  hundred  feet  from  its  original  site 

and  re-erected  stone  by  stone  in  1896.     Mr.  Peter  A.  Porter  writes 

that  it  was,  prior  to  its  removal,  the  oldest  remaining  bit  of  perfect 

masonry  on  the  frontier.     It 

was  attached  to  the  barracks 

which   the    French   built   for 

Fort  Little  Niagara,  and  was 

later    attached    to    the    mess 

house  which  the  British  built 

in      connection      with      Fort 

Schlosser.    The  frame  of  that 

mess   house  was   prepared   at 

Fort   Niagara,   at   the   mouth 

of  the  river,  while  the  French 

were  in  possession  there.     It 

was    intended    for  a  Catholic 

church   but   the   British   took 

the  frame  to  the  site  of  the  new 

fort,    and    put    it    up    there. 

Judge    Porter    resided  in  the 

building    from  1806  to  1809. 

It  was  burned  in  1813.     The 

sketch  of    the    chimney    was 

made  for  Lossing  by  Colonel  Peter  A.  Porter,  of  Niagara  Falls,  N.Y., 

who  was  killed  in  the  American  'Civil  War.     He  was  the  father  of 

Mr.  Peter  A.  Porter  of  Niagara  Falls,  N.Y.,  who  has  done  much  for 

the  research  of  Niagara  Falls  history. 

The  map  gives  the  relative  position  of  the  existing  forts  on  the 
American  and  Canadian  sides  of  the  river  in  1792  and  the  sites  of 
first  and  second  Forts  Little  Niagara. 

Mon.  31st — A  large  party  at  dinner.  Mrs.  Hamilton,  wife  of  Hon. 
Robert  Hamilton,  came  to  see  me.  We  play  at  whist  every  evening. 
Coll.  Simcoe  is  so  occupied  during  the  day  with  business  that  it  is  a 
relaxation.  I  have  not.  lost  one  rubber  since  the  28th  of  November.  We 
usually  play  four  every  evening. 

Mr.  Chief  Justice  Osgoode  is  now  in  his  own  house,  which  is  so  near 
that  he  always  came  in  an  evening  to  make  up  our  party.  Till  within 
this  fortnight  he  resided  in  our  house,  not  having  been  able  to  meet  with 
any  that  suited  him,  and  Coll.  Simcoe  finds  him  a  very  agreeable  com- 
panion. 


REMAINS  NEAB  FORT  SCHLOSSEB. 


10 


145 


CHAPTER  XI. 
JOURNEYS  OF  THE  GOVERNOR. 

Shortly  after  Major  Littlehales'  return  from  Philadelphia  in 
January,  1793,  Governor  Simcoe  set  out  for  Detroit,  walking  with 
his  party  a  greater  part  of  the  way.  This  midwinter  trip,  which  to 
a  certain  extent  was  one  of  exploration,  occupied  about  five  weeks. 
Not  only  did  the  country  west  of  Niagara  impress  the  Governor 
favorably,  but  he  was  convinced  that  an  admirable  site  for  Canada's 
capital  would  be  New  London,  on  La  Tranche  (Thames)  River,  now 
London,  Ontario. 

Sun.  3rd  Feb.,  1793— Mr.  Littlehales  returned  from  Philadelphia.  He 
gave  the  following  journal  of  his  travelling  to  New  York:  "Crossed  the 
water  at  Queenstown  (the  Landing),  ascended  the  mountain  which  is  a 
part  of  the  Alleghany.  Six  miles  beyond  the  Landing  passed  the  Tus- 
carora  village,  and  forty  miles  farther  the  Tonawanda  village,  on  the 
Niagara  river,  which  runs  into  Tonawanda  Creek,  and  is  eleven  miles 
S.E.  of  Niagara  Falls.  The  Tonawanda  Creek  is  navigable  for  batteau 
nearly  to  its  source;  from  thence  through  a  thick  wood,  full  of  swamps 
and  creeks,  twenty  miles  to  Butter  Milk  Falls,  so  named  from  the  richness 
of  the  land,  to  the  Genesee  River,  95  miles  from  Niagara;  thence  to  Lake 
Cayuga  ferry  two  miles,  150  miles  from  Niagara,  to  Onondaga  Lake,  two 
miles  N.W.  of  Syracuse,  190  miles  to  Niagara."  Mr.  Littlehales  travelled 
late;  after  passing  Onondaga  Lake  lost  himself  in  the  woods,  and  was 
thirty  hours  without  provisions.  Whitestown,  in  Oneida  County,  N.Y., 
near  Fort  Stanwix,  on  the  Mohawk  River,  250  miles  from  Niagara,  has 
6,000  inhabitants.  Seven  years  ago  it  was  a  desert.  From  Whitestown  to 
Schenectady,  80  miles;  fine  meadows  called  German  Flats,  chiefly 
inhabited  by  Germans.  Schenectady,  N.Y.,  is  a  regular-built,  considerable 
town,  containing  3,000  Dutch.  It  is  300  miles  from  Niagara.  New  York 
is  finely  situated.  Mr.  Littlehales  stayed  there  but  two  days,  and  pro- 
ceeded to  Philadelphia,  600  miles  from  Niagara.  He  left  it  on  the  5th  of 
January,  and  on  the  9th  reached  Northumberland,  on  the  forks  of  the 
Susquehanna.  Each  town  has  a  thousand  inhabitants.  Mr.  Littlehales 
forded  the  Tioga  seven  times,  crossed  the  Conestoga  and  Conhocton  Rivers, 
then  went  60  miles  over  extremely  steep  ridges  of  the  Alleghany  mountains 
to  Williamsburgh,  in  the  Genesee,  and  arrived  at  Niagara  on  the  20th, 
which  by  this  route  is  but  400  miles  from  Philadelphia. 

NOTE. — There  are  no  entries  in  the  diary  from  31st  December, 
1792,  until  February  3rd,  1793.  On  the  16th  of  January,  1793, 
Katherine,  the  seventh  child  and  sixth  daughter  of  Mrs.  Simcoe,  was 
born  at  Niagara.  This  little  one  died  in  York  and  was  buried  in 
the  Military  Burying  Ground  west  of  the  old  Fort  on  the  17th  April, 
1794.  There  is  no  record  in  York  of  the  birth  or  baptism  of  this 
child.  There  was  no  parish  register  in  1793 ;  for  the  first  church  in 
York^wa's  not  erected  until  1802,  when  the  parish  was  constituted. 
Religious  services  at  that  time  were  held  in  the  barracks  of  the  Fort. 
There  is,  however,  a  record  in  the  parish  book  of  Dunkeswell.  which 

146 


I 

o  -> 


12 

s  5 

a  I 


147 


DIAEY  OF  MKS.  SIMCOE 

states  that  the  daughter  Katherine  was  born  16th  January,  1793, 
at  York  and  died  at  "two  years  of  age"  and  was  buried  in  York  on 
the  17th  of  April,  1795.  There  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  birth  date,  but 
the  burial  date  is  an  error.  Katherine  was  only  a  year  and  three 
months  old  at  the  time  of  her  death  and  burial,  which  took  place 
at  York  on  either  the  17th  or  18th  of  April,  1794,  while  Mrs.  Simcoe 
was  living  there.  It  could  not  have  occurred  in  April,  1795,  for 
Mrs.  Simcoe  was  then  at  Kingston. 

It  is  odd  that  Mrs.  Simcoe  makes  no  reference  in  the  diary  -to  the 
birth  of  her  daughter,  but  in  a  letter  to  Mrs.  Hunt,  dated  February, 
1793,  she  writes  "I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  my  little  Kath- 
erine goes  on  well;  eats,  sleeps  and  grows  fat,  so  I  hope  she  will  not 
feel  the  want  of  a  wet  nurse,  which  was  what  I  could  not  procure  for 
her.  Will  you  do  me  the  favor  to  join  with  Mrs.  Montagu,  in  ans- 
wering for  the  little  stranger.  I  shall  be  happy  further  to  cement 
our  friendship  by  this  mark  of  it.  I  have  already  had  her  privately 
baptized." 

The  Montagus  and  Gwillims  were  cousins.  Mrs.  Simcoe  evidently 
wished  both  Mrs.  Montagu  and  Mrs.  Hunt  to  "answer"  or  act  as  god- 
mothers for  the  little  Katherine. 

The  record  in  the  Dunkeswell  Parish  register  is  undoubtedly 
incorrect  as  regards  the  place  of  birth,  age  and  date  of  burial  of  the 
child.  It  was  probably  inserted  by  Mrs.  Hunt,  who  apparently 
forgot  that  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  in  Niagara  at  the  time  the  child  was 
born. 

A  small  headstone  of  marble  was  sent  from  Honiton  about  1795, 
before  the  Governor  left  Upper  Canada,  and  placed  at  the  head  of 
the  grave,  but  was  removed  by  persons  unknown,  prior  to  1850,  for 
it  was  not  standing  at  that  date. 

Mon.  Feb.  4th — The  Governor  set  off  from  hence  in  a  sleigh,  with 
six  officers  and  twenty  soldiers,  for  the  Mohawk  village  on  the  Grand 
River  (near  Brantford),  where  Capt.  Brant  and  twenty  Indians  are  to 
join  him  and  guide  him  by  the  La  Tranche  river  to  Detroit,  no  Europeans 
having  gone  that  track,  and  the  Indians  are  to  carry  provisions. 

The  Governor  wore  a  fur  cap,  tippet  and  gloves  and  moccasins,  but  no 
great-coat.  His  servant  carried  two  blankets  and  linen.  The  other  gentle- 
men carried  their  blankets  in  a  pack  on  their  backs. 

Fri.  8th — I  draw  maps,  write,  read  and  work  so  much  that  the  days 
do  not  seem  long,  though  I  am  alone.  I  am  so  persuaded  that  the  journey 
will  be  of  service  to  the  Governor's  health  that  I  rejoice  he  has  under- 
taken it.  This  evening  I  received  some  letters  from  England,  brought 
from  Montreal  by  Indians,  who  hung  the  packet  so  near  their  fire  that  the 
edges  of  the  letters  were  burnt  and  the  dates  illegible.  I  received  a  letter 
from  the  Governor,  who  had  proceeded  forty  miles  and  had  a  pleasant 
journey,  but  it  now  rains  very  much,  which  I  fear  will  spoil  the  roads. 

Tues.  12th— I  heard  of  the  Governor's  safe  arrival  at  the  Mohawk 
village  the  third  day  after  he  left  this  place.  He  was  much  pleased  with 
seeing  their  church  and  hearing  their  women  sing  psalms.  The  Indian 
Women  have  remarkably  sweet  voices. 

The  following  letter,  found  in  the  MSS.  at  Wolford,  was  written 
in  February  1793,  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  to  Mrs.  Hunt.      It  is  appropriate 

148 


A  LETTER  TO  WOLFORD 

to  insert  it  in  the  diary  at  this  date,  for  what  it  contains  might  well 
have  been  written  in  the  diary : 

"Navy  Hall,  Feby.,  1793.  My  Dear  Mrs.  Hunt:— Expecting  an  express 
soon  from  Quebec,  I  prepare  my  letters  beforehand,  that  they  may  be 
ready.  I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  my  little  Katherine  goes  on 
vastly  well,  eats,  sleeps  and  grows  fat,  so  I  hope  she  will  not  feel  the 
want  of  a  wet  nurse,  which  was  what  I  could  not  procure  for  her.  Will 
you  do  me  the  favour  to  join  with  Mrs.  Montagu  in  answering  for  the 
little  stranger.  I  shall  be  happy  further  to  cement  our  friendship  by  this 
mark  of  it.  I  have  already  had  her  privately  baptized.  I  long  for  the 
arrival  of  the  express,  as  it  is  some  time  since  I  have  heard  from  Eng- 
land. The  accounts  I  have  received  from  every  correspondent  of  the 
great  improvement  of  the  little  girls  under  your  tuition  is  a  very  great 
happiness  to  me,  the  greatest  that  can  be  next  to  being  an  eye-witness  of 
it.  The  whole  winter  has  been  like  an  exceeding  fine,  dry  autumn  in 
England;  the  climate  is  delightful  and  the  country  plentiful,  and  a 
pleasant  society  within  a  certain  circle;  in  short,  we  have  nothing  to 
complain  of  but  not  seeing  the  children  and  the  absence  of  some  friends. 
Coll.  Simcoe  is  gone  to  Detroit,  on  foot  the  greatest  part  of  the  way,  a 
journey  of  about  400  miles,  but  as  I  am  convinced  the  exercise  and  air 
will  do  his  health  and  spirits  great  good  I  rejoice  in  his  absence,  though 
it  will  be  a  month  or  six  weeks;  he  has  five  officers  as  companions,  a 
dozen  soldiers  and  twenty  Indians  with  him  as  guides.  As  it  is  a  service 
of  no  danger,  and  I  think  will  afford  him  amusement,  I  am  quite  easy 
about  it,  and  have  so  much  writing,  drawing,  arranging  papers  and  work- 
ing to  do  that  the  days  pass  very  quick;  besides,  I  have  now  and  then 
card  parties  here  and  at  the  Chief  Justice's,  for  I  am  become  a  great  whist 
player.  Francis  is  the  most  engaging,  pretty  child  you  ever  saw  at  his 
age;  he  is  at  present  very  handsome.  Pray  give  my  love  to  Miss  Hunt; 
tell  her  there  are  as  many  feathers,  flowers  and  gauze  dresses  at  our  balls 
(which  are  every  fortnight)  as  at  a  Honiton  assembly,  and  seldom  less 
than  eighteen  couples.  I  have  not  attended  them  because  I  was,  the 
greatest  part  of  the  winter,  in  daily  expectation  of  being  confined.  1  have 
taken  the  canvas  house  we  brought  from  England  for  my  own  apartment; 
it  makes  two  very  comfortable  and  remarkably  warm  private  rooms;  it 
is  boarded  outside  to  prevent  snow  lying  on  it.  The  comfort  I  derived 
from  these  apartments  was  extremely  great  when  I  lay  in,  because,  being 
in  a  manner  separate  from  the  rest  of  the  house,  it  was  so  very  quiet. 
The  greatest  inconvenience  in  this  country  is  want  of  servants,  which  are 
not  to  be  got.  The  worst  of  people  do  you  a  favour  if  they  merely  wash 
dishes  for  twenty  shillings  a  month.  The  sergeant's  wife  I  took  with  me 
I  am  happy  to  keep  in  my  house,  for  she  is  a  very  steady  person,  remark- 
ably fond  of  the  children  and  attentive  to  them,  and  a  good  worker,  and 
Joseph  makes  himself  very  useful. 

"  Mr.  Scadding  seems  very  well  satisfied  with  his  sixty  pounds  a  year 
as  clerk,  and  sometimes  has  the  amusement  of  shooting;  he  looks  as  rosy 
as  ever,  though  he  leads  so  much  more  sedentary  a  life.  Adieu,  my  dear 
Madam. — Believe  me,  very  sincerely  yours, 

"  E.  P.  SIMCOE. 
"  To  Mrs.  Hunt, 

"Wolford  Lodge, 

"  Honiton,  Devonshire." 

Sun.  17th — I  heard  that  the  Governor  was  well  and  within  four  days 
of  Detroit.  I  went  to  dine  with  some  ladies  of  the  Queen's  Rangers  at  the 
Landing,  where  the  Rangers  are  quartered  in  huts.  The  Governor  has 
had  a  hut  built  for  himself,  and  we  have  hung  up  the  tapestry  in  it 
which  came  from  Stowe  (the  seat  of  the  Marquis  of  Buckingham,  Eng- 
land), which  makes  the  room  very  comfortable.  I  slept  here. 

151 


DIAKY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  18'th — Mrs.  Hamilton  drank  tea  with  me.  Mrs.  MeGill,  wife  of 
the  commissary,  Capt.  John  McGill,  and  Miss  Crookshank,  her  sister,  are 
pleasant  women  from  New  York.  I  gave  a  dance  this  evening.  There 
were  above  ten  couples. 

NOTE. — The  allusion  to  the  two  ladies  as  being 
from  New  York  arose  from  the  fact  that  they 
were  sisters  of  the  Honorable  George  Crook- 
shank,  whose  wife  was  Miss  Sarah  Susannah 
Lambert  of  New  York.  The  ladies  had  been 
visiting  in  the  United  States.  Honorable  George 
Crookshank,  was  Deputy  Commissary-General 
during  the  War  of  1812,  and  a  member  of 
the  old  Legislative  Council  of  Upper  Canada. 
His  daughter,  who  resides  on  Peter  Street, 
'Toronto,  is  the  widow  of  the  late  Mr.  Stephen 
He  ward.  Miss  (Rachel)  Crooksfaank  referred  to 

by  Mrs.    Simcoe,  afterwards  became  the  second 
Miss  CEOOKSHANK.     ^   of  Dr    Jflmes  MacaulaVj 

Tues.  19th — The  bugle  horns  sound  delightfully  here;  they  echo  among 
the  rocks  so  finely.  I  called  on  Mrs.  Hamilton  on  my  way  to  Navy  Hall, 
and  brought  Miss  Butler,  sister  of  Coll.  Butler,  home  with  me. 

NOTE. — There  is  doubt  as  to  the  location  of  Butler's  Barracks. 
In  the  opinion  of  Miss  Janet  Carnochan,  President  of  the  Niagara 
Historical  Society,  Butler's  Barracks  were  on  the  hill  north  of  Navy 
Hall,  not  where  the  present  Butler's  Barracks  are.  Buttons  from 
the  uniform  of  Butler's  Rangers  have  been  found  on  the  hill  north 
of  Navy  Hall. 

Wed.  20th — I  dined  at  the  Chief  Justice's  (Osgoode),  who  had  a  large 
party  to  meet  me.  I  played  seven  rubbers  at  whist. 

Thur.  21st — I  received  a  letter  from  the  Governor,  dated  Upper  Dela- 
ware village,  on  the  La  Tranche  (now  Delaware,  Ont.).  He  had  a 
pleasant  journey,  passed  a  fine  open  country,  without  swamps.  The  La 
Tranche,  at  150  miles  above  its  mouth,  is  as  wide  as  the  Thames  is  at 
Reading  (capital  of  Berkshire,  England). 

Mon.  25th — I  had  company  at  dinner  and  cards  in  the  evening. 

Wed.  27th — The  coldest  day  we  have  had  this  winter.  The  ther- 
mometer stood  at  55  deg.  at  the  Chief  Justice's,  though  the  stove  was 
almost  red  hot. 

Fri.  Mar.  1st — A  lady  dined  with  me,  and  we  played  at  whist  in  the 
evening  with  the  Chief  Justice. 

Fri.  8th — Mr.  McGill  dined  with  us,  A  snowstorm  the  whole  day, 
drifted  by  a  high  wind;  the  river  so  full  of  ice  that  it  appeared  immovable 
for  some  hours. 

Sat.  9th — A  fine,  clear  day;  the  river  full  of  ice.  Towards  two  o'clock 
it  separated  and  floated  down,  and  a  boat  came  over  from  the  garrison. 

Sun.  Mar.  10th — The  Governor  and  Mr.  D.  W.  Smith  returned.  It  is 
exactly  five  weeks  since  he  left  this  place.  He  is  remarkably  well,  and  not 
fatigued.  He  went  a  part  of  the  way  in  sleighs,  but  walked  the  greater 
distance.  The  Journal  does  not  contain  many  incidents.  The  map  which 
accompanies  it  shows  the  various  creeks  they  passed,  or  fallen  trees, 
which  require  some  care  and  dexterity  to  cross.  His  Excellency's  leaving 
Detroit  under  a  salute  from  all  His  Majesty's  ships  lying  there  is  men- 
tioned, 'as  also  that  "His  Excellency  ordered  prayers  to  be  read  in  the 


THE  PROPOSED  PROVINCIAL  CAPITAL 

woods  on  Sunday,  and  forty  people  attended.  His  Excellency  and  suite 
eat  raccoons  and  porcupines,  which  were  good,  the  latter  like  pork."  The 
porcupine's  quills  stuck  into  Jack  Sharp's  neck  (a  Newfoundland  dog), 
and  they  were  very  difficult  to  extract  and  made  him  ill  for  many  days. 

The  Governor  rose  early  on  the  march  and  walked  till  five  o'clock. 
A  party  of  the  Indians  went  on  an  hour  before,  to  cut  down  wood  for  a  fire 
and  make  huts  of  trees,  which  they  cover  with  bark  so  dexterously  that  no 
rain  can  penetrate,  and  this  they  do  very  expeditiously;  when  the  Governor 
came  to  the  spot  the  Indians  had  fixed  upon  the  lodge  for  the  night,  the 
provisions  were  cooked;  after  supper  the  officers  sung  "God  Save  the 
King,"  and  went  to  sleep  with  their  feet  close  to  an  immense  fire,  which 
was  kept  up  all  night.  The  Governor  found  his  expectations  perfectly 
realized  as  to  the  goodness  of  the  country  on  the  banks  of  La  Tranche, 
and  is  confirmed  in  his  opinion  that  the  fork  of  the  river  is  the  most 
proper  site  for  the  capital  of  the  country,  to  be  called  New  London 
(London,  Ont.),  on  a  fine,  dry  plain  without  underwood,  but  abounding 
in  good  oak  trees.  A  spring  of  real  petroleum  was  discovered  on  the 
march  by  its  offensive  smell. 

NOTE. — The  section  of  country  referred  to  is  near  "Moravian 
Town,"  a  little  east  of  which  settlement  was  a  petroleum  spring. 
The  Moravian  village  is  in  the  Moravian  Reserve,  Township  of  Or- 
ford  in  the  County  of  Kent,  on  the  direct  route  from  Niagara  or 
York  (Toronto)  to  London  and  Detroit.  It  lies  between  Bothwell 
and  Thamesville  and  is  a  few  miles  east  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railroad. 
There  were  no  white  settlers  in  the  township  till  after  1817,  but 
there  was  a  settlement  of  Delaware  Indians  from  about  1792,  in  a 
place  called  "New  Fairfield,"  since  better  known  as  "Moravian  Town," 
in  the  north  of  the  township.  Old  Moraviantown  was  in  the  township 
of  Zone,  Kent  County,  but  the  present  place  known  as  Moraviantown 
is  as  stated,  in  Orford,  across  the  river  Thames,  and  opposite  to  old 
Moraviantown.  It  is  five  miles  from  the  town  of  Bothwell  and  is 
about  the  same  distance  from  Thamesville  and  Highgate. 

The  petroleum  spring  referred  to  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  was,  no  doubt, 
a  reality,  as  the  crude  oil  or  petroleum  was  obtained  a  century  ago 
from  the  surface  of  the  water  of  the  river  Thames  in  several  places 
along  the  river  in  this  neighborhood.  Mr.  W.  R.  Hickey  of  Bothwell, 
who  so  kindly  furnished  me  with  this  information,  states  that  settlers 
seventy  years  ago  used  to  gather  the  petroleum  from  the  surface  of 
the  water  and  sell  it  as  a  medicine.  There  were  several  of  these 
springs  or  exudations  within  the  range  of  three  miles  east  of  where 
old  Moraviantown  stood.  When  the  first  oil  excitement  in  Bothwell, 
about  1865-6,  was  at  its  height,  a  refinery  was  in  operation  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  river.  The  first  well  that  started  the  oil  boom 
in  1865  was  drilled  about  five  miles  east  of  the  site  of  old  Moravian- 
town,  just  at  the  boundary  line  between  the  counties  of  Kent  and 
Middlesex,  near  the  location  of  the  Longwoods  Road,  or  London 
Road,  as  it  used  to  be  called. 

The  Delaware  Indians  were  the  principal  remnant  of  the  once 
flourishing  congregation  of  the  Moravians  or  United  Brethren 
Church  of  the  United  States,  who  were  compelled  in  1792  to  seek 
an  asylum  in  Canada,  where  they  were  favorably  received  by  the 

155 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

provincial  authorities  and  were  permitted  to  settle  on  the  River 
la  Tranche  (Thames).  By  an  Order-in-Council  dated  the  19th  of 
July,  1793,  fifty  thousand  acres  of  land  bordering  on  the  river  were 
granted  for  their  use.  They  built  twenty-nine  houses  and  huts  and 
a  chapel  wherein  ministered  the  German  missionary  supported  by  the 
Moravian  Society.  The  population  was  a  hundred  and  sixty-seven 
Indians  of  the  Delaware  and  Iroquois  nations.  By  a  second  Order- 
in-Council  issued  26th  February,  1795,  a  survey  of  the  original  grant 
was  made  and  the  land  appropriated  to  the  trustees  of  the  "Moravian 
Society"  to  be  reserved  forever  to  the  Society,  in  trust,  for  the  sole  use 
of  their  Indian  converts.  The  first  settlement  was  made  on  the  north 
side  of  the  river  Thames. 

The  site  of  old  Moraviantown  is  now  occupied  by  cultivated  farms, 
and  there  are  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  a  few  graves,  where  the 
early  Indians  had  their  bury  ing-ground. 

The  ground  is  historic,  for  a  battle  was  fought  there  on  the  5th 
of  October,  1813,  between  the  British  and  Indian  forces  under  Gen- 
eral Procter  and  the  celebrated  Indian  chief,  Tecumseh,  and  the 
American  army  under  General  Harrison.  Tecumseh  was  killed 
after  a  desperate  resistance,  and  the  Indian  village  was  burned  by 
the  invaders. 

Across  the  lot  where  the  graves  are  is  a  small  ravine  leading 
to  the  river,  and  old  residents  say  that  it  was  there  or  near  there  that 
Tecumseh  fell. 

After  the  battle  the  Indians  removed  to  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river.  In  1836  these  Indians  were  induced  to  surrender  a  large' 
portion  of  their  land,  about  six  miles  square,  for  an  annuity  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  pounds. 

This  second  letter  found  in  the  MSS.  at  Wolford  is  also  written 
to  Mrs.  Hunt.  It  is  a  motherly  letter  showing  a  great  regard  for 
Mrs.  Hunt  and  deep  affection  for  the  children  under  her  charge  at 
Wolford.  It  reads : 

"Navy  Hall,  March  13th,  1793.  My  Dear  Mrs.  Hunt:— The  contents 
of  your  last  letters,  informing  me  of  Mrs.  Graves's  quitting  Wolford,  was 
not  any  great  surprise  to  me,  as  I  thought  such  an  event  not  improbable. 
Be  assured,  my  dear  Madam,  that  the  confidence  we  repose  in  your  care 
and  attention  to  our  children  makes  us  perfectly  indifferent  to  any  expense 
that  must  necessarily  be  incurred  by  your  keeping  house  for  them.  The 
benefit  they  will  receive  from  the  good  and  religious  principles  you  will 
instil  into  their  minds  will  be  cheaply  purchased,  and  pray  do  not  be 
uneasy  at  any  trifling  expense  which  you  deem  proper  to  be  incurred. 
Coll.  Simcoe  desired  Mr.  Flood  to  get  a  second-hand  carriage  for  yours  and 
their  accommodation.  We  are  very  anxious  that  they  should  stay  at 
Wolford.  I  should  never  be  satisfied  about  their  health  were  they  at 
Bath,  as  I  have  a  great  prepossession  against  that  place  for  children.  I  hope 
with  a  carriage  (and  be  as  liberal  of  fires  as  possible)  that  you  and  Miss 
Hunt  will  reconcile  yourselves  to  Wolford,  as  we  should  not  be  happy  to 
have  the  children  removed.  It  is  a  great  pleasure  to  me  to  have  them 
brought  up  so  near  Miss  Burgess,  that  they  may  get  the  habitude,  by 
seeing  her  often,  of  acquiring  a  great  regard  for  a  friend  to  whom  I  am 
so  much  attached,  and  I  think  it  much  better  as  you  have  determined  it, 

156 


SPOET  AT  NIAGAKA  IX  1793 

to  be  at  Wolford  than  to  encumber  her  house  with  so  many  children, 
though  the  offer  was  extremely  kind  of  her. 

"  As  for  Mrs.  Graves'  desire  of  having  Eliza  on  a  visit,  we  cannot 
refuse  it;  but  it  is  Coll.  Simcoe's  and  my  absolute  desire  that  she  does 
not  stay  above  a  month  or  six  weeks  in  these  annual  visits,  because  we 
should  be  sorry  the  child's  education  should  be  stopped,  or  that  she  should 
be  longer  separated  from  her  sisters,  which  reasons  alone  determined  us  to 
deprive  ourselves  of  her  company.  Besides,  I  think  the  child  has  too 
great  a  tendency  to  weak  lungs  to  make  it  at  all  proper  for  her  to  be  longer 
there,  was  there  no  other  reason.  The  other  children,  of  course,  Mrs.  G. 
would  not  wish  to  be  troubled  with;  if  she  did,  the  same  system  should 
prevail  as  with  regard  to  Eliza. 

"  Pray  give  my  love  to  Miss  Hunt;  tell  her  I  should  have  answered 
her  letter,  but  I  send  this  by  a  pacquet  as  the  quickest  conveyance  to  you, 
and  letters  sent  by  pacquets  cost  such  sums  of  money  that  I  will  not 
write  to  her  till  I  send  to  Mr.  Burgess.  They  are  rather  longer  going 
through  the  Secretary  of  State's  office,  but  without  there  is  anything 
material  to  be  speedily  answered  it  is  the  best  way  to  write,  on  account  of 
the  expense. 

"  Give  my  kindest  love  to  the  children.  Tell  them  the  same  reason 
and  being  greatly  pressed  for  time  (as  this  is  an  unexpected  opportunity) 
hinders  my  writing  to  them,  and  thanking  Charlotte  for  her  very  pretty 
ruffles,  which  I  value  much,  and  Harriett  for  her  letter.  Tell  Eliza  there 
are  no  guava  trees  here.  The  country  is  not  hot  enough,  but  her  father 
thanks  her  for  her  thinking  of  it.  Let  them  know  that  their  father  is 
just  returned  from  Detroit;  looks  remarkably  well  in  health,  and  is  grown 
really  fatter,  though  he  has  performed  a  journey  of  six  hundred  miles 
in  exactly  five  weeks,  and  walked  a  great  part  of  the  way.  I  will  write 
them  a  further  account  by  the  first  opportunity  of  sending  to  Mr.  Burgess. 

"  I  enter  exactly  into  what  Miss  Hunt's  and  your  feelings  have  been, 
because  I  have  known  and  experienced  enough  of  these  kind  of  proceed- 
ings. 

"  I  am  sure  Miss  Hunt's  instructions  are  much  better  than  Mr.  Pigot's 
few  visits.  In  short,  we  are  quite  happy  in  every  account  I  hear  of  your 
proceedings  with  respect  to  the  children,  and  are  only  anxious  that  every- 
thing should  go  on  comfortably  to  yourself  and  Miss  Hunt.  Mr.  Flood 
will  be  of  any  assistance  in  his  power.  Believe  me  to  be,  my  dear  Mrs. 
Hunt,  with  great  regard  and  confidence  in  your  friendship, 
"Very  sincerely  yours, 

"  E.  SIMCOE. 

"  Coll.  Simcoe  desires  his  best  compliments.  Eliza  or  Charlotte  have 
not  sent  me  any  drawing  lately.  1  hope  they  continue  to  like  drawing; 
she  writes  vastly  even  on  one  line.  I  wish  I  was  as  good  an  arithmetician 
as  you  have  taught  her  to  be.  I  think  you  were  quite  right  to  discharge 
a  gardener  that  must  be  a  useless  expense.  I  am  glad  Melly  is  still  with 
you;  I  hope  she  continues  to  merit  your  good  opinion,  for  I  always  liked 
her  much. 

"  To  Mrs.  Hunt, 

"  Wolford  Lodge,  near  Honiton, 

"  Devonshire,  England." 

Wed.  13th— Coll.  Simcoe  has  gout  in  his  hand. 

Sat.  16th — Coll.  Simcoe  so  much  better  as  to  walk  on  the  sands.  The 
thermometer  72  in  the  shade.  There  are  thousands  of  duck  fly  up  the 
river  daily.  They  are  called  cawines,  a  species  of  wild  duck.  They  have 
a  fishy  taste  and  are  never  eaten;  their  down  appears  to  me  exactly  the 
same  as  that  of  the  eider  duck.  I  lately  dreamt  of  being  fired  at  by  small 
shot  in  passing  through  a  wood,  and  have  since  had  quite  a  horror  of  the 
sound  of  a  musquet  or  anything  military. 

157 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

I  have  been  much  amused  by  reading  Watson  (Richard  Watson, 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge)  on  chemistry,  in  which  there  is  an  account 
of  the  making  of  an  artificial  volcano  that  I  think  would  please  you,  an 
experiment  of  putting  diamonds  and  rubies  in  separate  vessels  and  expos- 
ing them  to  a  violent  fire — the  diamonds  were  dissipated  and  the  rubies 
unchanged  in  weight  or  colour. 

Mon.  April  1st — Rode  to  Queenstown,  where  we  intend  to  reside  a 
fortnight.  Mr.  Grey  and  Mr.  Talbot  are  going  to  New  York. 

Tues.  2nd — Very  warm  weather. 

Wed.  3rd — The  weather  extremely  warm,  but  we  find  the  log  huts  cool 
from  the  thickness  of  the  timber  with  which  they  are  built.  We  do  not 
keep  house  here  (Queenstown).  As  there  are  not  offices  belonging  to  our 
rooms  we  did  not  bring  many  servants,  but  dine  at  the  mess.  Imme- 
diately after  I  have  dined  I  rise  from  the  table,  one  of  the  officers  attends 
me  home,  and  the  band  plays  on  the  parade  before  the  house  until  six 
o'clock.  The  music  adds  cheerfulness  to  this  retired  spot,  and  we  feel 
much  indebted  to  the  Marquis  of  Buckingham  for  the  number  of  instru- 
ments he  presented  to  the  regiment.  The  bugles  sound  at  five  every 
morning,  and  Coll.  Simcoe  goes  out  with  the  troops  and  returns  to  break- 
fast at  nine. 

Fri.  5th— Fahrenheit  ther.  78  deg.  in  the  shade,  112  deg.  in  the  sun 
to-day  at  Navy  Hall.  "  Trojan  "  has  been  so  ill,  in  consequence  of  a  blow 
he  received  on  his  head  since  we  left  Navy  Hall,  that  the  servants  sup- 
posed him  to  be  mad  and  shot  him,  which  we  regret  most  excessively,  not 
believing  he  could  be  mad,  as  he  ran  into  the  water  a  short  time  before 
he  was  killed.  I  gave  a  dance  this  evening.  A  soldier  was  pointed  out  to 
me  by  the  name  of  Swambergh,  a  Swede  who  had  distinguished  himself  in 
a  battle  where  the  King  of  Sweden  was  present;  this  incident  and  the 
admiration  I  know  you  feel  for  Swedes  caused  me  to  observe  something 
peculiarly  fine  in  his  countenance,  when,  on  further  enquiry,  it  proved 
that  the  man  shewn  was  not  Swambergh,  but  a  worthless  thief — so  much 
for  my  skill  in  physiognomy. 

Sat.  6th — I  rode  a  pleasant  horse  of  Mr.  Mayne's  to  Navy  Hall; 
returned  here  in  the  evening,  but  not  being  expected,  found  a  cold,  wet 
room  and  spent  an  uncomfortable  evening.  St.  Denis,  of  the  5th,  caught 
yesterday,  at  Niagara,  500  whitefish  and  40  sturgeon;  this  is  common 
sturgeon,  one  nearly  6  ft.  long. 

NOTE. — Captain  William  Mayne  belonged  to  the  Queen's  Bangers. 
He  returned  to  England  in  1797. 

Sun.  7th — We  dined  with  Mrs.  Hamilton,  wife  of  Mr.  Robert  Hamilton, 
and  walked  in  the  evening  where  I  observed  some  trees  on  fire;  the 
flames,  in  part  concealed,  appeared  like  stars,  and  had  a  beautiful  effect. 

Mon.  8th — A  very  warm  day.  I  rode  to  the  Falls;  there  are  still  heaps 
of  ice  below  them,  but  it  had  not  a  brilliant  or  fine  appearance,  as  I  had 
expected  to  see. 

Tues.  9th — Mrs.  Richardson  breakfasted  with  me.  Very  wet  weather. 
We  played  at  chess  all  the  day. 

Wed.  10th — Very  cold  and  some  snow.  We  drove  to  Navy  Hall  and 
slept  there. 

Thur.  llth — A  very  fine  day.  Went  to  Queenstown;  walked  by  the 
river  half  a  mile  to  a  beautiful  spot  among  the  rocks.  The  rapid,  clear 
water,  with  a  bright  tinge  of  green  from  the  reflection  of  the  high  banks 
covered  with  trees,  had  a  fine  effect,  and  we  determined  that  it  would  be  a 
delightful  spot  to  have  a  cold  dinner  at,  and  the  music  would  sound  well 
among  the  rocks. 

Sat.  13th — Returned  to  dinner  at  Navy  Hall.  Jacob  and  Aron 
(Mohawks)  came  express  from  Detroit  in  eight  days;  they  walked  56 
miles  this  day. 

158 


FIRST  PAPER  IIST  THE  PROVINCE 

Mon.  15th — I  dined  at  the  Fort,  and  caught  cold  by  crossing  the 
water  this  very  cold  day.  In  a  newspaper  from  the  States  was  the  para- 
graph: "His  Serene  Highness  of  Upper  Canada  gives  great  encourage- 
ment to  settlers." 

The  "  Caldwell "  sloop,  an  armed  vessel  of  the  Provincial  Government, 
arrived  at  Kingston  from  home  on  the  6th  April;  the  day  before  the 
harbour  had  been  so  full  of  ice  that  she  could  not  have  got  in.  An  Indian 
who  speaks  English,  being  asked  at  what  hour  he  arrived,  pointed  to  the 
west  and  said,  "  when  the  clock  was  there."  It  reminded  me  of  a  line  in 
Spencer,  "  The  clock  in  Jones  high  house." 

Thur.  18th — A  newspaper  is  published  here,  called  the  "  Upper  Canada 
Gazette  or  American  Oracle"  (first  issue  April  18th,  1793).  As  yet  it  is 
filled  with  proclamations  and  advertisements.  The  only  printer  to  be 
met  with  was  a  Frenchman  named  Louis  Roy,  and  he  cannot  write  good 
English.  A  surveyor  went  to  the  first  forks  of  the  La  Tranche,  and  gives 
the  most  favourable  account  of  the  land. 

NOTE. — Governor  Simcoe's  Proclamation  of  July  16th,  1792, 
which  would  fain  have  converted  La  Grande  Riviere  into  "The  Ouse," 
permanently  transformed  La  Tranche  into  the  Thames. 

Fri.  19th — Capt.  JEness  Shaw  is  arrived,  with  his  wife  and  seven 
children,  from  Oswego,  where  he  met  his  family  and  spent  the  winter 
with  them.  The  south  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  being  uninhabited,  from 
Oswego  they  brought  with  them  an  Indian  to  build  huts  and  shoot  part- 
ridges and  ducks.  They  came  the  whole  way  in  a  boat.  The  only  alarm 
they  met  with  was  from  trees  falling  near  their  hut  one  night.  The 
children  had  made  fires  for  diversion  too  near  large  trees,  without  con- 
sidering which  way  the  wind  might  blow  them  down,  and  the  hut  was  in 
danger  from  their  fall. 

Tues.  23rd — I  thought  of  you  (Mrs.  Hunt)  as  by  agreement.  I  rode 
to  the  whirlpool,  a  very  grand  scene  half  way  between  Queenstown  and 
the  Falls,  where  the  current  is  so  strong  that  eddies  are  formed  in  which 
hewn  timber  trees  are  carried  down  the  Falls,  from  a  saw  mill,  upright. 
Vast  rocks  surround  this  bend  of  the  river,  and  they  are  covered  with 
pine  and  hemlock  spruce;  some  cascades  among  the  rocks  add  to  the  wild 
appearance.  These  scenes  have  afforded  me  so  much  delight  that  1  class 
these  days  with  those  in  which  I  remember  to  have  felt  the  greatest 
pleasure  from  fine  objects,  whether  of  art  or  nature,  as  at  Blenheim  (seat 
of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough),  the  "Valley  of  Rocks,"  near  Lynmouth  and 
Lynton,  in  North  Devon.  I  met  with  some  pretty  flowers  and  a  beautiful 
milliped.  I  gave  a  hall  this  evening.  Some  small  tortoises,  cut  up  and 
dressed  like  oysters  in  scollop  shells,  were  very  good  at  supper. 

Wed.  24th— I  rode  to  the  whirlpool  with  Mr.  Pilkington  (Robert 
Pilkington,  lieutenant  in  the  Royal  Engineers).  As  we  came  back  it 
was  almost  dark,  and  the  fires  the  Indians  had  made  by  the  waterside  for 
the  purpose  of  spearing  fish  had  a  picturesque  appearance  among  the 
rocks.  The  light  attracts  the  fish,  and  the  Indians  are  very  expert  in 
spearing  them. 

Fri.  26th — A  very  wet  night.  It  rained  into  the  huts,  but  I  found  one 
corner  of  the  room  dry,  and  there  I  placed  my  bed.  Capt.  Shaw  has  given 
me  a  tea-chest  in  bird's-eye  maple.  It  is  a  beautiful  wood,  the  colour  of 
satinwood.  The  tea-chest  was  made  at  New  Brunswick.  Capt.  Shaw 
mentioned  many  instances  of  persons  settled  in  New  Brunswick  who, 
having  marry'd  women  from  the  United  States,  were  persuaded  by  them 
to  quit  the  country,  as  they  would  not  live  without  the  apples  and  peaches 
they  had  been  used  to  at  New  York.  The  Americans  are  particularly 
fond  of  fruit.  The  Indians  bring  us  cranberries  in  spring  and  autumn 
which  are  as  large  as  cherries  and  as  good;  the  best  grow  under  water. 

11  161 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

They  also  supply  us  with  chestnuts,  which  they  roast  in  a  manner  that 
makes  them  particularly  good. 

Mon.  29th — Rode  before  breakfast.  At  Navy  Hall,  the  "  Onondaga  " 
arrived  from  Kingston  in  22  hours.  There  is  a  large  stone  house,  built 
by  the  French,  in  the  Fort  at  Niagara,  and  from  thence  it  is  said  to 
take  its  name,  as  Niagara,  in  the  Indian  language,  signifies  "  great  houge." 
Pray  take  notice  we  call  it  "  Niagara." 

NOTE. — This  house  is  a  large  stone  building  which  stands  within 
the  precincts  of  the  American  Fort,  and  was  built  by  the  French 
prior  to  1750  by  order  of  Governor  Vaudreuil.  The  Fort  and  its 
defences  were  completed  by  General  Pouchot,  in  1759.  The  British 
afterwards  added  a  storey  with,  in  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Peter  A. 


"  THE  CASTLE/'  FORT  NIAGARA,  N.Y. 

(From  a  Sketch  sent  to  England  about  1830  and  copied  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Porter,  a  timbered  roof.  During  the  War  of  1812  the  Americans 
are  said  to  have  torn  it  off,  made  a  flat  roof,  with  stone  walls  pro- 
jecting a  foot  or  so  above  it,  and  to  have  mounted  a  cannon  on  the 
roof.  After  the  war  they  evidently  restored  the  timbered  roof,  and 
the  present  cupola  was  put  on  in  1823.  As  it  is  not  supposed  the 
British  ever  used  any  brick  at  the  Fort,  the  erection  of  the  brick 
chimneys  is  fixed  at  a  date  subsequent  to  the  War  of  1812. 

The  origin  of  the  name  Niagara  is  disputed.  Some  say  that 
the  word  is  of  Indian  origin,  meaning  "thunder  of  water,"  and 
others  derive  it  from  Onghiara,  the  name  of  the  old  Indian  village 
near  the  Falls. 

Tues.  May  2nd — Coll.  Simcoe  set  off,  accompanied  by  seven  officers,  to 
go  to  Toronto.  He  means  to  go  round  by  the  head  of  the  lake  in  a  batteau. 

Wed.  3rd — I  borrowed  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds'  "  Discourses."  They 
amuse  me  very  much. 

162 


GOVERNOR'S  FIRST  VISIT  TO  TORONTO 

NOTE. — Mrs.  Simcoe  refers  to  "Discourses  Delivered  to  the  Stu- 
dents of  the  Royal  Academy"  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  Knight,  with 
introduction  and  notes  by  Roger  Fry. 

Fri.  5th— A  very  cold  day. 

Tues.  9th — I  am  feverish  and  ill.  I  caught  cold  by  sitting  late  with 
the  windows  open  after  a  very  hot  day,  and  the  dew  falls  here  most 
heavily. 

Sat.  13th — Coll.  Simcoe  returned  from  Toronto,  and  speaks  in  praise 
of  the  harbour,  and  a  fine  spot  near  it  covered  with  large  oaks,  which  he 
intends  to  fix  upon  as  a  site  for  a  town.  I  am  going  to  send  you  some 
beautiful  butterflies. 

NOTE. — This  was  the  Governor's  first  visit  to  the  site  of  Toronto. 
The  "fine  spot"  was  on  the  bay  front,  east  of  the  present  George  Street 
as  far  as  Berkeley  Street.  The  lower  part  of  the  present  Berkeley 
Street,  from  the  present  King  south  to  Palace  (Front  Street),  was 
later  called  Parliament  Street,  as  it  led  to  the  Legislative  Buildings. 
Berkeley  Street,  north  of  King,  was  not  opened  until  some  years  later. 

According  to  the  plan  made  by  Aitkin  in  1793,  the  original  town 
of  York  was  divided  into  ten  blocks,  five  south  and  five  north  of 
King  Street,  the  west  boundary  being  George  Street,  the  east  Parlia- 
ment (Berkeley),  the  north  Duke  Street,  and  south  Palace  (Front 
Street).  Although  the  streets  were  not  named  in  1793,  the  plan  shows 
the  location  of  the  present  George,  Frederick,  Sherbourne  (Caroline), 
Princes,  Ontario,  and  Berkeley  (the  first  "Parliament"  Street)  all 
running  from  the  south  to  the  north,  and  Palace  (Front  Street),  King 
and  Duke,  all  running  from  the  west  to  the  east. 

The  area  covered  by  the  Aitkin  plan  was  not  extensive.  The 
number  of  feet  from  the  south  side  of  Palace  (Front  Street)  at  the 
east  side  of  George  Street  to  the  north  side  of  Duke  Street  was  740 
feet.  From  the  west  side  of  George  to  the  east  side  of  Parliament  the 
measurement  was  1770.  When  the  streets  were  laid  out  on  this  plan 
Front  was  known  as  King  and  in  a  later  plan  as  Palace  Street.  The 
modern  King  was  Duke  Street,  and  the  modern  Duke,  Duchess  Street. 
These  street  names  were  intended  as  compliments  to  King  George  III., 
and  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  York.  George  Street  was  named  after 
the  Prince  of  Wales,  Frederick  after  the  Duke  of  York  himself,  Caro- 
line in  honor  of  the  niece  of  George  III.,  who,  in  1795,  married  her 
cousin  the  Prince  of  Wales,  afterwards  George  IV.  Princes  Street 
commemorated  collectively  the  male  members  of  the  Royal  Family, 
the  Dukes  of  Clarence,  Kent,  Cumberland,  Sussex  and  Cambridge. 
It  will  be  noted  that  the  correct  orthography  of  the  present  Princess 
Street  is  "Princes"  Street. 


163 


CHAPTEE    XII. 


AMERICAN  COMMISSIONERS   GUESTS  AT  NAVY  HALL. 

The  life  at  Navy  Hall  was  enlivened  by  many  pleasant  incidents 
during  the  years  of  its  occupancy  by  Governor  Simcoe  and  his  wife. 
Prominent  people  from  Britain  touring  the  western  continent  who 
brought  letters  of  introduction,  always  had  a  generous  welcome  and 
a  pleasant  time  as  long  as  they  occupied  the  guest  chambers  of  that 
primitive  residence,  the  pioneer  Government  House.  Americans 
in  official  positions  who  visited  Niagara  ofttimes  expressed  their 
gratification  with  the  kindly  reception  accorded  them  by  the  Governor 
and  his  wife. 

It  is  true  that  the  Governor  had,  to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  his 
likes  and  dislikes,  and  sometimes  was  rather  frank  in  expressing  his 
opinions,  but  he  never  forgot  the  requirements  of  his  official  position. 
So  that  whatever  the  Governor's  sentiments  might  be  regarding  the 
United  States  and  its  Government,  all  guests  from  the  Republic 
were  made  to  feel  as  much  at  home  as  if  they  were  seated  at  their 
own  fireside.  Accordingly  the  best  of  treatment  was  accorded  the 
American  Commissioners  who  came  to  Niagara  to  discuss  the  Indian 
boundary  question  with  Governor  Simcoe  and  a  deputation  of  fifty 
Indians  headed  by  Brant.  The  negotiations  at  Navy  Hall  and 
subsequently  at  Miami  came  to  naught,  as  the  redskins  insisted  that 
the  settlers  on  their  side  of  the  Ohio  Eiver  should  be  evicted. 

Sun.  14th — Three  commissioners,  who  are  appointed  by  the  United 
States  to  treat  with  the  Indians  at  Sandusky,  Ohio,  are  arrived  here,  and 
Intend  to  stay  at  our  house  until 
they  receive  further  orders  from 
Philadelphia.  Mr.  John  Randolph, 
a  political  friend  of  President 
Jefferson,  is  a  Virginian.  Ben- 
jamin Lincoln  and  Coll.  Timothy 
Pickering  are  both  of  Massachu- 
setts, New  England.  Coll.  Simcoe 
calls  the  latter  my  cousin;  his 
ancestor  left  England  in  Charles 
Ist's  reign,  and  this  gentleman 
really  bears  great  resemblance  to 
the  picture  Mr.  Gwillim  (a  rela- 
tive of  Mrs.  Simcoe)  has  of  Sir 
Gilbert  Pickering. 

If  the  proffered  mediation  of 
England     with     respect     to     this 
treaty    of     Sandusky     had     been 
accepted  by  the  States,  and  Washington  had  gone  thither,  Gov.  Simcoe 
would  have  gone  to  meet  him.     I  am  not  sorry  that  the  circumstance 
is  avoided. 

164 


GENERAL  LINCOLN. 


JOHN  RANDOLPH. 


THE  INDIAN  BOUNDARY  QUESTION 

NOTE. — John  Randolph  of  Roanoke,  an  American  orator,  was 
born  in  Virginia  in  1773.  He  claimed  to  be  a  descendant  of  Poca- 
hontas,  the  Indian  princess.  He  studied  for  short  periods  at  Prince- 
ton and  Columbia  College.  In  1799  he  was  elected  to  Congress  and 
re-elected  many  times.  He  gained  a  high  reputation  as  a  debater. 
He  became  estranged  from  Jefferson  about  1806  and  tried  to  defeat 
the  election  of  Madison  and  opposed  the  War  of  1812.  He  was  de- 
feated at  the  election  in  1813,  but  was  again  elected  in  1815.  He  was 
a  man  of  genius  and  was  distinguished  for  his  ready  wit,  which,  joined 
to  his  mastery  of  the  weapons  of  sarcasm  and  invective,  rendered  him 
a  formidable  opponent  in  debate. 

General  Benjamin  Lincoln  was  born  in  Massachusetts  in  1733. 
He  was  originally  a  farmer.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Provincial 
Congress  assembled  in  1775  at  Cambridge  and  Watertown  and  one 
of  the  secretaries  of  that  body,  and  also  a  member  of  the  committee 
of  correspondence  appointed  to  communicate  with  the  several  towns 
in  Massachusetts  and  with  other  colonies  upon  the  circumstances  of 
the  time.  In  1776  he  was  appointed  a  major-general  of  militia  and 
joined  the  army  of  Washington  in  1777.  He  was  appointed  to  the 
chief  command  of  the  Southern  department  about  September,  1778, 
and  defended  Charleston  against  Prevost  in  1779.  Later  Lincoln  was 
besieged  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton  in  that  place  and  compelled  to 
surrender.  In  October,  1781,  he  became  Secretary  of  War  and  retired 
in  1784.  He  was  elected  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Massachusetts  in 
1787  by  the  Federalists.  He  died  in  1810. 

Timothy  Pickering,  an  American  statesman,  was 
born  in  Massachusetts  in  July,  1745.  He  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1763  and  became  Judge  of  the  Com- 
mon Pleas  in  1775.  He  joined  the  army  of  Wash- 
ington in  1776  and  took  part  in  the  battles  of 
Brandywine  and  Germantown  in  October,  1777. 
He  was  appointed  Postmaster-General  of  the 
United  States  by  Washington  in  1791  and  Secre- 
tary of  War  in  1794.  From  1814-1817  he  was  a 
member  of  the  national  House  of  Representatives. 

There  are  no  entries  in  the  diary  between  Sun- 
day, May  14th,  and  June  14th,  for  between  these 
dates  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  on  a  visit  to  Fort  Niagara  TIMOTHY  PICKERING. 
and  apparently  did  not  continue  her  diary  during 
that  period.  But  to  revert  to  the  Commissioners'  stay  at  Navy  Hall 
— the  4th  of  June  was  a  gala  day  at  Niagara,  for  the  second  session 
of  the  Legislature  was  in  progress,  and  the  day  was  the  anniversary 
of  the  birth  of  His  Majesty  the  King. 

The  Upper  Canada  Gazette  in  its  issue  for  the  second  week  in 
June  (1793)  says: — "On  Tuesday  last,  the  fourth  of  June,  being 
an  anniversary  of  His  Majesty's  birthday,  His  Excellency  the  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor held  a  levee  at  Navy  Hall.  At  one  the  troops  in 
garrison  and  at  Queenstown  fired  three  volleys.  The  field  pieces  above 

165 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Navy  Hall  under  the  direction  of  the  Royal  Artillery,  and  the  guns 
at  the  garrison,  fired  a  royal  salute.  In  the  evening  His  Excellency 
gave  a  ball  and  elegant  supper  in  the  Council  Chamber,  which  was 
most  numerously  attended." 

Of  this  ball  and  supper  another  notice  is  extant.  The  three  dis- 
tinguished Americans,  General  Lincoln,  Colonel  Pickering  and  Mr. 
Randolph,  were  amongst  the  guests  at  the  ball  and  supper.  General 
Lincoln  in  his  private  journal,  since  printed  in  the  Massachusetts 
Historical  Collections,  Vol.  V.,  3rd  Series,  makes  the  following  note 
of  the  entertainment: 

June  4th — "  The  King's  birthday.  At  eleven  o'clock  the  governor 
had  a  levee  at  his  house,  at  which  the  officers  of  government,  the  mem- 
bers of  the  legislature,  the  officers  of  the  army,  and  a  number  of 
strangers  attended.  After  some  time  the  governor  came  in,  preceded 
by  two  of  his  family.  He  walked  up  to  the  head  of  the  hall  and 
began  a  conversation  with  those  standing  in  that  part  of  the  hall,  and 
went  around  to  the  whole,  and  I  believe  spoke  with  every  person 
present.  This  was  soon  over  and  we  all  retired.  At  one  o'clock 
there  was  firing  from  the  troops,  the  battery  and  from  the  ship  in  the 
harbor.  In  the  evening  there  was  quite  a  splendid  ball,  about  twenty 
well-dressed  and  handsome  ladies,  and  about  three  times  that  number 
of  gentlemen  present.  They  danced  from  seven  o'clock  till  eleven, 
when  supper  was  announced  and  served  in  very  pretty  ta/te.  The 
music  and  dancing  were  good,  and  everything  was  conducted  with 
propriety.  What  excited  the  best  feelings  of  my  htirt  was  the  ease 
and  affection  with  which  the  ladies  met  each  other,  although  there 
were  a  number  present  whose  mothers  sprang  from  the  aborigines  of 
the  country.  They  appeared  as  well  dressed  as  the  co^Dany  in 
general,  and  intermixed  with  them  in  a  measure  which  /inced  at 
;once  the  dignity  of  their  own  minds,  and  the  good  sense  of  the  others. 
These  ladies  possessed  great  ingenuity  and  industry,  and  have  great 
merit;  for  the  education  they  have  acquired  is  owing  principally  to 
their  own  industry,  as  their  father,  Sir  William  Johnson,  was  dead 
and  the  mother  retained  the  manners  and  dress  of  her  tribe.  Governor 
Simcoe  is  exceedingly  attentive  in  these  public  assemblies,  and  makes 
it  his  study  to  reconcile  the  inhabitants,  who  have  tasted  the  pleasure 
of  society,  to  their  present  situation  in  an  infant  province.  He 
intends  the  next  winter  to  have  concerts  and  assemblies  very  fre- 
quently. Hereby  he  at  once  evinces  a  regard  to  the  happiness  of  the 
people  and  his  knowledge  of  the  world;  for  while  the  people  are 
allured  to  become  settlers  in  this  country  from  the  richness  of  the 
soil  and  the  clemency  of  the  seasons,  it  is  important  to  make  their 
situation  as  flattering  as  possible." 

The  American  guests  were  evidently  impressed  with  the  function, 
and  the  tribute  they  paid  to  the  beauty  of  the  Canadian  ladies  who 
were  present  could 'not  fail  to  please  the  Governor,  who  some  time 
later  had  the  pleasure  of  reading  this  extract  from  the  private  journal 
of  the  gallant  General  who  had  been  his  guest. 

166 


SIR  WILLIAM  JOHNSON,  BART. 


SIB  WM    JOHNSON. 


LADY  JOHNSON. 


The  compliments  paid  to  the  daughters  of  Sir  William  Johnson 
were  well  deserved.  Their  mother,  with  whom  Sir  William  had  con- 
tracted an  Indian  marriage,  was  Mary  Brant,  or,  as  she  was 
familiarly  known,  "Miss  Molly,"  sister  of  Chief  Joseph  Brant. 

Sir  William  Johnson,  Bart.,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Chris- 
topher Johnson,  of  Warrentown,  County  Down,  Ireland.  His  mother 
was  Anne  Warren,  sister  of  the  brothers  Oliver  and  Peter  Warren, 
whose  names  are  identified  with  the  naval  glory  of  England.  Sir 
William  was  born  in  1715  and  came  to  America  in  1738.  He  settled 

on  the  banks  of  the  Mohawk. 

About      1740,      he      married 

Catherine  Weisenberg  and  had 

one  son,  afterwards  Sir  John 

Johnson,   and  two   daughters, 

Mary  and  Nancy.     Mary  mar- 
ried   Colonel    Guy    Johnson, 

nephew   of   Sir  William,   and 

Nancy  (Ann)  married  Colonel 

Daniel  Glaus. 

In      1756      Sir      William 

exerted  himself  to  revive  the 

waning     friendship     of     the 

Mohawks  towards  the  British 

as  against  the  French.  He 
succeeded,  became  their  captain,  and  was  called  Warraghiyagey, 
signifying  "Superintendent  of  Affairs."  The  Indian  tribes  then 
united  with  Johnson  at  their  head.  There  is  no  trace  of  when  he 
attained  the  rank  of  colonel,  but  it  must  have  been  about  1746.  In 
a  letter  /ritten  in  that  year,  Governor  Clinton  addresses  him  as 
"Colonel  William  Johnson  at  Albany."  In  November  of  1747  he 
had  command  of  the  northern  frontier  of  New  York.  His  manage- 
ment of  the  Indian  Department  was  most  favorably  recognized  by 
the  British  Government. 

In  1750  Colonel  Johnson  was  appointed  to  a  seat  in  His  Majesty's 
Council  for  the  Province  of  New  York,  in  the  room  of  Philip  Liv- 
ingstone, deceased.  This  was  the  first  step  towards  the  prominent 
and  influential  position  he  was  destined  to  occupy  in  later  years. 
In  1755,  during  the  war  against  the  French,  he  was  made  a  major- 
general  and  was  created  a  baronet  in  November  of  the  same  year. 
In  July,  1759,  General  Prideaux,  while  besieging  Fort  Niagara,  was 
killed  by  the  bursting  of  a  shell  carelessly  discharged  by  one  of  his 
own  gunners,  and  Sir  William  Johnson  took  command.  The  fort 
was  attacked,  and  after  a  terrific  siege  and  the  defeat  of  the  French 
General  D'Aubry,  who  was  hastening  to  the  relief  of  Niagara,  General 
Pouchot  surrendered  and  the  flag  of  Britain  was  raised  over  its 
walls.  General  Prideaux  was  buried  in  the  chapel  of  the  fort.  "I 
was  the  chief  mourner,"  writes  Sir  William  Johnson  in  his  private 
diary.  The  jurisdiction  of  Sir  Willam  extended  over  all  the  tribes 

167 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


of  the  northern  colonies.  He  died  in  July,  1774,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son,  Sir  John,  who  had  been  knighted  during  his 
father's  lifetime.  The  third  baronet  was  Sir 
Adam  Gordon  Johnson,  the  eldest  surviving  son 
of  Sir  John.  Sir  Adam  Gordon  dying  without 
issue,  Sir  William  George  Johnson  became  fourth 
baronet,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  his  nephew,  the 
present  holder  of  the  title,  Sir  Edward  Gordon 
Johnson,  of  Montreal. 

Johnstown,  in  Fulton  County,  New  York, 
originally  (1798)  named  Caughnawaga,  was 
founded  by  Sir  William  Johnson,  who  resided 
there  during  the  later  period  of  his  life.  Sir 
William  erected  in  1764  a  fine  mansion  house 
about  a  mile  from  and  on  ground  gently  elevated 
SIR  JOHN  JOHNSON,  above  the  village  of  Johnstown.  The  hall  itself 
is  built  of  wood,  but  the  buildings  or  wings  on 
each  side  are  of  stone,  pierced  with  loopholes  for  musketry.  When 
Sir  William  occupied  these  buildings  he  had  them  surrounded  by 
a  stone  breastwork.  While  in  possession  of  the  Johnson  family  this 
was  a  place  of  resort  for  the  Sachems  of  the  Six  Nations,  and  all 
the  Mohawks  repaired  thither  to  receive  their  presents  from  the 
British  Government. 

Sir  William  Johnson's  sons-in-law  were  both  interested  in  the 
Indians.  In  1761  Colonel  Guy  Johnson  was  appointed  one  of  the 
Deputy  Superintendents  of  the  Indian  Department,  and  in  1774, 
shortly  before  his  death,  Sir  William  wrote  the  King  asking  that 
Colonel  Guy  be  allowed  to  succeed  him  as 
Superintendent.  The  request  was  granted, 
Colonel  Daniel  Glaus  becoming  his  brother- 
in-law's  Deputy.  The  commission  held  by 
Sir  William  came  from  the  colony  of  New 
York  and  the  other  colonies  which  were 
leagued  together  against  the  Indians.  After 
the  Revolutionary  War,  however,  this  com- 
mission held  by  Colonel  Guy  as  Sir  William's 
successor  was  dropped,  and  Sir  John  John- 
son became  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs 
in  British  North  America. 

Fri.  14th  June — I  am  just  returned  to  Navy 
Hall  after  spending  a  month  with  Mrs.   Smith,         COL.  GUY  JOHNSON. 
wife  of  Lieut.  Smith,  of  the  5th,  at  the  Fort.  The 

cold  I  caught  the  9th  of  May  turned  to  dumb  ague  (that  is,  but  little  of 
the  cold  fit  and  a  continual  fever).  With  this  indisposition  I  found 
myself  extremely  inconvenienced  by  the  Commissioners'  residence  in  our 
small  house,  and  I  accepted  Mrs.  Smith's  friendly  invitation  to  visit  her, 
and  her  nursing  and  great  attention  to  my  health  enabled  me  to  recover  as 
soon  as  I  have  done.  Commodore  Grant,  who  commands  the  vessels  on 
Lake  Erie,  was  staying  at  Major  Smith's.  The  Queen's  Rangers  have 
left  the  huts  at  Queenstown,  and  are  encamped  on  the  mountain  above. 

168 


PROMINENT  MEN  IN  PROVINCE 

It  is  a  fine,  dry,  healthy  spot,  and  the  tents  look  extremely  pretty  among 
the  large  oaks  which  grow  on  the  mountain. 

NOTE. — Honorable  Alexander  Grant,  born  1734,  was  second  son 
of  Patrick,  seventh  laird  of  Grant  of  Glenmoriston,  Inverness-shire. 
He  served  in  the  Royal  Navy  as  a  midshipman,  and  was  with  Amherst 
in  the  Lake  Champlain  expedition  in  the  Seven 
Years'  War.  Later  he  was  placed  in  command  of 
lake  vessels  from  Niagara  to  Mackinaw,  and  was 
known  as  Commodore  Grant.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  first  Executive  and  Legislative  Council, 
and  Administrator  of  Upper  Canada  from  llth 
September,  1805,  to  24th  August,  1806,  during 
the  interval  between  Lieutenant-Governor  Hunter 
and  Lieutenant-Governor  Gore.  In  1774  he  mar- 
ried Therese  Barthe,  by  whom  he  had  eleven 
children — one  son,  Colonel  Grant  of  Brockville, 
and  ten  daughters.  His  fifth  daughter,  Archange, 
married  Thomas  Dickson  of  Queenston.  His 
sixth  daughter,  Phyllis,  married  Alexander  Duff, 
of  Amherstburg.  His  seventh  daughter,  Isabelle,  married  Cap- 
tain Gilkinson  of  Brantford,  with  issue,  seven  sons  including 
Archibald,  County  Court  Judge,  Picton,  and  Colonel  Jasper  of 
Brantford.  Nancy,  the  eighth  daughter,  married  George  Jacob, 
of  Kent  County.  The  ninth  daughter,  Elizabeth,  married  James 
Woods  of  Sandwich,  two  of  their  sons  being  the  late  Joseph 
Woods,  M.P.  for  Kent,  and  the  late  Judge  R.  S.  Woods,  of 
Chatham.  Another  daughter,  Jean  Cameron,  married  William 
Richardson  of  Brantford,  and  their  daughter  became  the  wife  of  the 
late  Henry  Racey  of  Brantford,  proprietor  of  the  Brantford  Expositor. 
Grant's  wife  was  a  sister  of  the  second  wife  of  Colonel  John  Askin. 
The  Commodore's  death  took  place  in  May,  1813,  at  his  residence  at 
Grosse  Point,  called  Grant  Castle,  on  Lake  St.  Clair,  which  was 
noted  for  the  courtesy  of  its  host  and  his  open-handed  hospitality. 
Here  Tecumseh  and  his  warriors  were  frequent  guests  of  the  Commo- 
dore, who  was  a  man  of  commanding  presence,  a  good  officer  and  a 
general  favorite.  There  are  many  great-grandchildren  and  great- 
great-grandchildren.  A  mural  tablet  to  the  memory  of  Grant  was 
erected  by  his  grandson,  the  late  Judge  Woods  of  Chatham,  in  St. 
John's  Church,  Sandwich. 

Sun.  23rd — Mr.  Talbot  went  to  Sandusky  to  deliver  papers  to  Coll. 
McKee. 

NOTE. — Colonel  Alexander  McKee,  who  was  Indian  Agent  at 
Pittsburg  before  the  Revolutionary  War,  was  imprisoned  at  that 
place  during  the  outbreak  by  the  Revolutionists.  He  escaped,  how- 
ever, and  later  became  Deputy  Superintendent-General  of  Indian 
Affairs,  the  Superintendent-General  being  Sir  John  Johnson.  Colonel 
McKee  was  a  Justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  at  Detroit.  He 
died  on  14th  January,  1799.  His  son,  Thomas  Alexander  McKee 

171 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

(known  as  Colonel  Thomas  or  Colonel  Alexander  McKee),  who  mar- 
ried Therese  Askin,  daughter  of  Colonel  John  Askin,  was  one  of  the 
members  for  Kent  in  the  Second  Legislature  of  Upper  Canada,  1796- 
1800,  and  one  of  the  members  for  Essex  in  the  third  Legislature. 
It  is  a  coincidence  that  in  the  Legislature  of  Ontario  from  1894- 
1902,  William  Johnson  McKee  of  Windsor,  his  great-grandson,  and 
consequently  great-great-grandson  of  Colonel  Alexander  McKee, 
represented  the  county  of  Essex. 

Wed.  26th — The  Indian  Commissioners  went  to  Fort  Brie.  Coll.  Pick- 
ering gave  me  a  receipt  to  make  chowder  of  salmon,  sea  biscuit  and  pork; 
it  is  stewed  for  twenty  minutes. 

Thurs.  27th — We  dined  alone  for  the  first  time  since  we  left  Quebec. 
The  Governor  having  no  business  to  attend  to,  and  the  weather  delightful, 
we  crossed  the  water,  and  drank  tea  on  a  pretty  green  bank,  from  which 
there  is  a  good  view  of  Navy  Hall,  and  we  enjoyed  this  half-holiday  amaz- 
ingly. 

Fri.  28th — We  rode  to  Queenstown  and  slept  there.  The  thermometer 
was  86  to-day. 

Sat.  29th — Breakfasted  in  the  camp  and  rode  on  to  the  Falls,  seven 
miles;  dined  there,  and  went  to  Burch's  Mills,  two  miles  above  the  (Falls. 
We  returned  to  tea  in  the  camp,  but  the  heat  was  so  excessive  we  were 
obliged  to  stop  on  the  road  and  drink  milk  and  water,  and  eat  fruit  at 
Mrs.  Tice's,  wife  of  Lieut.  Tice,  of  the  Indian  Department,  who  lived  at 
the  Falls.  The  thermometer  has  been  at  96  to-day.  We  slept  in  the  hut, 
but  I  determined  in  future  to  sleep  on  the  mountain.  I  saw  a  stuffed 
rattlesnake,  which  was  killed  near  Queenstown  in  the  act  of  swallowing 
a  black  squirrel.  The  snake  measured  five  feet  six  inches  long,  and  had 
seven  rattles. 

NOTE. — John  Burch  had  a  saw  and  grist  mill  near  the  Falls  on 
lot  174,  township  No.  2,  in  the  year  1786.  In  1791  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Land  Board  and  in  1795  was  Justice  of  the  Peace.  In  Lundy's 
Lane  Cemetery  is  an  inscription  "In  Memory  of  John  Burch,  Esq., 
who  departed  this  life  March  7th,  1797,  aged  55."  His  son,  John 
Burch,  Jr.,  was  Grand  Secretary  of  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge 
of  Freemasons  of  Upper  Canada  at  Niagara,  1817-1819. 

Gilbert  Tice  came  to  Niagara  in  1786,  where  he  was  a  member 
of  the  Land  Board  in  1791.  He  is  given  as  Captain  Gilbert  Tice 
in  the  list  of  United  Empire  Loyalists  in  the  Indian  Department, 
with  a  wife  and  four  children.  He  was  a  veteran  of  the  French 
War,  and,  under  the  patronage  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  kept  a  large 
inn  at  Johnstown,  N.  Y.,  before  the  Loyalist  migration. 

Sun.  30th — Returned  to  Navy  Hall  in  a  boat  the  Commissioners  left 
here,  which  is  a  very  good  one,  with  an  awning  and  green  curtain.  The 
heat  excessively  great. 

Tues,  July  2nd — Jacob  Lewis  and  Aaron  Hill,  the  two  Indians  who 
carried  mails  from  Detroit,  came  here.  The  latter  was  well  dressed  and 
looked  very  handsome.  Lewis'  wife  was  with  him;  a  very  pretty  woman, 
the  only  handsome  woman  -I  have  seen  among  the  Indians.  We  treated 
them  with  cherries.  The  Indians  are  particularly  fond  of  fruit.  We  have 
thirty  large  May  Duke  cherry  trees  behind  the  house,,  and  three  standard 
peach  trees,  which  supplied  us  last  autumn  for  tarts  and  desserts  during 
six  weeks,  besides  the  numbers  the  young  men  eat.  My  share  was  trifling 
compared  with  theirs,  and  I  eat  thirty  in  a  day.  They  were  very  small 

172 


MRS.  SIMCOE  CAMPS  AT  QUEENSTOWN 

and  high  flavoured.     When  tired  of  eating  them  raw,  Mr.  Talbot  roasted 
them,  and  they  were  very  good. 

Fri.  5th — Francis  has  been  very  ill,  and  the  extreme  heat  of  this  place 
is  thought  to  be  prejudicial  to  him.  It  is,  therefore,  determined  that  I 
shall  take  him  to  the  camp  on  the  mountain.  I  shall  have  an  establish- 
ment of  two  marquees,  a  tent  and  two  sentries.  The  Governor  will  come 
to  see  us  whenever  he  has  leisure;  my  dinner  is  to  be  sent  every  day  from 
Navy  Hall.  This  day  I  embarked  at  one  o'clock  on  board  the  gunboat  with 
Francis  and  Sophia,  and  Mr.  Mayne,  of  the  Rangers,  attended  me.  I  left 
the  thermometer  at  90,  but  it  is  pleasant  on  the  water.  It  requires  a 
strong,  steady  wind  to  carry  vessels  to  the  Landing,  as  the  current  runs 
four  knots  an  hour  against  them.  The  gunboat,  not  having  top  sails, 
catches  but  little  wind  between  the  high  banks.  It  blew  fresh  when  we 
embarked,  but  soon  became  calm.  Mr.  Bouchette,  for  the  honour  of  his 
vessel,  declared  we  were  going  on,  but  as  it  was  not  apparent  to  Mr.  Mayne 
and  myself  that  we  made  the  least  way,  we  had  the  boat  let  down,  and 
proceeded  the  remaining  three  miles  in  it.  I  was  much  fatigued  in 
ascending  the  mountain;  we  reached  the  camp  about  five  o'clock.  I  dined 
alone.  The  Governor  came  to  supper.  The  mosquito  net  was  not  brought, 
and  I  passed  a  most  wretched  night.  Mr.  Talbot  returned  from  the  Miami, 
where  a  fort  had  been  built  by  order  of  the  Governor-General,  Lord  Dor- 
chester. The  Indians  have  sent  a  deputation  to  the  Commissioners,  to 
desire  to  converse  with  them  at  Niagara  before  they  proceed  to  the 
Miami,  as  Wayne's  army  has  advanced  nearer  to  them  than  they  expected. 
Sat.  6th — The  Governor  returned  to  Navy  Hall,  as  did  the  Commis- 
sioners and  some  Indian  chiefs. 

Sun.  7th — The  Governor  came  to  supper.  The  Indians  have  demanded 
whether  the  Commissioners  have  full  powers  to  fix  a  boundary;  they 
are  to  reply  to-morrow.  The  "  Mississaga "  arrived  with  270  Indians 
from  St.  Regis.  They  belong  to  the  tribes  called  the  Seven  Nations  of 
Canada.  They  speak  French,  are  much  civilized,  and  have  a  good  deal 
of  the  manners  of  Frenchmen. 

NOTE. — The  term  "Seven  Nations"  is  an  error.  There  were  the 
"  Six  Nations  "  but  not  "  Seven."  The  Mississagas  were  for  a  time 
encamped  near  the  "Six  Nations"  and  they  were  called  by  some 
people  the  "Seven  Nations." 

Mon.  8th — Another  Indian  Council  held  to-day  at  Navy  Hall,  at  which 
the  Commissioners  declared  that  they  had  full  power  to  fix  a  boundary. 

Tues.  9th — It  was  determined  in  the  Indian  Council  to-day  that  the 
Commissioners  and  Indian  deputies  shall  go  to  Sandusky  to  treat.  The 
Seven  Nations  having  no  conductor  or  officer  with  them,  Mr.  Talbot  will 
accompany  them  to  Sandusky.  The  House  of  Assembly  (the  second 
session  of  the  first  Legislature)  was  prorogued  to-day. 

My  marquee  commands  the  most  beautiful  view  of  the  river  and  lake 
seen  between  the  finest  oak  trees,  among  which  there  is  always  a  breeze  of 
wind.  The  music  tent  is  at  such  a  distance  as  to  sound  pleasantly.  Mrs. 
Hamilton  and  Mrs.  Richardson  were  with  me  in  my  arbour  when  we 
heard  so  violent  a  clap  of  thunder  as  made  us  all  stoop  our  heads;  the 
lightning  followed  instantly.  We  ran  into  the  tent,  and  stayed  until  a 
violent  torrent  of  rain  had  abated.  On  coming  out  I  observed  an  oak, 
which  had  stood  close  to  the  arbour,  was  much  blasted  by  the  lightning. 
Mrs.  Hamilton  took  Francis  home  with  her,  lest  he  should  catch  cold  from 
the  damp  of  the  tents  after  the  violent  rain.  I  drank  tea  and  slept  at 
Mrs.  Hamilton's. 

NOTE. — The  First  Legislature  of  Upper  Canada  met  from  Sep- 
tember, 1792,  to  June,  1796,  at  Navy  Hall,  Niagara.  The  following 
is  a  list  of  the  Sessions  with  dates  of  meeting: — First  Session,  17th 

175 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

September-15th  October,  1792;  second  session,  31st  May-9th  July, 
1793;  third  session,  2nd  June-9th  July,  1794;  fourth  session,  6th 
July-lOth  August,  1795;  fifth  session,  16th  May-3rd  June,  1796. 

Mrs.  Eichardson,  wife  of  Dr.  Richardson,  surgeon  of  the  Queen's 
Rangers,  was  Madeleine  Askin,  second  daughter  by  his  first  wife 
of  Colonel  John  Askin  of  Detroit.  They  were  married  on  the  24th 
of  January,  1793,  by  the  Rev.  Robert  Addison,  who  had  been  sent 
to  Niagara  by  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel,  and 
was  afterwards  first  Rector  of  St.  Mark's  Church  there.  Although 
the  church  was  not  opened  until  August,  1809,  parish  records  were 
kept  from  1792,  and  one  of  these  shows  that  on  "24th  January, 
1793,  Dr.  Robert  Richardson,  blr.,  and  Madeleine  Askin,  spinr.," 
were  married.  Mrs.  Richardson  became  the  mother  of  Major  John 
Richardson,  Canadian  novelist,  author  of  "Wacousta." 

Thurs.  llth — I  walked  to  the  camp.  The  Governor  went  to  Navy  Hall. 
I  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Hamilton,  and  saw  the  Seven  Nations  pass. 

Fri.  12th — Mr.  Talbot  dined  with  me  on  his  way  to  Fort  Erie. 

Mon.  15th — A  wet  day,  which  is  very  dismal  in  a  tent;  but  to  see  the 
light  again,  and  feel  the  air  dry,  is  such  a  pleasure  that  none  can  judge 
of  but  those  who  have  felt  the  reverse. 

Tues.  16th — We  dined  in  the  hut,  and  Mr.  Mayne,  of  the  Rangers, 
drove  me  to  Navy  Hall  in  the  afternoon  in  a  gig  we  have  had  made,  in 
which  he  drove  two  horses  tandem;  it  is  so  light  that  we  went  to  Navy 
Hall,  which  is  seven  miles,  in  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  and  returned  to 
the  Landing  by  eight  o'clock.  The  road  is  good  but  for  the  stumps  of  trees 
on  each  side,  which  it  requires  attention  to  avoid;  but  my  charioteer  left 
Westminster,  the  school  for  boys  in  Dean's  Yard,  Westminster,  last  year, 
so  you  may  conclude  him  to  be  a  steady  person.  He  is  a  protege  of  Lord 
Amherst's.  He  supplies  Mr.  Talbot's  place  when  he  is  absent. 

Thurs.  18th — The  weather  being  very  hot,  we  went  again  to  the  camp. 
In  the  evening  we  rode  to  Mrs.  Tice's,  a  pleasant  situation,  like  some  in 
Epping  Forest;  it  is  three  miles  from  the  camp. 

Fri.  19th — Went  to  Navy  Hall;  caught  cold  by  going  out  this  evening 
without  a  fur  tippet,  which  the  great  dew  renders  necessary  after  the  very 
hot  days. 

Sat.  20th — Capt.  Shaw  and  100  men  set  off  in  batteau  for  Toronto. 
Sometimes  these  batteau  sail  around  the  lake  by  the  south  shore  to  the 
head  of  the  lake,  and  then  by  the  north  to  Toronto,  but  in  fine  weather 
they  cross  the  lake  going  direct.  I  drank  tea  at  the  fort  (across  the  river). 

Sun.  21st — Extremely  hot  weather.  Rode  to  the  camp  this  evening, 
and  found  it  cooler  and  less  damp  than  at  Navy  Hall.  The  mountain  is 
covered  with  a  sweet,  purple  flower,  the  roots  of  which,  infused  in  brandy, 
make  a  wholesome  cordial.  It  is  called  Oswego  bitter.  Mr.  Russell  (Hon. 
Peter  Russell)  says  it  is  a  wild  balm  of  Gilead,  and  that  an  oil  may  be 
extracted  from  it.  The  leaves,  dried,  are  good  in  pea  soup  or  forced 
meat.  By  some  mistake  my  dinner  did  not  arrive  from  Navy  Hall  one 
day  last  week,  but  I  had  some  of  the  excellent  New  York  biscuits,  which  1 
eat,  and  said  nothing  about  my  dinner,  feeling  a  pleasure  in  being  able  to 
be  independent. 

Mon.  22nd — We  crossed  the  water  to  the  Ferry  House  (Lewiston, 
N.Y. ),  opposite  Queenstown,  and  breakfasted  in  an  arbour  covered  with 
wild  vines  and  beautifully  situated  on  the  bank  of  the  river.  We  rode 
up  the  hill  to  the  spot  where  the  French  had  a  fort  built  about  1750.  We 
saw  a  very  extensive  view  towards  the  head  of  the  lake.  On  our  return 
we  found  the  arbour  so  cool  and  pleasant  that  the  Governor  sent  for  his 
writing-box,  and  we  stayed  here  the  whole  day.  After  dinner  I  ascended 

176 


MRS.  SIMOOE  AT  TORONTO 

the  hill  again  and  made  a  sketch.    We  supped  in  the  camp.     The  "  Cald- 
well "  sailed,  with  Capt.  Smith,  for  Toronto. 

Tues.  23rd — Excessively  hot  weather.  The  Governor  went  to  Navy 
Hall.  Francis  is  much  better,  but  weak.  I  see  him  almost  every  day,  but 
did  not  choose  to  pay  Mrs.  Hamilton  so  long  a  visit,  tho'  I  feel  greatly 
obliged  to  her  for  keeping  the  child.  I  have  just  heard  that  the  "  Onon- 
daga  "  is  arrived  at  Navy  Hall  to  take  us  to  Toronto.  Whether  we  shall 
remain  there,  and  the  regiment  build  huts  for  their  winter  residence,  is 
not  yet  decided. 

Thurs.  25th — Went  this  evening  to  Navy  Hall. 

Sat.  27th— I  went  to  church.  Drank  tea  at  the  fort.  My  Marvel  of 
pine  is  in  great  beauty  (evidently  a  plant  or  shrub). 

Sun.  28th — An  experiment  of  firing  shells  from  cannon  was  made  at 
the  Fort  by  the  Governor's  orders. 

Mon.  29th — We  were  prepared  to  sail  for  Toronto  this  morning,  but 
the  wind  changed  suddenly.  We  dined  with  the  Chief  Justice,  and  were 
recalled  from  a  walk  at  nine  o'clock  this  evening,  as  the  wind  had  become 
fair.  We  embarked  on  board  the  "  Mississaga,"  the  band  playing  in  the 
ship.  It  was  dark,  so  I  went  to  bed  and  slept  until  eight  o'clock  the  next 
morning,  when  I  found  myself  in  the  harbour  of  Toronto.  We  had  gone 
under  an  easy  sail  all  night,  for  as  no  person  on  board  had  ever  been  at 
Toronto,  Mr.  Bouchette  was  afraid  to  enter  the  harbour  till  daylight,  when 
St.  John  Rosseau,  an  Indian  trader  who  lives  near,  came  in  a  boat  to 
pilot  us. 

NOTE. — The  Governor,  it  seems,  was  not  one  of  the  passengers  on 
this  occasion,  for  although  Mrs.  Simcoe  uses  the  word  "we,"  she 
continues  by  saying  that  "no  person  on  board  had  ever  been  at 
Toronto."  The  Governor  had  visited  Toronto  on  Tuesday,  the  3rd 
May — his  first  visit — and  was  at  that  port  until  the  12th,  when  he 
returned  to  Navy  Hall.  He  was  in  Niagara  on  the  28th  July  and  in 
York  on  the  6th  of  August.  There  is  no  entry  in  the  diary  as  to 
the  date  he  left  Niagara  or  of  his  arrival  in  York. 

St.  John  (St.  Jean  Baptiste)  Rousseau  lived  in  1793  on  St. 
John's  Creek,  later  known  as  the  Humber.  He  settled  in  Ancaster 
in  1795,  where  he  built  the  first  grist  and  saw  mill  on  the  site  of 
the  present  village.  He  was  a  member  of  Masonic  Lodge,  No.  10, 
in  the  township  of  Barton,  known  to-day  as  Barton  Lodge,  No.  6, 
Hamilton.  He  died  in  1815. 

Tues.  30th — The  Queen's  Rangers  are  encamped  opposite  to  the  ship. 
After  dinner  we  went  on  shore  to  fix  on  a  spot  whereon  to  place  the 
canvas  houses,  and  we  chose  a  rising  ground,  divided  by  a  creek  from 
the  camp,  which  is  ordered  to  be  cleared  immediately.  The  soldiers  have 
cut  down  a  great  deal  of  wood  to  enable  them  to  pitch  their  tents.  We 
went  in  a  boat  two  miles  to  the  'bottom  of  the  bay,  and  walked  thro'  a 
grove  of  oaks,  where  the  town  is  intended  to  be  built.  A  law  spit  of  land, 
covered  with  wood,  forms  the  bay  and  breaks  the  horizon  of  the  lake, 
which  greatly  improves  the  view,  which  indeed  is  very  pleasfng.  The 
water  in  the  bay  is  beautifully  clear  and  transparent. 

NOTE. — The  "rising  ground"  where  the  party  camped  was  east  of 
the  site  of  the  present  Old  Fort,  at  the  Queen's  Wharf,  Toronto. 
The  "Creek"  known  now  as  the  Garrison  Creek  ran  from  the  north- 
west, along  the  east  side  of  the  Fort,  but  now  the  creek  is  drained. 
Bellwoods  Park  is  a  portion  of  its  old  bed.  The  grove  referred  to 

179 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

was  situated  on  that  part  of  Toronto  bounded  by  George  Street  on 
the  west,  Parliament  Street  on  the  east,  Queen  Street  on  the  north 
and  Toronto  Bay  on  the  south.  Early  pictures  of  that  part  of  the 
city  show  oak  trees  along  the  line  of  Palace  Street,  the  present  Front 
Street.  The  spit  of  land  is  the  present  island,  in  1793  a  peninsula. 

Sun.  Aug.  4th — We  rode  on  the  peninsula  opposite  Toronto,  so  I  called 
the  spit  of  land,  for  it  is  united  to  the  mainland  by  a  very  narrow  neck 
of  ground.  We  crossed  the  bay  opposite  the  camp,  and  rode  by  the  lake 
side  to  the  end  of  the  peninsula. 

NOTE. — The  party  crossed  the  bay  of  Toronto  from  their  camp 
on  the  shore  near  the  site  of  the  Old  Fort,  and  landed  at  the  present 
Hanlan's  Point,  known  in  the  early  days  as  Gibraltar  Point.  This 
point  is  shown  in  all  the  Government  maps  from  1796  as  "Gibraltar 
Point."  When  Mrs.  Simcoe  writes  later  on  that  the  "Onondaga" 
on  her  way  from  Kingston  to  York  was  "off  Gibraltar  Point  at  York" 
when  passing  the  present  Lighthouse  Point,  she  wrote  in  error. 
The  peninsula  in  1793  joined  the  mainland  at  the  foot  of  the 
present  Woodbine  Avenue.  In  1854  the  waters  of  Lake  Ontario  broke 
through  and  created  the  present  Island.  Later  the  eastern  channel 
was  made,  now  used  by  the  largest  lake  boats. 

4th — We  met  with  some  good  natural  meadows  and  several  ponds. 
The  trees  are  mostly  of  the  poplar  kind,  covered  with  wild  vines,  and 
there  are  some  fir.  On  the  ground  were  everlasting  peas  creeping  in 
abundance,  of  a  purple  color.  I  am  told  they  are  good  to  eat  when  boiled, 
and  some  pretty,  white  flowers,  like  lilies  of  the  valley.  We  continued 
our  ride  beyond  the  peninsula  on  the  sands  of  the  north  shore  of  Lake 
Ontario  till  we  were  impeded  by  large  trees  on  the  beach.  We  then  walked 
some  distance  till  we  met  with  Mr.  Grant's  (the  surveyor's)  boat.  It 
was  not  much  larger  than  a  canoe,  but  we  ventured  into  it,  and  after 
rowing  a  mile  we  came  within  sight  of  what  is  named,  in  the  map,  the 
highlands  of  Toronto.  The  shore  is  extremely  bold,  and  has  the  appear- 
ance of  chalk  cliffs,  but  I  believe  they  are  only  white  sand.  They  appeared 
so  well  that  we  talked  of  building  a  summer  residence  there  and  calling 
it  Scarborough. 

NOTE. — The  party  rowed  east  on  Lake  Ontario,  to  the  present 
highlands  known  from  the  name  given  them  by  Governor  Simcoe  as 
Scarborough  Heights.  The  summer  residence  was  not  built  at  the 
Heights,  but  a  couple  of  miles  up  the  Don  River  at  the  place  known 
as  "Castle  Frank." 

4th — The  diversity  of  scenes  I  met  with  this  morning  made  bhe  ride 
extremely  pleasant.  The  wooded  part  of  the  peninsula  was  like  shrubbery. 
The  sands  towards  the  lake  reminded  me  of  the  sands  at  Weymouth,  and 
the  sight  of  the  highlands  presented  a  totally  different  country  to  anything 
near  the  bay,  tho'  I  was  not  more  than  four  miles  from  it.  I  was  very 
near  riding  into  what  appeared  a  quicksand,  which,  with  a  little  rain 
and  wind  we  met  with  for  half  an  hour  as  we  rode  from  the  shore  to  the 
Mississaga,  were  the  only  unpleasant  incidents  that  occurred  this  day. 
After  dinner  we  left  the  Mississaga,  and  slept  to-night  in  the  canvas  house. 

NOTE.— The  canvas  house  was  one  of  three  or  four  large  and  small 
tents  that  Governor  Simcoe  bought  in  London  at  the  sale  of  the  effects 
of  Captain  Cook,  the  explorer.  The  original  drawings  of  these  tents 

180 


VISIT  TO  OLD  FRENCH  FORT 

are  in  the  British  Museum,  and  facsimiles  will  appear  in  my  biog- 
raphy of  Governor  Simcoe. 

Mon.  5th — The  children  came  on  shore;  this  afternoon  we  walked  two 
miles  to  the  old  French  Fort,  but  there  are  no  remains  of  any  building 
there.  It  rained  very  hard,  and  I  was  as  completely  wet  as  if  I  had 
walked  through  a  river,  for  being  in  a  shower  in  the  woods  is  quite 
different  from  being  exposed  to  it  in  an  open  country;  every  tree  acted  as 
a  shower  bath,  as  the  path  was  just  wide  enough  to  admit  of  one  person. 
We  passed  some  creeks  and  unhewn  trees  thrown  across,  a  matter  of 
some  difficulty  to  those  unaccustomed  to  them.  I  should  think  it  might 
be  done  with  less  danger  of  falling  with  moccasins  on  the  feet. 

NOTE. — The  "old  French  Fort"  was  Fort  Rouille,  erected  about 
1750  and  named  after  the  French  Colonial  Minister  of  that  name.  It 
was  a  stockade  trading  post,  popularly  known  as  Fort  Toronto,  but 
officially  as  Fort  Rouille,  and  the  site  was  at  the  foot  of  Dufferin 
Street,  Toronto,  now  marked  by  a  monument.  Mrs.  Simcoe's  calcu- 
lation of  distance  seems  to  have  been  erroneous,  for  it  is  less  than  a 
mile  from  the  camp,  which  was  east  of  Garrison  Creek,  to  the  ruins 
of  the  French  Fort.  Probably  the  pathway  to  the  ruins  was  circuitous 
and  as  they  were  walking  through  the  woods  the  distance  may  have 
led  Mrs.  Simcoe  to  the  belief  that  they  had  gone  two  miles. 

Tues.  6th — Having  been  -wet  thro'  these  last  two  days,  I  declined 
going  with  the  Governor  to  see  a  mill  on  St.  John's  Creek,  six  miles 
towards  the  head  of  the  lake.  The  Governor  brought  me  some  very  good 
cakes.  The  miller's  wife  is  from  the  United  States,  where  the  women 
excel  in  making  cakes  and  bread. 

NOTE. — In  November  of  1678,  the  Franciscan  Friar  La  Motte 
and  Hennepin  sailed  from  Fort  Frontenac  for  Niagara.  On  the 
26th  they  arrived  at  the  Indian  village  of  Taiaiagon,  near  Toronto, 
probably  a  few  miles  west  of  the  mouth  of  the  Humber  River,  where 
they  ran  their  vessel  for  safety  into  the  mouth  of  the  river,  which 
Parkman  says  was  "probably  the  Humber."  The  site  of  this  Indian 
village  is  shown  in  a  manuscript  map  sent  to  France  by  Intendant 
Duchesneau  and  is  now  in  the  Archives  de  la  Marine  in  Paris.  The 
word  "Taiaiagon"  means  a  portage  or  landing  place,  and  it  is  very 
doubtful  if  Hennepin  in  its  use  intended  to  refer  to  the  site  of 
Toronto.  There  is  no  certainty  as  to  the  derivation  or  meaning 
of  the  word  Toronto.  In  early  maps  Lake  Simcoe  is  called  "Lac 
Tarento"  and  "Lac  Taronthe."  Toronto  evidently  denoted  Lake  Sim- 
coe and  the  surrounding  region.  In  LaHontan's  map  the  Humber 
River  is  marked  Tanaouate.  By  others  it  was  called  Toronto  River. 

In  the  maps  of  1756  the  river  Humber,  two  miles  west  of  Toronto, 
is  given  as  St.  John's  Creek.  It  is,  however,  given  as  the  Humber 
by  D.  W.  Smith,  A.S.G.,  on  31st  January,  1798,  in  a  plan  of  Humber 
Mills,  while  State  Papers  H.  1,  1798,  are  entitled  "Papers  re  Humber 
Mills."  They  contain  a  letter  from  John  Wil?on  offering  to  pur- 
chase the  Government  Saw  Mills  on  the  Humber,  and  "a  statement 
of  annual  income  arising  from  the  Government  Saw  Mills  on  the 
Humber,  commencing  May,  1794,  and  ending  December  31st,  1797," 

183 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

signed  by  John  McGill,  Superintendent  Saw  Mill  Accounts.  A  map 
of  the  Province  of  Upper  Canada  describing  all  the  new  Settlements, 
Townships,  etc.,  with  the  Counties  adjacent,  from  Quebec  to  Lake 
Huron,  compiled  at  the  request  of  His.  Excellency  Major-General 
John  Graves  Simcoe,  First  Lieu  tenant-Governor,  etc.,  by  David  William 
Smyth,  Esq.,  Surveyor-General,  London,  Faden,  1800,  is  the  earliest 
map  in  the  Archives  Department,  Ottawa,  giving  the  name  Humber. 
The  Government  Mill  was  situated  about  the  site  of  the  ruins  of  the 
present  "old  mill."  It  is  believed  that  after  the  War  of  1812-4  it 
was  never  used.  The  Surveyor-General  spelt  his  name  indifferently 
"Smith"  and  "Smyth." 

Wed.  7th — I  rode  on  the  peninsula  from  one  till  four.  I  saw  loons 
swimming  on  the  lake;  they  make  a  noise  like  a  man  hollowing  in  a 
tone  of  distress.  One  of  these  birds  was  sent  to  me  dead  at  Niagara;  it 
was  as  large  as  a  swan,  black,  with  a  few  white  marks  on  it.  At  a  dis- 
tance they  appear  like  small  fishing  boats.  The  air  on  these  sands  is 
peculiarly  clear  and  fine.  The  Indians  esteem  this  place  so  healthy  that 
they  come  and  stay  here  when  they  are  ill. 

Fri.  9th — Some  Indians  of  the  Ojibway  tribe  came  from  near  Lake 
Huron.  They  are  extremely  handsome,  and  have  a  superior  air  to  any  1 
have  seen;  they  have  been  living  among  Europeans,  therefore  less  accus- 
tomed to  drink  rum.  Some  wore  black  silk  handkerchiefs,  covered  with 
silver  brooches,  tied  right  round  the  head,  others  silver  bands,  silver  arm 
bands,  and  their  shirts  ornamented  with  brooches;  scarlet  leggings  or 
pantaloons,  and  black,  blue  or  scarlet  broadcloth  blankets.  These  Indians 
brought  the  Governor  "  a  beaver  blanket  to  make  his  bed,"  as  they  ex- 
pressed themselves,  apologized  for  not  having  done  it  sooner,  and  invited 
him  to  visit  their  country. 

NOTE. — The  territory  occupied  by  the  Ojibway  nation  was  the 
largest  in  extent  of  any  Indian  possessions  of  which  there  is  a  definite 
knowledge.  When  the  Champlain  traders  met  the  Ojibways  in  1610, 
their  eastern  boundary  was  marked  by  the  waters  of  Lakes  Huron 
and  Michigan.  The  mountain  ridge  lying  between  Lake  Superior 
and  the  frozen  bay  (Hudson  Bay)  was  the  northern  barrier.  On 
the  west  stretched  a  forest,  beyond  which  was  a  vast  prairie.  On 
the  south,  a  valley,  by  Lake  Superior,  thence  to  the  southern  part 
of  Michigan.  The  land  within  these  boundaries  has  always  been 
known  as  the  country  of  the  Ojibways. 

Sat.  10th — I  went  to  my  favourite  sands;  the  bay  is  a  mile  across. 
The  Governor  thinks,  from  the  manner  in  which  the  sandbanks  are  formed, 
they  are  capable  of  being  fortified  so  as  to  be  impregnable;  he  therefore 
calls  it  "Gibraltar  Point,"  tho'  the  land  is  low. 

Sun.  llth — Lt.  Smith  of  the  5th  Regiment  who  is  here  as  Acting 
Deputy  Surveyor-General  read  prayers  to  the  Queen's  Rangers  assembled 
under  some  trees  near  the  parade.  This  evening  we  went  to  see  a  creek 
which  is  to  be  called  the  River  Don.  It  falls  into  the  bay  near  the  penin- 
sula. After  we  entered  we  rowed  some  distance  among  low  lands  covered 
with  rushes,  abounding  with  wild  ducks  and  swamp  black  birds,  with  red 
wings.  About  a  mile  beyond  the  bay  the  banks  become  high  and  wooded 
as  the  river  contracts  its  width. 

Lt.  Smith  has  drawn  a  fine  map  of  the  La  Tranche  River.  From  what 
has  been  surveyed,  it  is  proved  that  Charlevoix,  the  French  explorer's 
map,  describes  the  country  with  great  truth.  If  the  line  from  the  road 

184 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

to  the  river  La  Tranche  was  laid  down  according  to  its  true  bearings  on 
any  map  but  Charlevoix's,  it  would  strike  Lake  Erie  instead  of  La  Tranche. 

NOTE. — The  Indian  name  of  the  Don  River  was  "Wonscoteonach," 
signifying  "back  burnt  grounds,"  that  is,  the  river  coming  clown 
from  the  back  burnt  country,  which  had  previously  been  swept  by  fire. 
The  term  is  merely  descriptive  and  not  a  proper  name.  The  creek 
which  Mrs.  Simcoe  states  is  "to  be  called  the  River  Don,"  was  so  named 
by  the  Governor  on  this  visit  to  Toronto.  He  very  often  discussed  the 
naming  of  places  in  the  Province  with  his  wife.  This  is  gathered 
from  letters  at  Wolford. 

Sir  David  William  Smith,  only  child  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John  Smith,  of  the  Fifth  Foot, 
was  born  4th  September,  1764.  He  was  ensign 
in  his  father's  regiment  and  afterwards  captain. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Executive  Council  and 
of  the  three  first  Canadian  Parliaments.  He 
was  also  Surveyor-General  of  Upper  Canada.  In 
1821  he  was  created  a  baronet.  He  died  in  Eng- 
land in  the  spring  of  1837. 

Tues.  13th — An  Indian  named  Wable  Casigo  sup-  giB  D.  W.  SMITH. 
plies  us  with  salmon,  which  the  rivers  and  creeks  on 

this  shore  abound  with.  It  is  supposed  they  go  to  the  sea;  the  velocity 
with  which  fish  move  makes  it  not  impossible,  and  the  very  red 
appearance  and  goodness  of  the  salmon  confirms  the  supposition;  they  are 
best  in  the  month  of  June.  I  brought  a  favourite  white  cat,  with 
grey  spots,  with  me  from  Niagara.  He  is  a  native  of  Kingston.  His 
sense  and  attachment  are  such  that  those  who  believe  in  trans- 
migration would  think  his  soul  once  animated  a  reasoning  being.  He 
was  undaunted  on  board  the  ship,  sits  composedly  as  sentinel  at  my 
door,  amid  the  beat  of  drums  and  the  crash  of  falling  trees,  and  visits  the 
tent  with  as  little  fear  as  a  dog  would  do.  There  has  been  a  fever  at 
Niagara.  This  place  is  very  healthy,  and  I  think  it  probable  we  shall 
spend  the  winter  here.  'Mr.  Talbot  is  still  in  Philadelphia;  Mr.  Grey  at 
Quebec.  He  has  broken  his  arm  there.  The  Governor  has  the  gout  in 
his  foot  very  slightly.  He  has  just  received  a  letter  from  Prince  Edward, 
lamenting  his  not  obtaining  leave  to  go  to  England. 

Sat.  24th — The  Governor  has  received  an  official  account  of  the  Duke 
of  York  (1763-1827)  having  distinguished  himself  in  an  action  in  Flanders 
by  which  the  French  were  dislodged  and  driven  out  of  Holland.  The 
Governor  ordered  a  royal  salute  to  be  fired  in  commemoration  of  this 
event,  and  took  the  same  opportunity  of  naming  this  station  York.  There 
are  a  few  twelve  or  eighteen  pounders,  which  were  brought  here  from 
Oswegatchie  or  from  Carleton  Island.  The  "  Mississaga "  and  "  Onon- 
daga  "  fired  also,  and  the  regiment. 

NOTE. — It  is  doubtful  whether  this  refers  to  Old  Oswegatchie,  the 
fort  that  was  originally  built  by  the  French  at  Ogdensburg  in  St. 
Lawrence  County,  New  York,  on  the  banks  of  the  Oswegatchie  River. 
The  name  is  a  corruption  of  the  Huron  word  meaning  "black  water." 
The  fort  was  occupied  by  the  French  during  the  Seven  Years'  War, 
but  was  captured  by  the  British  in  1760,  when  they  were  en  route 
down  the  St.  Lawrence  to  attack  Montreal.  Directly  opposite 
Ogdensburg  is  tHe  Canadian  town  of  Prescott,  and  northeast  of  Pres- 
cott  is  the  township  of  Augusta  in  the  County  of  Grenville,  in  which 

187 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 


CANISE 


was  situated  a  district  known  as  New  Oswegatchie.  Near  the  present 
village  of  Maitland,  in  1758,  defensive  works  were  erected  by  the 
French,  and  because  timber  was  easily  procured,  a  shipyard  was 
established.  The  original  French  fort  with  its  pickets  was  in  exis- 
tence in  1785.  It  is  more  than  likely  that  the 
'  2^  guns  came  from  Carleton  Island. 

("/          \\  Sat.   24th— There  were   a  party  of  Ojibway  In- 

dians here,  who  appeared  much  pleased  with  the 
firing.  One  of  them,  named  "  Great  Sail,"  took  Fran- 
cis in  his  arms,  and  was  much  pleased  to  find  the 
child  not  afraid,  but  delighted  with  the  sound. 

NOTE. — On  the  26th  August,  1793,  was  issued 
over  the  signature  of  E.  B.  Littlehales,  the  major 
of  brigade,  an  official  order  to  the  effect  that  the 
Lieutenant-Governor  having  received  information 
of  the  success  of  His  Majesty's  arms  under  H.R.H. 
gail)  the  Duke  of  York,  by  which  Holland  was  saved 
from  the  invasion  of  the  French,  the  Governor 
had  determined  to  change  the  name  of  "Toronto"  to  that  of  "York" 
in  honor  of  the  Duke.  This  order  was  effective  from  27th  August, 
when  the  two-cross  Flag  was  raised  and  a  salute  of  twenty-one  guns 
fired  to  commemorate  the  event. 

Sun.  25th — The  Abbe  des  Jardins  and  a  Monsr.  de  la  Corne  arrived 
here.  They  are  sent  by  some  French  emigres  to  examine  whether  a  suit- 
able establishment  could  be  allotted  for  them  in  this  country.  The  Abbe" 
appears  a  cunning,  clever  man,  whose  manners  are  those  of  one  accustomed 
to  live  in  the  best  society  in  Paris.  La  Corne  is  a  Canadian  who  has 
been  some  time  resident  in  France.  The  Governor  received  them  with 
great  civility;  has  ordered  a  marquee  to  be  pitched  for  them.  He  has 
recommended  them  to  travel  towards  Burlington  Bay,  at  the  head  of  the 
lake,  where  the  country  is  open  and  the  climate  very  mild.  The  soil  and 
local  circumstances  they  may  judge  of  when  on  the  spot. 

NOTE. — L'Abbe  Philippe-Jean-Louis  Desjar- 
dins  was  born  in  France  6th  June,  1753.  He 
became  a  priest  in  December,  1777,  and  was  one 
of  the  forty-four  priests  who  fled  from  France 
during  the  French  Revolution.  Shortly  after 
his  arrival  in  Canada  in  March,  1793,  he  was 
sent  to  Niagara.  Afterwards  he  became  a  direc- 
tor of  the  Ursuline  Convent  in  Quebec,  where  he 
was  a  well-known  ecclesiastic.  It  was  owing  to 
his  efforts  that  many  valuable  paintings  were 
brought  to  Canada.  He  died  in  Paris  on  21st 
October,  1883. 

Late  in  1792,  the  British  Government 
selected  four  persons  to  go  to  Canada  to  make  L  ABEE  DESJARDINS- 
the  necessary  preliminary  arrangements  for  settling  there  some  of 
the  emigres.  These  envoys  were  Philippe-Jean-Louis  Desjardins,  for- 
merly vicar-general  of  Orleans;  Jean-Marie  Raimbeau,  priest  of  the 
diocese  of  Bayeux;  M.  Gazil,  doctor  and  formerly  principal  of  the 

188 


MIDSUMMER  IN  YORK 

College  of  Navarre;  and  the  Chevalier  Frangois-Josue  Saint-Luc 
de  la  Come,  formerly  post  captain  in  the  French  Navy.  These 
gentlemen  were  given  £200  by  the  Government  and  £80  by 
the  Relief  committee.  They  were  instructed  to  embark  on  His 
Majesty's  packet  for  New  York,  and,  having  arrived  there,  to 
seek  out  His  Majesty's  agent,  Sir  John  Temple,  who  was 
directed  to  give  them  all  the  needful  assistance  in  prosecuting 
their  journey  to  Quebec.  The  envoys  reached  that  city  on 
March  2nd,  1793,  and  presented  their  credentials  to  the  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor.  On  August  3,  1793,  M.  Desjardins  and  the  Cheva- 
lier de  la  Corne  left  for  the  Upper  Province.  They  were  received 
with  great  cordiality,  were  entertained  for  several  weeks  in  the 
capital  of  the  Province,  Newark,  now  called  Niagara,  and  appar- 
ently expressed  a  wish  for  land  in  this  vicinity.  They  also  visited 
York.  As  a  result  the  Executive  Council  set  aside  for  them  a  town- 
ship at  the  west  end  of  Lake  Ontario  near  Burlington  Bay. 

Wed.  28th — I  walked  with  the  Governor  on  Gibraltar  Point  this  even- 
ing. 

Thur.  29th — The  gunboat  arrived  from  Niagara.  An  officer  from 
Detroit  came  in  her,  who  says  the  Indian  Commissioners  returned  to  the 
States  without  making  peace  with  the  Indians,  as  they  refused  to  give  up 
what  the  Indians  had  invariably  made  the  terms  of  accommodation. 

Fri.  30th — The  "  Mississaga  "  came  from  Niagara  in  four  hours.  Mr. 
Russell  came  in  her. 

Wed.  4th  Sept. — I  rode  to  St.  John's  Creek  (the  Humber  River). 
There  is  a  ridge  of  land  extending  near  a  mile  beyond  St.  John's  House, 
300  feet  high  and  not  more  than  three  feet  wide;  the  bank  towards  the 
river  is  of  smooth  turf.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  hemlock  spruce  on  this 
river;  the  banks  are  dry  and  very  pleasant.  I  gathered  a  beautiful  large 
species  of  Polygala,  which  is  a  genus  of  annual  and  perennial  herbs 
and  shrubs  of  the  order  of  Polygalacae. 

1  found  a  green  caterpillar,  with  tufts  like  fir  on  its  back.  I  acci- 
dentally touched  my  face  with  them,  and  it  felt  as  if  stung  by  a  nettle, 
and  the  sensation  continued  painful  for  some  time.  It  was  extremely 
oalm  when  we  set  out,  but  on  our  return  we  were  almost  seasick,  the  water 
was  so  rough.  A  little  breeze  on  this  lake  raises  the  waves  in  the  most 
sudden  manner. 

Fri.  6th — I  have  read  Alfred's  letters.  I  never  expected  to  have  been 
so  much  entertained  by  a  political  book  or  to  have  comprehended  so  much 
of  the  politics  of  Europe.  Mr.  Osgoode,  the  Chief  Justice,  suspects  it  to 
be  written  by  Mr.  Burgess.  (A  friend  of  Governor  Simcoe's,  whose  por- 
trait is  at  Wolford.) 

I  went  to-day  to  ride  to  Gibraltar  Point. 

NOTE. — Three  letters  (signed  Alfred)  to  the  people  of  Great 
Britain  and  particularly  to  those  who  signed  the  addresses  on  the 
late  changes  of  administration  and  the  dissolution  of  Parliament. 
London,  1785. 

Wed.  llth — We  rowed  six  miles  up  the  Don  to  Coons',  who  has  a  farm 
under  a  hill  covered  with  pine.  I  saw  very  fine  butternut  trees.  The 
nuts  are  better  than  walnuts;  gathered  berries  of  cockspur  thorns.  I 
landed  to  see  the  shingles  made,  which  is  done  by  splitting  large  blocks 
of  the  pine  into  equal  divisions.  We  found  the  river  very  shallow  in 
many  parts  and  obstructed  by  fallen  trees.  One  of  them  lay  so  high 
above  the  water  that  the  boat  passed  under,  the  rowers  stooping  their 

191 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

heads.  It  looked  picturesque,  and  a  bald  eagle  sat  on  a  blasted  pine  on 
a  very  bold  point  just  above  tbe  fallen  tree.  The  Governor  talks  of 
placing  a  canvas  house  on  this  point  for  a  summer  residence.  Vencal 
rowed — a  very  intelligent  man,  born  in  Sweden. 

NOTE. — Coon's  farm  was  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Don  Biver 
about  where  Chester  is  to-day. 

Fri.  13th — Mr.  Pilkington  coasted  the  lake  from  Niagara,  and  arrived 
here  in  two  days,  about  100  miles. 

NOTE. — Bobert  Pilkington  (1765-1834)  obtained  his  commission 
as  second  lieutenant  in  the  Boyal  Artillery  in  1787.  He  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  Boyal  Engineers  in  1789  and  was  stationed  at  Quebec; 
was  first  lieutenant  in  January,  1793,  and  captain  in  1801.  He  was 
on  General  Simcoe's  staff  from  1793-6  and  built  the  fort  on  the 
Maumee  by  instructions  of  Governor  Simcoe.  The  building  of  this 
fort  was  one  of  the  causes  of  friction  between  Governor  Simcoe  and 
Lord  Dorchester,  the  Governor-General  at  Quebec.  The  Governor 
had  advised  against  the  erection,  but  was  ordered  to  carry  out  in- 
structions. Pilkington  remained  in  Canada  until  1803.  He  became 
major-general  in  1825  and  was  inspector-general  of  fortifications 
in  England  in  1830.  He  died  in  1834.  His  wife  was  Hannah, 
daughter  of  John  Tylee,  and  by  her  he  had  two  sons,  one  of  whom 
died  shortly  after  birth,  and  four  daughters.  The  surviving  son, 
Bobert  John  Pilkington,  married  Jane,  daughter  of  Andrew  Shaw, 
of  Montreal,  a  daughter  being  Mrs.  J.  W.  Molson  of  that  city. 

Sat.  14th — We  walked  to  the  spot  intended  for  the  site  of  the  town. 
Mr.  Aitkin's  (the  surveyor)  canoe  was  there;  we  went  into  it,  and  himself 
and  his  man  paddled.  We  went  at  the  rate  of  four  knots  an  hour.  I 
liked  it  very  much;  being  without  the  noise  of  oars  is  a  great  satisfaction. 
I  gathered  purple  berries  from  a  creeping  plant,  seeds  of  lilies  and  spike- 
nard. To  see  a  birch  canoe  managed  with  that  inexpressible  care  and 
composure,  which  is  the  characteristic  of  an  Indian,  is  the  prettiest  sight 
imaginable.  A  man  usually  paddles  at  one  end  of  it  and  a  woman  at  the 
other;  but  in  smooth  water  little  exertion  is  wanting,  and  they  sit  quietly, 
as  if  to  take  the  air.  The  canoe  appears  to  move  as  if  by  clockwork.  I 
always  wish  to  conduct  a  canoe  myself  when  I  see  them  manage  it  with 
such  dexterity  and  grace.  An  European  usually  looks  awkward  and  in  a 
bustle  compared  with  the  Indian's  quiet  skill  in  a  canoe. 

NOTE. — Alexander  Aitkin  was  the  Deputy- Surveyor,  who  by  order  of 
Governor  Simcoe,  made  the  first  survey  and  map  or  plan  of  the  orig- 
inal town  of  York  (Toronto).  This  plan  was  made  in  June,  1793, 
after  the  Governor  had  selected  the  site.  The  Governor,  who  retained 
the  plan  with  other  official  documents,  sent  it  to  the  war  authorities 
in  London,  on  his  arrival  in  England  from  Canada  in  1796.  Many 
times  during  the  past  century  search  for  this  plan  was  made  in  the 
War  Office,  in  the  Colonial  Office,  and  in  the  British  Museum,  but 
without  avail.  In  October,  1900,  however,  I  discovered  it  in  the 
Public  Becord  Office,  Chancery  Lane,  London,  just  107  years  from  the 
date  of  its  making.  Aitkin  was  a  very  active  official  and  was  a 
favorite  with  Governor  Simcoe.  During  the  latter  years  of  his  life 
he  resided  in  Kingston,  U.C.,  where  he  died  about  1830. 

192 


13 


FLAX  OF  YORK  HARBOUR. 


195 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  23rd — I  rode  on  the  peninsula.  My  horse  has  spirit  enough  to 
wish  to  get  before  others.  I  rode  a  race  with  Mr.  Talbot  to  keep  myself 
warm.  I  gathered  wild  grapes.  They  were  pleasant,  but  not  sweet.  Capt. 
Smith  is  gone  to  open  a  road,  to  be  called  Dundas  Street,  from  the  head 
of  the  lake  to  the  River  La  Tranche.  He  has  100  men  with  him. 

Tues.  24th — 1  hear  that  they  kill  rattlesnakes  every  day,  yet  not  a 
man  has  been  bitten,  altho'  they  have  been  among  them  for  six  weeks. 
Capt.  Smith  sent  two  of  the  snakes  in  a  barrel,  that  I  might  see  them; 
they  were  dark  and  ugly,  and  made  a  whizzing  sound  in  shaking  their 
rattles  when  I  touched  them  with  a  stick.  We  dine  in  a  marquee  to-day. 
It  has  become  too  cold  in  the  arbour;  the  canvas  house  we  use  as  a  bed- 
room, but  the  other  is  going  to  be  erected  for  a  winter  dining-room.  I 
have  gathered  most  beautiful  white  berries,  with  a  black  eye,  from  red 
stalks.  I  cannot  find  out  its  name. 

Wed.  25th — The  Governor  set  out,  with  four  officers,  a  dozen  soldiers 
and  some  Indians,  to  visit  Lake  Huron. 

Sun.  29th — 1  walked  on  the  sand  bank  and  gathered  seeds  of  Toronto 
lilies. 

Wed.  Oct.  2nd — The  Governor's  horses  returned  from  the  Mississaga 
Creek,  now  the  Holland  River,  from  whence  he  sent  me  some  seeds.  I 
received  the  outside  garment  sent  from  England  by  Mr.  G.  Davison.  The 
ground  mice  are  innumerable  and  most  troublesome  here.  We  want  the 
edict  published  in  Spain  to  excommunicate  and  banish  them.  I  send  you 
a  bat  remarkable  for  its  size,  and  a  beautiful  black  and  yellow  bird. 

Fri.  25th — I  send  a  map  to  elucidate  the  Governor's  journey,  which 
was  attended  with  danger  as  well  as  with  many  pleasant  circumstances. 
The  western  side  of  the  lake  is  drawn  from  Mr.  Pilkington's  sketches,  the 
eastern  from  former  accounts.  Mr.  Pilkington,  who  was  one  of  the  party, 
says  the  scenery  was  fit  for  pictures  the  whole  way,  and  from  his  drawings 
I  should  suppose  so.  They  rode  30  miles  to  the  Miciaguean — Mississaga — 
Creek,  then  passed  a  terrible  bog  of  liquid  mud. 

The  Indians  with  some  difficulty  pushed  the  canoe  the  Governor  was 
in  through  it.  The  Governor  went  to  the  habitation  of  Canise,  the  Indian 
who  held  Francis  in  his  arms  during  the  firing  when  "  York  "  was  named. 
Canise  and  his  eldest  son  were  lately  dead,  and  their  widows  and  children 
were  lamenting  them.  Young  Canise  gave  the  Governor  a  beaver  blanket, 
and  made  speeches  of  excuse  for  not  sooner  having  made  his  bed.  The 
Governor  went  to  see  a  very  respectable  Indian  named  "  Old  Sail,"  who 
lives  on  a  branch  of  Holland's  River.  He  advised  him  to  return  by  the 
eastern  branch  of  it  to  avoid  the  swamp.  They  proceeded  about  thirty 
miles  across  Lac  aux  Claies,  now  named  Simcoe,  in  which  are  many 
islands,  which  Coll.  Simcoe  named  after  his  father's  friends  and  those 
gentlemen  who  accompanied  him.  The  river  from  thence  to  Matchedash 
Bay  afforded  the  most  picturesque  scenery,  from  the  number  of  falls  and 
rapids  upon  it.  Some  of  them  were  avoided  by  carrying  the  canoes  on 
the  shores;  others  they  risked  going  down. 

NOTE. — There  have  been  great  changes  in  recent  years  on  the 
Severn  River  owing  to  the  placing  of  dams  at  the  various  water- 
falls. McDonald's  Rapids  have  been  almost  obliterated  by  blasting, 
done  by  the  Dominion  Government  and  by  the  Town's  power  dam 
at  the  Ragged  Rapids,  but  in  the  recollection  of  Mr.  C.  H.  Hale  of 
Orillia,  who  has  kindly  furnished  me  with  information  regarding 
the  Severn  pictures,  the  principal  cascade  of  McDonald's  Rapids  was 
as  shown  in  the  sketch  made  by  Lieutenant  Pilkington  in  1793. 

Holland's  River  is  named,  after  Surveyor- General  Samuel  Hol- 
land. The  town  of  Holland  Landing,  thirty-eight  miles  from 
Toronto,  is  situated  on  this  river. 

196 


«  1 


O       8 
I 


THE  GOVERNOR  AT  LAKE  SIMCOE. 

Lake  Simcoe,  originally  Ouentaronk  Lake,  sometimes  called  Sin- 
ion  or  Shiniong,  afterwards  called  Lac  aux  Claies,  was  given  its 
present  name  by  Governor  Simcoe  out  of  respect  for  his  father. 

The  three  principal  islands  in  Lake  Simcoe  are  now  known  by 
the  names  of  Snake,  Georgina  and  Thorah  Islands.  Georgina  and 
Thorah  Islands  were  formerly  known  as  Graves  and  Canise  Islands, 
respectively,  but  have  come  to  be  called  by  the  names  of  the  townships 
to  which  they  are  adjacent.  Snake  Island,  from  the  time  of  the 
earliest  white  traders  down  to  the  present,  has  had  the  name  it  now 
bears.  There  was  an  attempt  more  than  a  century  ago  to  rename  the 
islands  after  friends  of  Governor  Simcoe,  but  none  of  the  designations 
came  into  general  use.  Smith's  Gazetteer,  published  in  1799,  and 
in  its  second  edition  published  in  1813,  gives  Snake  Island  as  Dar- 
ling's Island,  named  after  Captain  (afterwards  General)  Darling, 
one  of  the  friends  of  Simcoe  who  accompanied  him  on  this  trip  to 
Lake  Simcoe  and  Matchedash  Bay.  These  names,  however,  had  only 
a  temporary  application  on  paper,  and  the  names  in  use  among  the 
traders  and  early  settlers  were  not  superseded  by  the  proposed  ones. 

Matchedash  Bay  is  an  inlet  at  the  southeast  extremity  of  Georgian 
Bay,  Lake  Huron — also  spelled  Machedash  and  Matadash — and  means 
muskeg  or  marshy  ground.  Waubaushene  is  situated  at  its  mouth, 
nearly  opposite  where  the  Severn  enters  Georgian  Bay. 

25th — In  passing  a  rapid  an  Indian  in  the  Governor's  canoe  fell  over, 
and  the  canoe  passed  over  him.  He  rose  up  on  the  other  side  and  got  in 
again  without  seeming  discomposure.  On  returning  one  of  the  soldiers 
cut  his  foot  near  Holland's  River.  Mr.  Alexander  McDonnell  and  an- 
other gentleman  stayed  with  him,  as  he  was  unable  to  travel.  The 
"  Old  Sail "  received  them  hospitably,  and  shot  ducks  for  them.  A  small 
quantity  of  provisions  being  left  with  them,  and  an  Indian  who  carried  a 
large  cargo  quitting  the  party,  reduced  the  stock  so  much  that  the  Gover- 
nor set  out  with  only  two  days'  provisions  and  the  expectation  of  five  days' 
march  to  bring  them  to  York.  The  Indians  lost  their  way,  and 
when  they  had  provisions  for  one  day  only  they  knew  not  where  they 
were.  The  Governor  had  recourse  to  a  compass,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
day  they  came  on  a  surveyor's  line,  and  the  next  morning  saw  Lake 
Ontario.  Its  first  appearance,  Coll.  Simcoe  says,  was  the  most  delightful 
sight,  at  a  time  they  were  in  danger  of  starving,  and  about  three  miles 
from  York  they  breakfasted  on  the  remaining  provisions. 

NOTE. — The  Big  Chute  is  now  being  developed  by  the  Simcoe 
Power,  Light  and  Eailway  Company,  and  for  many  years  there 
has  been  a  lumbermen's  dam  at  this  point.  At  the  right  side  of  the 
river,  going  down  stream,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Big  Chute,  there 
is  considerable  indentation  caused  by  the  dams  raising  the  water. 
This  indentation  was  not  apparent  in  1793,  before  the  inroads  of 
civilization. 

25th — Had  they  remained  in  the  woods  another  day  it  was  feared  that 
"  Jack  Snap  "  would  have  been  sacrificed  to  their  hunger.  He  is  a  very 
fine  Newfoundland  dog  who  belonged  to  Mr.  Sheehan,  near  Niagara,  but 
has  lived  at  Navy  Hall  from  the  time  of  our  coming  there,  and  walked  to 
Detroit  with  Coll.  Simcoe.  He  has  been  troublesome  enough  on  this  excur- 
sion, as  his  size  was  very  unsuitable  to  a  canoe,  but  he  is  a  great  favourite. 

199 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

Coll.  Simcoe  had  the  satisfaction  of  finding  Matchadash  Bay  such  as 
gave  him  reason  to  believe  would  he  an  excellent  harbour  for  very  large 
ships.  A  bay  near  Prince  William  is  called  Penetanguishene,  a  fine  har- 
bour. The  fever  at  New  York  and  Philadelphia  amounts  almost  to  the 
plague. 

ISToTE. — There  was  a  terrific  visitation  of  yellow  fever  at  Xew 
York  and  Philadelphia  in  1791-2  and  1793.  Many  thousands  of 
persons  died  of  the  pestilence. 

Sun.  27th — A  road  for  walking  is  now  opened  up  three  miles  on  each 
side  of  the  camp.  I  can,  therefore,  now  take  some  exercise  without  going 
to  the  peninsula.  Mr.  McDonell  arrived  with  the  soldiers  from  Holland's 
River.  He  brought  some  wild  ducks  from  Lake  Simcoe,  which  were 
better  than  any  I  have  ever  tasted;  these  birds  are  so  much  better 
than  any  in  England  from  their  feeding  on  wild  rice.  Capt.  Smith 
is  returned  from  cutting  the  road  named  Dundas.  It  is  opened  for  20 
miles. 

They  met  with  quantities  of  wild  grapes,  and  put  some  of  the  juice 
in  barrels  to  make  vinegar,  and  Capt.  Smith  told  me  it  turned  out  very 
tolerable  wine.  They  killed  numbers  of  rattlesnakes  every  day,  but  nobody 
was  bitten  by  them.  Capt.  Smith  brought  two  in  a  barrel  to  show  me,  as  I 
had  never  seen  any  alive. 

NOTE. — This  shows  that  the  road  known  as  Dundas  St.  was  in 
October,  1793,  opened  for  twenty  miles,  that  is,  as  far  as  Port  Credit. 
It  was  named  after  Henry  Dunda?,  who  became  Home  Secretary, 
1791,  and  Secretary  for  War,  1794.  He  was  raised  to  the  peerage 
as  Viscount  Melville,  December  24th,  1802. 

Mon.  28th — The  weather  has  been  very  cold  for  some  days  and  the 
frost  very  severe,  notwithstanding  which  we  feel  it  quite  mild  in  the 
woods.  To-day  we  walked  two  miles  to  a  pretty  spot  by  the  side  of  a 
creek,  where  we  had  a  fire  made  of  many  large  trees  and  wild  ducks 
roasted  by  it,  and  we  dined  without  feeling  the  least  cold.  Coll.  Picker- 
ing's, the  American  Indian  Commissioner's  dish,  chowder,  is  also  easily 
dressed  in  the  woods,  being  prepared  in  a  kettle  before  we  left  our  house. 

XOTE. — Sparrow  Lake  Chute,  two  or  three  miles  below  McLean's 
Bay.  :has  been  considerably  affected  by  dams  built  on  the  Ragged 
Rapids,  to  such  an  extent  in  fact,  that  at  one  time  it  was  navigable 
by  steamers. 

Gloucester  Pool  is  an  enlargement  of  the  Severn  River  five  miles 
from  its  mouth.  The  Severn  empties  into  Georgian  Bay  at  Port 
Severn  on  the  east  side  of  the  Bay  at  its  southern  extremity.  Civili- 
zation has  so  completely  altered  the  aspect  of  this  landscape  that  it 
is  a  difficult  matter  after  a  hundred  years  to  identify  places. 


200 


l 


g  - 

I  ! 

s  I 


CHAPTER    XIII. 
BUILDING  OF  CASTLE  FRANK,  ON  RIVER  DON. 

It  was  in  the  last  days  of  October,  1793,  that  General  Simcoe 
determined  to  select  a  site  for  a  summer  home  near  York. 
Frequent  excursions  by  boat  up  the  Don  as  far  as  navigable,  and 
walks  through  the  woods  that  skirted  its  banks,  created  a  love  for 
that  part  of  the  country,  a  sentiment  which  was  always  retained 
by  the  Governor  and  his  wife.  Years  after  their  return  to  England 
she  often  spoke  of  "that  pretty  spot,  Castle  Frank."  Mrs.  Simcoe 
made  many  sketches  of  her  summer  home  both  from  the  high  ground 
on  which  it  stood  and  from  the  approach  up  the  river.  Two  of  these 
drawings  have  been  preserved.  She  writes : 

Tues.  29th — The  Governor  having  determined  to  take  a  lot  of  200  acres 
upon  the  River  Don  for  Francis,  and  the  law  obliges  persons  having  lots 
of  land  to  build  a  house  upon  them  within  a  year,  we  went  to-day  to  fix 
upon  the  spot  for  building  the  house.  We  went  six  miles  by  water  from 
the  Fort  and  east  along  the  bay  shore  to  the  Don,  and  up  that  river,  landed, 
climbed  up  an  exceedingly  steep  hill,  or  rather  a  series  of  sugar-loafed 
hills,  and  approved  of  the  highest  spot,  from  whence  we  looked  down 
on  the  tops  of  large  trees  and,  seeing  eagles  near,  I  suppose  they  build 
there.  There  are  large  pine  plains  around  it,  which,  being  without  under- 
wood, I  can  ride  and  walk  on,  and  we  hope  the  height  of  the  situation  will 
secure  us  from  mosquitos.  We  dined  by  a  large  fire  on  wild  ducks  and 
chowder,  on  the  side  of  a  hill  opposite  to  that  spot.  Our  long  walk  made 
it  late  before  we  had  dined,  so  that,  altho'  we  set  out  immediately  after- 
wards and  walked  fast,  it  was  nearly  dark  before  we  reached  the  sur- 
veyor's tent.  From  there  we  went  home  in  a  boat,  as  the  stumps  and 
roots  of  trees  in  the  road  were  so  troublesome  to  walk  among  in  the  dark. 
Mr.  L,ittlehales  and  some  gentlemen  lost  their  way  in  attempting  to  return 
to  the  camp  after  us.  They  slept  in  the  woods  about  a  mile  distant. 

The  following  description  of  Castle  Frank  is  from  Robertson's 
Landmarks  of  Toronto,  Vol.  1,  p.  3-5. 

"During  the  spring  of  1794,  the  Governor  built  Castle  Frank  as 
a  summer  residence  and  named  it  after  his  son  Francis.  It  was  in  the 
woods  on  the  brow  of  a  steep  high  bank  overlooking  the  valley  of 
the  Don,  at  a  point  just  beyond  the  fence  which  is  now  the  north 
bounds  of  St.  James'  Cemetery.  A  large  portion  of  the  land  formerly 
belonging  to  Castle  Frank  is  now  part  of  the  burying  ground.  Below 
and  to  the  south  of  the  dwelling  was  a  deep  ravine  down  which 
between  hog-back  formations  ran  a  stream  named  Castle  Frank 
brook,  which  flowed  into  the  Don,  just  above  a  small  island  on  the 
west  side.  The  marshes  gave  way  on  the  right  at  this  point  to  good 
land  covered  with  elm,  butternut  and  basswood  trees.  The  site  of 
the  building  is  marked  with  a  stone.  The  ground  on  each  side  of  it 
has  a  steep  descent  on  its  north  side  to  the  Don,  and  on  the  south 

203 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

to  the  bottom  of  Castle  Frank  brook  ravine  through  which  the  tiny 
rivulet  runs.  The  view  from  the  dwelling  was  hemmed  in  by  the 
trees  that  covered  alike  the  surrounding  level  land  and  the  steep- 


hillsides  that  could  only  be  climbed  with  difficulty.  No  pret- 
tier spot  could  have  been  selected  for  a  summer  home.  Some  of  the 
white  pines  that  stood  there  a  century  ago  are  still  to  be  seen,  but 
many  look  as  if  they  were  second  growth.  To  the  east  the  view  was 

204 


CASTLE  FEANK 

down  upon  the  valley  of  the  Don,  and  to  the  west  over  the  ravine 
now  in  the  cemetery.  The  modern  entrance  to  the  ravine  is  by 
Castle  Avenue  and  Castle  Frank  Crescent. 

"Castle  Frank  was  not  occupied  permanently  by  the  Governor 
and  his  family,  but  many  excursions  were  made  and  week  ends  spent 
by  the  friends  who  enjoyed  pleasant  hours  in  the  little  settlement 
during  Governor  Simcoe's  administration.  The  building  was  about 
fifty  feet  in  depth  and  thirty  feet  in  width,  the  latter  being  the 
frontage,  which  faced  south.  The  front  elevation  was  not  unlike 
that  of  a  Greek  temple.  The  trunks  of  four  large,  well  matched, 
unbarked  pine  trees  answered  for  columns  supporting  the  pediment 
or  the  projection  of  the  whole  roof.  The  main  doorway  was  in  the 
centre  of  the  front,  but  no  windows  on  either  side.  On  the  east  and 
west  sides  were  four  windows  with  shutters  of  heavy  double  planks 
running  up  and  down  on  one  side,  and  crosswise  on  the  other,  and 
thickly  studded  with  the  heads  of  stout  nails.  Of  a  similar  con- 
struction was  the  door.  A  chimney  arose  from  the  middle  of  the 
roof.  The  walls  were  built  of  rather  small,  carefully  hewn  logs,  of 
short  lengths,  clap-boarded.  They  presented  a  comparatively  finished 
appearance  on  the  outside,  but  after  a  time  took  the  weather-stained 
color  that  unpainted  wood  assumes.  Inside  the  finish  was  rough, 
in  fact  the  interior  was  never  fully  completed.  A  slight  attempt 
at  a  division  into  rooms  had  been  made,  but  was  never  entirely 
carried  out.  Entering  the  front  door  the  visitor  found  himself  at 
once  in  an  apartment  extending  the  width  of  the  building  and  about 
half  its  length.  On  one  side  was  a  big  fireplace.  At  the  rear  of  this 
was  another  room  of  similar  dimensions  with  a  fireplace  in  the 
opposite  wall.  This  cleared  space  in  front  of  the  building  was  but  a 
few  yards  across,  and  from  it  to  the  site  of  the  town  ran  a  narrow 
carriage-way  and  bridle-path  cut  out  by  the  soldiers  and  graded, 
traces  of  which  may  still  be  found. 

"Castle  Frank  received  its  title  from  the  five  year  old  son  of 
Governor  Simcoe,  although  the  Rev.  Dr.  Henry  Scadding,  one  of  my 
old  school  masters  at  Upper  Canada  College  and  from  whom  I 
obtained  all  the  information  here  given  in  regard  to  the  building, 
points  out  that  there  was  a  'Castle-franc'  near  Rochelle,  which  figures 
in  the  history  of  the  Huguenots.  The  Iroquois  had  honored  the 
Governor  with  the  title  of  'De  yonyn  hokrawen,'  signifying  'One  whose 
door  is  always  open,'  and  on  his  little  son,  who  appears  to  have  been 
a  great  favorite  with  them,  as  he  sometimes  was  attired  in  Indian 
costume,  they  conferred  the  honour  of  chieftainship,  and  named  him 
Deyoken,  which  means  'Between  the  two  objects/  A  warrior's  fate 
befell  the  young  chieftain,  for  at  the  age  of  twenty-one,  while  serv- 
ing with  his  regiment  during  the  Peninsular  "War,  he  fell  in  the  breach 
at  Badajoz  in  1812.  In  spite  of  the  unavoidable  discomforts  of  life 
at  Castle  Frank  and  at  York,  many  were  the  compensating  pleasures, 
especially  for  the  soldier  pioneers  who  formed  almost  the  entire 
male  population.  Governor  Simcoe's  mind  was  absorbed  with 

207 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

schemes  of  government  and  war.  Those  who  were  fond  of 
sport  might  gratify  their  desire  to  the  full  in  the  forest  which 
surrounded  York,  where  bear,  deer  and  wolves  and  small  game 
abounded.  Woodcock  and  snipe  were  plentiful  on  the  peninsula 
and  east  and  north  of  the  east  end  of  Toronto  Bay.  In  the  early 
days  salmon  was  speared  at  night  in  the  Don,  and  the  bay  and  Lake 
Ontario  were  filled  with  fish  of  all  kinds.  Until  Governor  Simcoe's 
departure  in  1796,  Castle  Frank's  rough  roof  covered  many  a  gay 
party,  brought  up  by  canoes  and  rowboats  from  the  Fort,  or  on 
horseback. 

"After  Governor  Simcoe's  return  to  England  Castle  Frank  was 
occasionally  used  by  President  Peter  Russell  and  his  family  for  a 
picnic,  excursion  party  or  ball,  when  the  guests  were  in  summer  taken 
up  the  Don  in  boats  and  in  winter  by  the  same  route  in  sleighs. 
That  these  trips  must  have  given  great  enjoyment  to  those  concerned 
is  evident,  for  there  is  a  letter  extant  from  Mr.  Russell,  written 
in  December,  1796,  in  which  he  says:  'I  hope  the  ladies  may  be  able 
to  enjoy  the  charming  carioling  (sleighing)  which  you  must  have 
on  your  bay  and  up  the  Don  to  Castle  Frank,  when  an  early  dinner 
must  be  picturesque  and  delightful.'  Captain  John  Denison,  an 
officer  in  the  English  militia,  came  to  Canada  from  Hedon,  York- 
shire, in  1792.  He  first  settled  in  Kingston,  but  in  1796  he  moved 
to  York,  and  during  the  summer  months  he  lived  at  Castle  Frank 
by  permission  of  the  Honorable  Peter  Russell." 

Colonel  Talbot  in  a  letter  to 
General  Simcoe  dated  July  17th, 
1803,  writes  of  a  trip  to  York 
and  a  visit  to  Castle  Frank.  He 
says :  "I  paid  a  visit  of  duty  to 
Castle  Frank,  which  I  am  sorry 
to  add  is  uninhabited  and  going 
to  ruin.  Some  rascals  had,  a  few 
days  before  I  saw  it,  broken  off 
the  window  shutters  and  gone 
down  to  the  lower  apartment, 

NEAB  CASH*  FRANK.  where  the-X,  broke  down  the  chi,^ 

ney  in  order  to  carry  away  the 

(From  a  Drawing  !,>/  Mrs.  Shncue.)  i_  j?    •  j.i     j.  j.    j    -j.  » 

bar  of  iron  that  supported  it." 

In  1807,  Mrs.  Simcoe,  the  widow  of  the  late  Governor,  wrote 
to  Sir  David  W.  Smith,  Bart.,  who  resided  at  Alnwick  and  in  1798-9 
was  Speaker  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  of  Upper  Canada,  con- 
cerning the  Scarborough  lands  of  her  late  husband.  Sir  David 
replied  that  he  understood  that  the  Government  long  before  he  left 
Canada  made  some  entry  in  the  Council  books,  and  that  he  considered 
Castle  Frank  as  making  up  the  residue  of  this  land.  But,  added 
Sir  David,  the  General  told  me  that  the  person  who  made  out  the 
deed  of  the  Castle  Frank  property  mistook  'G'  for  Graves  and 

208 


FIRE  DESTROYS  CASTLE  FRANK 

called   the   property,  registered   in   the   name   of   Francis,   'Graves' 
instead  of  'Gwillim.' 

After  1807,  Castle  Frank  was  tenantless.  The  building  began 
to  show  further  signs  of  decay,  and  in  1829  it  was  accidentally  burned 
through  the  carelessness  of  some  amateur  fishermen,  and  so  a  build- 
ing that  would  to-day  be  a  genuine  relic  of  the  olden  time  passed 
out.  The  only  relic  I  know  of  in  connection  with  Castle  Frank  is 
a  Masonic  gavel  made  out  of  a  piece  of  ash,  and  which  was  presented 
to  me  by  Orient  Lodge  A.  F.  and  A.  M.,  Toronto,  in  1892,  during 
my  term  as  Grand  Master  of  the  'Grand  Lodge  of  Canada,  in  the 
Province  of  Ontario. 

Wed.  30th  Oct. — We  have  received,  from  Montreal  a  birch  bark  canoe, 
such  as  is  used  by  the  North-West  Company  to  transport  their  goods  to  the 
Grand  Portage.  It  requires  twelve  men  to  paddle,  is  large  enough  to  con- 
tain four  or  five  passengers  to  sit  very  commodiously  in  the  centre  under 
an  awning.  An  Indian  woman  came  to-day  with  pitch,  which  is  made  by 
the  Indians  from  fir  trees,  to  gum  the  canoe  if  any  part  of  it  is  worn  off 
by  bringing  it  hither.  She  held  a  piece  of  pitch  in  her  hand,  and  melted 
it  by  applying  a  piece  of  burning  wood.  Her  figure  was  perfectly  wild  and 
witchlike,  and  a  little  fire,  with  a  kettle  on  it  by  her  side,  in  a  stormy, 
dark  day,  the  waves  roaring  on  the  beach  near  which  she  stood,  formed  a 
scene  very  wildly  picturesque. 

Fri.  Nov.  1st — I  walked  this  morning.  At  eight  this  dark  evening 
we  went  in  a  boat  to  see  salmon  speared.  Large  torches  of  white  birch 
bark  being  carried  in  the  boat,  the  blaze  of  light  attracts  the  fish,  when 
the  men  are  dexterous  in  spearing.  The  manner  of  destroying  the  fish 
is  disagreeable,  but  seeing  them  swimming  in  shoals  around  the  boat  is  a 
very  pretty  sight. 

The  flights  of  wild  pigeons  in  the  spring  and  autumn  is  a  surprising 
sight.  They  fly  against  the  wind  and  so  low  that  at  Niagara  the  men 
threw  sticks  at  them  from  the  fort  and  killed  numbers;  the  air  is  some- 
what darkened  by  them.  1  think  those  we  have  met  with  here  have 
been  particularly  good.  Sometimes  they  fix  a  bullet  to  a  string  tied  to 
a  pole,  and  knock  them  down.  Coll.  Butler,  of  the  Rangers,  was  observing 
that  they  build  where  there  are  plenty  of  acorns,  but  do  not  feed  within 
20  miles  of  the  place,  reserving  that  stock  of  provisions  till  the  young 
ones  can  leave  their  nests,  and  then  scratch  the  acorns  up  for  them. 

Pigeons  have  been  shot  with  rice  in  their  craws  on  the  Mohawk  River. 
Rice  does  not  grow  nearer  than  Carolina.  Therefore,  it  is  presumed  (con- 
sidering the  supposed  time  of  digestion)  that  they  must  have  flown  200 
miles  a  day. 

Fri.  8th — We  have  had  a  week  of  incessant  rain. 

Sat.  9th — I  went  to-day  for  the  first  time  in  the  North-West  canoe.  A 
beaver  blanket  and  a  carpet  were  put  in  to  sit  on.  We  carried  a  small 
table,  to  be  used  in  embarking,  for  the  canoe  cannot  be  brought  very  near 
the  shore,  lest  the  gravel  or  pebbles  injure  her,  so  the  table  was  set  in 
the  water  and  a  long  plank  laid  from  it  to  the  shore,  to  enable  me  to  get 
in  or  out,  the  men  carrying  the  canoe  empty  into  the  water  and  out  of  it 
up  on  their  shoulders.  We  have  less  than  "  boards  between  us  and 
eternity,"  for  the  canoe  is  formed  of  birch  bark  fixed  on  to  thin  ribs  of 
very  light  wood  with  the  gum  or  pitch  the  Indians  make  from  fir  trees, 
and  of  which  they  always  carry  some  with  them,  lest  an  accident  rub  off 
any,  or  the  heat  of  the  sun  melt  it. 

We  dined  in  a  meadow  on  the  peninsula,  where  I  amused  myself  with 
setting  fire  to  a  kind  of  long  dry  grass,  which  burns  very  quickly,  and 
the  flame  and  smoke  run  along  the  ground  very  quickly  and  with  a  pretty 

14  209 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

effect.  I  was  delighted  with  the  swift  and  easy  motion  of  the  canoe  and 
with  its  appearance. 

Thurs.  14th — I  went  again  in  the  canoe  until  we  came  in  sight  of  the 
Highlands,  but  it  was  so  very  cold  I  was  very  glad  to  walk  part  of  the 
way  back.  We  dined  on  the  peninsula.  I  passed  a  spot  on  the  peninsula 
where  it  was  supposed  an  Indian  had  been  buried  lately.  A  small  pile  of 
wood  was  raised,  a  bow  and  arrow  lay  on  it,  and  a  dog-skin  hung  near  it. 
Some  Indians  sacrifice  dogs,  other  tribes  eat  them  when  extremely  ill. 

Tues.  19th — At  this  season  of  the  year  there  is  usually  a  fortnight  of 
foggy  weather;  the  air  is  perfectly  dry  and  hot,  and  smells  and  feels  like 
smoke;  it  is  called  Indian  summer.  I  have  never  heard  these  smoky  fogs 
well  accounted  for. 

Wed.  20th — We  dined  in  the  woods  and  eat  part  of  a  raccoon;  it  was 
very  fat  and  tasted  like  lamb  if  eaten  with  mint  sauce. 

Thurs.  21st — An  owl  was  sent  to  me,  shot  at  Niagara;  it  measured 
five  feet  from  wing  to  wing  when  they  were  extended. 

Fri.  22nd — Mr.  Littlehales  went  on  horseback  to  Niagara. 

NOTE. — This  journey  was  made  by  travelling  west  from  York 
along  Dundas  Street  and  then  through  a  track  in  the  woods  along  the 
north  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  to  Burlington  Bay,  where  a  stop  was 
made  at  the  government  inn  known  as  "The  King's  Head."  The 
journey  from  Burlington  Bay  to  Niagara  was  made  through  the 
woods,  skirting  the  south  shore  of  the  Lake. 

Fri.  29th — An  Indian  came  here  who,  by  way  of  being  in  mourning 
for  a  relation,  was  painted  black  round  his  face. 

Mon.  Dec.  2nd — The  "  Great  Sail,"  his  wife  and  ten  children  came 
here;  they  grouped  themselves  like  Van  Dyke's  family  pictures.  They 
brought  us  deer.  Francis  handed  plates  of  apples  to  them.  He  shakes 
hands  with  the  Indians  in  a  very  friendly  manner,  tho'  he  is  very  shy 
and  ungracious  to  all  his  own  countrymen.  A  Mississaga,  called  the 
"  Man  of  the  Snakes,"  was  here  also.  The  Mississagas  dress  very  indif- 
ferently. 

NOTE. — Earlier  in  the  autumn,  Canise,  otherwise  known  as  "Great 
Sail/'  and  his  son  had  died,  for  on  25th  October  Mrs.  Simcoe  writes 
that  they  are  "  lately  dead."  She  also  refers  to  "  young  Canise,"  no 
doubt  a  grandson,  "who  gave  the  Governor  a  beaver  blanket  and 
made  speeches  of  excuse  for  not  sooner  having  made  his  bed."  The 
"Great  Sail"  here  mentioned  was  in  all  probability  a  successor  to  the 
chieftainship. 

Sun.  Dec.  8th — The  "  Onondaga  "  was  left  under  the  care  of  a  young 
lieutenant  and  ran  aground.  It  is  feared  she  cannot  be  got  off  until  the 
spring,  and  then  perhaps  not  without  injury. 

NOTE. — In  1793,  the  "Onondaga,"  12  guns,  80  tons  burthen,  an 
armed  vessel  of  the  Provincial  Government  went  ashore  on  the  west 
side  of  Gibraltar  Point,  now  Hanlan's  Point.  After  being  abandoned, 
the  vessel  was  pulled  off  by  Mr.  Joseph  Bouchette.  For  this  act  he  was 
promoted  second  lieutenant  in  the  provincial  navy. 

Mon.  9th — The  Governor  went  to  the  west  shore  of  the  peninsula  at 
Gibraltar  Point  to  view  the  "  Onondaga  "  in  such  rough  weather  that  the 
waves  came  into  the  boat  and  made  everybody  wet. 

Thur.  12th — Mr.  Grey  has  just  received  orders  to  join  Sir  C.  Grey  in 
the  West  Indies.  He  is  to  go  by  way  of  New  York.  The  Governor  and 

210 


SKATING  ON  BAY  AT  YOKK 

Mr.  Talbot  set  out  with  him  this  morning  to  accompany  him  as  far  as 
Niagara.    Fine,  calm  weather. 

NOTE. — The  foregoing  entry  has  reference  to  Lieutenant  Thomas 
Grey,  who  had  come  to  Canada  with  Governor  Simcoe,  joining  his 
father,  Sir  Charles  Grey,  first  Earl  Grey,  who  was  in  this  year  (1793) 
appointed  with  Jervis  (subsequently  Earl  St.  Vincent)  commander 
of  an  expedition  to  the  French  West  Indies.  They  reduced  Martinique 
in  March,  and  St.  Lucia  and  Guadaloupe  in  April,  1794. 


H.M.  SCHOONER  "  ONONDAGA. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mm.  Simcoe.) 


Mon.  16th — An  exceedingly  rough  day.  At  eight  o'clock  the  Governor 
and  Mr.  Talbot  returned.  They  left  Niagara  at  one  o'clock  yesterday, 
rowed  till  four  in  the  morning,  slept  a  few  hours  at  Jones'  farm  at  the 
"  head  of  the  lake."  They  arrived  at  Niagara  on  Friday  in  such  rough 
weather  that  there  was  great  difficulty  in  turning  Mississaga  Point.  (At 
the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River.) 

Thur.  19th — I  walked  to  the  Don.  There  are  great  hopes  of  getting 
the  "  Onondaga  "  afloat. 

Sat.  21st — A  hard  frost.  The  bay  is  half-frozen  over.  The  "  Man  of 
Snakes  "  came  here. 

Sunday  22nd — The  bay  is  quite  frozen  over.  Mr.  Talbot  skated  to 
the  other  side.  I  walked  to-day. 

211 


DIARY  OF  MRS,  SIMCOE 

Mon.  23rd — Very  cold  weather. 

Tues.  24th— Thunder  and  lightning  last  night.  Extreme  hard  frost 
this  morning. 

Thur.  26th— Wright  and  Herring  returned  from  Niagara  in  a  boat. 
Jt  is  found  to  be  practicable  to  walk  and  ride  thither  throughout  the 
winter,  therefore  we  are  not  in  as  isolated  a  situation  as  it  was  expected 
we  should  find  it.  We  received  news  of  Admiral  Gardner's  having  taken 
two  44-gun  ships  off  Sandy  Hook  and  some  privateers  near  Halifax. 

NOTE. — Edward  Wright  emigrated  to  America  before  the  Revo- 
lutionary War.  On  its  expiration  he  returned  to  the  old  land,  where 
he  remained  for  several  years,  but  in  1792  came  to  Canada  with  the 

Queen's     Rangers.       His     son, 

Edward  Graves  Simcoe  Wright, 

who    in    after    years    kept    the 

Greenland     Fisheries      Tavern, 

north-west  corner  of  Front  and 

John  Streets,  Toronto,  was  the 

first  white  child  born  at  York, 

1794.     Edward  H.  Rodden,  To- 
ronto,   is    a    great-grandson    of 

Edward  Wright  of  the  Rangers. 
Richard '    Herring,     also     a 

Queen's  Ranger,  was  a  juryman 

in  one  of  the  three  memorable 

trials  that  took    place    in    the 
York  Court  House  in  1818  in  connection  with  the  North-West  Com- 
pany and  the  dispersion  of  Lord  Selkirk's  Red  River  Settlement. 

Admiral  Alan  Gardner  was  prominent  in  many  naval  exploits 
and  was  created  a  baronet  for  his  services  in  Howe's  victory  in  1794. 
As  first  Baron  Gardner,  he  was  created  a  peer  of  the  United  Kingdom 
in  1806. 

Fri.  27th — The  weather  so  cold  that  some  water  spilt  near  the  stove 
froze  immediately. 

Mon.  30'th — I  walked  to  the  "  Old  French  Fort "  and  returned  by  the 
Creek.  I  caught  cold. 


E.  G.  S.  WRIGHT. 


ADMIRAL  GARDNER. 


212 


CHAPTER    XIV. 
A  WINTER  AT  YORK. 

Castle  Frank,  although  in  an  unfinished  state,  was  habitable  in 
1794,  for  early  in  the  year  the  Governor  and  his  family  resided 
there  In  the  spring,  however,  Mrs.  Simcoe  returned  to  Niagara, 
where  life  at  Xavy  Hall  was  more  enjoyable  and  varied  than  at 
York. 

York,  Mon.,  Jan.  6th,  1794 — The  skin  of  a  cross  fox,  marked  yellow, 
black  and  white,  with  a  dark  cross  on  the  back,  was  brought  here  and 
sold  for  four  dollars;  sometimes  they  are  sold  for  two  dollars. 

I  sketched  a  likeness  of  the  "  Great  Sail,"  who  came  here  to-day.  The 
Indians  call  the  stars  we  name  Ursa  Major,  a  marten  (sable)  with  a 
broken  tail.  I  received  from  Detroit  a  stone  carved  by  an  Indian  into  a 
head,  and  when  it  is  known  that  they  have  no  tools  but  the  commonest 
kind  of  small  knife,  it  is  surprising  to  see  it  is  so  well  done. 

I  sketched  a  Caughnawaga  Indian  to-day  whose  figure  was  quite 
antique.  He  was  from  the  settlement  of  that  tribe  on  the  south  side  of 
the  St.  Lawrence,  opposite  Lachine.  I  have  often  observed  (but  never  had 
more  reason  to  do  so  than  to-day)  that  when  the  Indians  speak,  their  air 
and  action  is  more  like  that  of  Roman  or  Greek  orators  than  of  modern 
nations.  They  have  a  great  deal  of  impressive  action,  and  look  like  the 
figures  painted  by  the  Old  Masters. 

Thur.  14th — There  is  a  great  deal  of  snow  on  the  River  Don,  which  Is 
so  well  frozen  that  we  walked  some  miles  upon  it  to-day,  but  in  returning 
I  found  it  so  cold  near  the  lake  that  I  was  benumbed  and  almost  despaired 
of  ever  reaching  my  own  house,  and  when  I  came  near  the  hill  was  fright- 
fully slippery.  Near  the  river  we  saw  the  track  of  wolves,  and  the  head 
and  hoofs  of  a  deer.  The  workmen,  who  reside  in  a  small  hut  near  the 
place,  heard  the  wolves  during  the  night,  and  in  the  morning  saw  the 
remains  of  the  deer.  The  Indians  do  not  kill  wolves;  they  seldom  take 
trouble  that  does  not  answer  to  them,  and  the  wolves 
are  not  good  to  eat  and  their  skins  are  of  little  value. 

Sat.  Jan.  18th — The  Queen's  (Charlotte  of  Meck- 
lenburg-Strelitz,  Consort  of  George  III.,)  birthday.  The 
weather  is  so  mild  that  we  breakfasted  with  the  win- 
dow open.  An  experiment  was  made  of  firing  pebbles 
from  cannon.  A  salute  of  21  guns  and  a  dance  in  the 
evening  in  honour  of  the  day.  The  ladies  much 
dressed. 

Sunday  19th — The  weather  so  pleasant  that  we 
rode  to  the  bottom  of  the  bay,  crossed  the  Don,  which 
is  frozen,  and  rode  on  the  peninsula;  returned  across 
the  marsh,  which  is  covered  with  ice,  and  went  as 
far  as  the  settlements,  which  are  near  seven  miles 
from  the  camp.  There  appeared  some  comfortable  log 
houses,  inhabited  by  Germans  and  some  by  Pennsyl- 
vanians.  Some  of  the  creeks  were  not  frozen  enough  to  bear  the  Gover- 
nor's horse,  but  mine  passed  very  well.  He  excels  in  getting  over  difficult 
places  and  in  leaping  over  logs,  which  I  like  very  much. 

213 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


NOTE. — Mr.  William  Berczy  was  born  in  Saxony  in  1749.  He 
visited  England  in  1791  and  became  agent  for  an  association  that 
were  owners  of  a  large  tract  of  land  in  Genesee,  N.  Y.  The  inten- 
tion was  to  settle  Germans  on  the  lands  of  the  association.  But 
owing  to  differences  between  Mr.  Berczy  and  the  chief  manager  of 
the  association  in  Philadelphia,  Berczy  withdrew  his  people  from 
New  York  and  settled  them  by  arrangement  with  Governor  Simcoe 
in  Markham,  near  Toronto.  Mr.  Charles  A.  Berczy,  son  of  William 
Berczy,  was  born  at  Niagara  in  1794,  and  died  in  Toronto  in  1858. 
He  was  an  acting  deputy  assistant  commissary  general  during  the 
War  of  1812,  and  was  postmaster  of  Toronto  from  about  1840-52. 
He  married  Miss  Finch  of  Greenwich,  England,  and  by  her  had  a 
large  family.  Two  of  his  daughters  were  noted  for  their  beauty. 


JOHN  SCADDING'S  DWELLING. 

(From  a  Draunng  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Sat.  25th — Two  soldiers  went  to  Niagara.  These  expresses  are  to  go 
at  regular  periods  by  way  of  a  post. 

Sun.  26th — We  went  to  the  Don  to  see  Mr.  Talbot  skate.  Capt. 
/Eneas  Shaw's  children  set  the  marshy  ground  (the  marsh  at  Ash- 
bridge's  Bay)  below  the  bay  on  fire;  the  long  grass  on  it  burns  with  great 
rapidity  this  dry  weather.  It  was  a  fine  sight,  and  a  study  for  flame 
and  smoke  from  our  house.  At  night  the  flames  diminished,  and 
appeared  like  lamps  on  a  dark  night  in  the  crescent  at  Bath. 

Mon.  27th — I  walked  below  the  bay  and  set  the  other  side  of  the  marsh 
on  fire  for  amusement.  The  Indians  have  cut  holes  in  the  ice,  over  which 
they  spread  a  blanket  on  poles,  and  they  sit  under  the  shed,  moving  a 
wooden  fish  hung  to  a  line  in  the  water  by  way  of  attracting  the  living 
fish,  which  they  spear  with  great  dexterity  when  they  approach.  The 
Governor  wished  me  to  see  the  process;  we  had  to  walk  a  half-mile  to  the 
place.  There  was  no  snow  on  the  ice,  and  we  were  without  cloth  shoes. 
The  Governor  pushed  a  large  limb  of  a  tree  before  him  which  kept  him 

214 


THE  SCABBING  FAMILY 


steady,  ana  with  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Talbot  I  reached  the  spot  where 
they  were  catching  maskalonge,  a  superior  kind  of  pike,  and  pickerell.  I 
was  almost  frozen  from  looking  on,  tho'  the  apprehension  of  falling  kept 
me  warm  while  I  walked. 

Fri.  31st — One  of  the  horses  drawing  hay  across  the  bay  fell  into  an 
airhole  and  was  drowned.  Mr.  Scadding*s  cottage  burned  down. 

NOTE. — This  house  was  just  over  the  Bon  at  the  Queen  Street 
crossing — on  the  Scadding  farm — site  of  the  Toronto  Jail.  The 
Scaddings  were  one  of  the  pioneer  families  of  Toronto.  They 
were  of  Bevon  origin  and  resided  near  Honiton.  John  Scadding 
was  the  manager  of  Wolford,  the  Simcoe  estate,  and  emigrated  to 
Canada  in  1792,  a  few  months  after  Simcoe's  arrival.  A  brother, 
Thomas,  living  in  Honiton,  never  emigrated.  The  brothers  married 
sisters,  the  Misses  Triges. 

John  Scadding  was  a  man  of  excellent  execu- 
tive ability  and  one  of  the  best  informed  in  Eng- 
land on  every  branch  of  farm  work.  Wolford  is 
an  estate  of  about  5,000 -acres  and  at  one  time 
part  of  it  was  divided  into  over  twenty  farms. 

He  had  three  sons,  John,  Charles  and  Henry. 
John  married  Emily  Playter,  daughter  of  John 
Playter.  There  was  no  issue  by  this  marriage. 
Charles  married  Jane  Bright,  the  issue  being 
Henry,  William,  Edward,  Charles,  John  and  So- 
phia. Henry,  eldest  son  of  Charles  Scadding, 
married  Elizabeth  Winder  Wedd,  daughter  of 
John  Wedd,  and  sister  of  William  Wedd  of  Upper 
Canada  College.  Of  their  issue  there  were  Charles,  Bishop  of 
Oregon,  and  Henry  Crawford  Scadding,  the  well-known  physician 
of  Toronto.  Henry  (Rev.),  third  son  of  John  Scadding,  of  Wol- 
ford, married  Harriet,  daugh- 
ter of  John  Spread  Baldwin. 
They  had  a  daughter,  Hen- 
rietta, who  married  the  late 
Robert  Sullivan,  a  son  of  the 
late  Judge  Sullivan.  Mrs. 
Sullivan  lives  in  Toronto. 

The  Rev.  Br.  Henry  Scad- 
ding'  \vas  more  in  the  public 
eye  than  the  other  members 
of  the  Scadding  family,  and 
his  familiar  face  will  long  be 
remembered  by  the  people  of 
Toronto.  He  was  born  in 
Bevonshije  in  1813  and  came 
to  Canada  at  the  age  of  eleven 
years.  His  father  after  settling  in  Canada  returned  to  England  and 
brought  out  his  wife  and  family.  Br.  Scadding  was  educated  at 
Upper  Canada  College  and  was  the  first  head  boy  under  Br.  Harris. 

215 


, 

* 


DR.  SCADDING 
AT  28  YEARS. 


DR.  SCADDING 
AT  56  YEARS. 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

He  graduated  at  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  in  1837,  and  was 
an  intimate  personal  friend  of  Mrs.  Simcoe,  widow  of  the  first 
Governor.  He  was  the  incumbent  of  Holy  Trinity  Church,  Toronto, 
for  many  years,  and  also  principal  of  Upper  Canada  College.  He 
died  in  Toronto  on  6th  May,  1901. 

Sat.  Feb.  1st — I  am  in  great  spirits  to-day,  as  the  Governor  talks  of 
going  to  Detroit  in  March  and  spending  a  month  there  very  gaily;  but 
the  greatest  amusement  will  be  the  journey.  We  shall  ride  to  the  Grand 
River,  from  thence  to  the  La  Tranche,  where  canoes  will  be  built,  in  which 
we  shall  go  down  to  Detroit  in  a  few  days,  and  we  shall  take  Lake  Erie 
on  our  return.  This  scheme  particularly  pleased  me,  as  it  will  prevent 
our  going  to  Detroit  in  July,  which  I  had  dreaded  on  account  of  the 
extreme  heat  of  that  season. 

Sun.  Feb.  9th— The  weather  damp,  mild  and  dirty.  When  will  the 
end  of  March  arrive?  I  am  quite  impatient  to  set  out  for  Detroit. 

Thurs.  13th — We  rode  to  town.  I  galloped  on  the  sands  several  times. 
I  saw  a  Chippawa  woman  carrying  a  linen  bundle  tied  up  like  a  doll.  I 
was  told  it  was  "customary  for  them  to  carry  about  this  thing  for  some 
months  after  the  death  of  their  husbands.  When  an  Indian  intends  to 
express  his  determination  to  get  thro'  any  difficulty  he  says  "  Garistakaw," 
and  after  that  always  pursues  the  object. 

Fri.  21st — Mr.  Bouchette  (son  of  the  Commodore)  has  got  the  "  Onon- 
daga  "  off  the  shoal,  and  she  is  not  injured  by  the  ice.  Mr.  Littlehales 
came  from  Niagara. 

Sat.  March  1st — The  news  received  of  the  death  of  the  Queen  of 
France.  Orders  given  out  for  mourning,  in  which  everybody  appeared 
this  evening,  and  the  dance  postponed. 

NOTE. — Marie  Antoinette  was  married  to  the  Dauphin  of  France, 
afterwards  Louis  XVI.  After  the  fall  of  the  Girondists  she  was 
condemned  to  death  by  the  Jacobins  and  guillotined  October,  1793. 

1   Mon.  March  3rd- — The  weather  extremely  cold. 

Tues.  4th — The  weather  extremely  cold.  Tho'  I  wore  three  fur  tip- 
pets I  was  so  cold  I  could  hardly  hold  my  cards  this  evening.  This  is 
the  first  time  we  have  felt  the  want  of  a  ceiling,  which  we  have  not  had 
made  in  our  drawing-room  because  the  room  was  rather  low. 

Wed.  5th — Very  cold.  I  divided  the  room  by  hanging  across  it  a 
large  carpet,  which  made  it  warmer.  There  has  so  little  snow  fallen  this 
winter  that  it  was  scarcely  practicable  to  track  the  deer,  in  consequence 
of  which  the  Indians  have  been  almost  starved.  A  great  many  of  their 
women  and  children  come  to  our  windows  every  day  for  bread,  which  we 
cannot  refuse  them,  tho'  having  but  a  small  quantity  of  flour  until  the 
spring  supply  arrives,  it  is  inconvenient  to  give  them  what  they  require. 
There  have  been  apprehensions  that  the  French  Republicans  at  New 
York  would  attack  Lower  Canada  from  Albany  this  winter,  but  a  mutiny 
on  board  some  of  their  ships  carried  them  to  France.  If  the  Americans 
were  to  attack  this  province  I  should  go  to  Quebec.  I  have  just  received 
your  (Mrs.  Hunt's)  letters,  in  answer  to  which  I  can  only  say  "  Que  diable 
avait  elle  a  faire  dans  cette  galere?"  What  nonsense  about  the  books. 
Did  people  but  consider  their  happiness,  the  first  point  of  their  creed 
would  be,  not  to  consider  things  as  serious  which  are  of  no  consequence. 

NOTE. — "Qu'allait-il  faire  dans  cette  galere?"  from  Moliere's 
"Fouberies  de  Scapin."  Scapin  pretends  that  his  young  master  Leandre 
has  been  taken  prisoner  on  a  Turkish  galley,  and  that  the  captain 
claims  500  crowns  as  ransom ;  Geronte,  a  miser,  Leandre's  father, 
half  distracted  at  the  idea  of  having  to  lose  either  his  son  or  his 

216 


DORCHESTER  OEDEES  ERECTION  OF  FORT  MIAMI. 

money,  repeats  seven  times  during  the  scene,  "What  did  he  go  into 
that  galley  for?"  a  proverbial  French  expression. 

Fri.  14th — As  I  was  riding  across  the  bay  I  felt  the  horse  sink  under 
me,  and  supposing  there  was  a  hole  in  the  ice,  I  threw  myself  off;  the 
horse  lay  down  to  roll  in  the  snow,  and  as  I  was  falling  I  struck  him  with 
my  whip,  and  I  believe  that  prevented  him  from  rolling  over  me.  I  was 
not  hurt,  but  much  afraid  he  would  repeat  the  trick.  I  dreamt  some  time 
since  that  the  Governor,  Mr.  Talbot  and  I  were  passing  a  wood,  possessed 
by  an  enemy,  who  fired  ball  at  us  as  fast  as  possible.  I  was  so  frightened 
that  I  have  never  since  liked  to  hear  a  musquet  fired,  and  I  am  quite 
nervous  when  I  hear  of  the  probability  of  this  country  being  attacked. 
In  a  magazine  we  met  with  a  very  pretty  hymn  sung  by  Sicilian  mariners. 
It  sounds  charming  played  by  a  band  on  the  water.  The  master  of  the 


A  VIEW  ON  THE  MIAMI  RIVER,  1794. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Lieutenant  Pilkington,  copied  >>„  M,-*.  Si  „«•<»:) 

band  is  a  German,  who  boasts  of  having  performed  before  the  King  of 
Prussia  in  the  great  church  at  Strasburg. 

Sat.  15th — An  express  is  arrived  from  Lord  Dorchester,  who  orders 
Governor  Simcoe,  as  soon  as  the  navigation  of  the  lakes  is  open,  to  go 
and  establish  a  fort  on  the  River  Miami,  in  a  country  claimed  by  the 
Americans  some  distance  below  Detroit. 

The  Governor  thinks  the  order  may  be  put  in  execution  so  much 
earlier  if  he  goes  down  the  La  Tranche  to  Detroit  that  he  intends  setting 
out  t.o-morrow  for  the  Grand  River.  This  order  of  Lord  Dorchester  puts 
an  end  to  my  scheme  of  going  to  Detroit,  which  is  an  exceeding  great 
disappointment  to  me. 

NOTE. — In  September,  1793,  Lord  Dorchester,  the  Governor- 
General,  who  had  been  on  leave  of  absence  in  England,  returned  to 

217 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Canada.  He  sent  Governor  Simcoe  to  erect  a  fort  on  the  Maumee 
River,  in  that  part  of  the  Indian  territory  now  in  the  State  of  Ohio. 
Simcoe  was  strongly  against  the  establishment  of  this  fort,  but  he 
had  to  carry  out  the  instructions  of  Lord  Dorchester,  who  was  com- 
mander-in-chief.  Maumee  and  Miami  are,  it  is  said,  the  same 
word  differently  spelled  by  English  and  French  phonetic  renderings. 
Its  meaning  is  "Walkers,"  the  term  being  applied  to  a  tribe  of  Indians 
who  roamed  from  Wisconsin  to  Ohio.  They  preferred  to  travel  on  foot 
rather  than  by  canoes.  Two  rivers,  at  least,  also  bore  the  name,  but  it 


SITE  OF  FORT  MIAMI  (MAUMEE). 

Fortification  looking  south  across  the  River. 

(From  a  Drawing  in  the  J.  Rons  Robertson  collection.) 

is  only  in  recent  years  that  the  different  spelling  has  been  used  with 
regard  to  the  rivers.  "Miami"  designates  a  river  which  joins  the 
Ohio  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  State  of  that  name,  while 
"Maumee"  is  a  river  running  into  Lake  Erie,  five  miles  northeast  of 
Toledo.  Many  historians  have,  however,  written  the  name  of  the 
latter  river  as  "Miami,"  as  did  both  Simcoe  and  Dorchester. 

Clearly,  the  fort  built  by  Simcoe  was  on  the  north  bank  of 
Maumee  River,  five  miles  from  its  mouth,  where  the  first  rapids  occur. 
Mr.  Avern  Pardoe  is  of  this  opinion,  and  in  a  paper  on  "  The  First 
Chapter  of  Upper  Canadian  History"  in  the  Ontario  Historical  So- 
ciety Papers  and  Records,  Vol.  VII.,  points  out  that  "There  is  a 

218 


THE  SITUATION  OF  FORT  MIAMI 

general  misapprehension  as  to  the  situation  of  the  Fort  which 
Simcoe  built  in  the  Indian  territory.  Because  it  was  called  Fort 
Miami  some  have  supposed  it  was  on  that  Miami  River  which  is  a 
tributary  of  the  Ohio  River.  The  fort  was  situated  on  the  Mauroes 
River,  not  far  from  Lake  Erie,  into  which  the  river  flows.  The 
Maumee  is  called  the  Miami  on  some  maps  of  a  date  subsequent 
to  Simcoe's  operation."  "A  History  of  the  Maumee  Valley/'  pub- 
lished in  Toledo  about  sixty  years  ago,  says: — 

"The  fort  was  built  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Maumee  (the  Maumee 
of  Lake  Erie)  near  the  lower  limits  of  the  present  village  of  Maumee, 
Lucas  County,  Ohio.  Indian  Superintendent  McKee's  agency  and 
supply  house  was  a  mile  and  a  half  above  this  fort  and  near  the 
lowest  rapids  of  the  Maumee.  The  British  also  built  another  fort 
on  Turtle  Island  just  outside  of  Maumee  Bay,  twenty  miles  or  more 
northeast  from  their  Fort  Miami." 

Sun.  16th — I  walked  half-way  to  the  town  with  Mr.  Talbot.  The  day 
very  windy;  returned  before  evening  prayers.  Mr.  Pilkington  walked 
from  Niagara.  I  copied  some  sketches  he  made  going  to  Lake  Huron.  He 
says  the  thermometer  was  5  degrees  below  zero  the  5th  of  this  month  at 
Niagara.  Are  you  not  shocked  at  the  siege  of  Valenciennes  (taken 
by  the  Allies  in  1793)  or  any  real  action  that  has  lately  occurred,  being 
represented  on  the  stage  in  London?  If  English  minds  become  hardened 
by  seeing  such  sights  as  amusements,  they  will  in  time  be  as  well  able  to 
become  their  friends'  executioners  as  the  French  have  been. 

Mon.  17th— A  dance  to-night. 

Tues.  18th — The  Governor  and  Mr.  Talbot  set  out  at  half-past  seven 
for  Detroit. 

Wed.  19th — This  is  the  month  for  making  maple  sugar;  a  hot  sun  and 
frosty  nights  cause  the  sap  to  flow  most.  Slits  are  cut  in  the  bark  of  the 
trees,  and  wooden  troughs  set  under  the  tree,  into  which  the  sap — a  clear, 
sweet  water — runs.  It  is  collected  from  a  number  of  trees,  and  boiled  in 
large  kettles  till  it  becomes  of  a  hard  consistence.  Moderate  boiling  will 
make  powder  sugar,  but  when  boiled  long  it  forms  very  hard  cakes,  which 
are  better.  I  saw  a  number  of  trees  slit  to-day  as  I  rode  with  Mr.  McGill 
to  his  farm. 

In  a  month's  time,  when  the  best  sap  is  exhausted,  an  inferior  kind 
runs,  of  which  vinegar  is  made.  Cutting  the  trees  does  not  kill  them,  for 
the  same  trees  bear  it  for  many  years  following.  Dr.  Nooth.  at.  Quebec, 
showed  me  some  maple  sugar  which  he  had  refined,  and  it  became  as  white 
as  West  India  sugar.  The  sap  of  birch  trees  will  make  vinegar. 

NOTE. — The  location  of  this  farm  is  not  known.  There  is  no 
record  of  land  granted  to  McGill  in  or  near  York  until  July,  1809, 
when  he  was  granted  Park  Lot  No.  7,  one  hundred  acres  extending 
from  Queen  to  Bloor  Streets  and  from  the  west  side  of  Mutual  to 
the  east  side  of  Bond  Street.  Land  has  increased  in  value  in  Toronto 
since  the  days  of  1809.  In  that  year  the  hundred  acres  would 
probably  be  worth  about  a  pound  an  acre.  The  present  assessment  of 
the  lot 'is  $2,016,075  for  the  land  and  $2,680,412  for  the  buildings, 
or  a  total  assessment  of  $4,696,487.  Add  thirty  per  cent,  and  the 
real  present-day  value  of  this  hundred  acres  is  $6,105,433.  The 
McGill  Square  portion  of  the  lot  bounded  by  Bond,  Shutcr,  Church 
and  Queen  Streets  was  sold  about  1871  to  the  Metropolitan  Church 

219 


DIARY  OF  MBS.  SIMCOE 

for  $25,000.  The  land  is  now  assessed  for  $308,280  and  buildings 
$138,000,  a  total  assessment  of  $446,280.  These  prices  show  the 
extraordinary  increase  in  value  of  lands  that  were  part  of  the  pri- 
meval forest  a  century  ago.  Mrs.  Simcoe,  up  to  the  time  of  her 
death,  was  much  interested  in  the  progress  of  York.  Some  letters 
in  her  manuscripts  refer  to  the  development  of  the  town  that  her 
husband  founded. 

Fri.  21st — The  weather  extremely  warm.  Mrs.  Richardson  spent  the 
day  with  me. 

Sat.  22nd — Abundance  of  geese  and  ducks  seen,  which  denotes  the 
approach  of  spring. 

Sun.  23rd — A  very  hot  day. 

Tues.  25th — I  had  a  party  at  cards  this  evening.  Some  white  fish 
were  sent  me  to-day  from  Niagara  and  dressed  for  supper;  they  were  the 
best  I  ever  tasted. 

Thurs.  27th— A  strong,  easterly  wind.  All  the  ice  went  out  of  the 
harbour  in  two  large  sheets,  each  above  half  a  mile  long. 

Fri.  28th — Mr.  Gamble,  the  surgeon  of  the  Queen's  Rangers,  returned 
from  the  Mohawk  village  on  the  Grand  River,  where  he  had  been  to 
attend  Chief  Brant.  He  brought  a  letter  from  the  Governor,  who  went 
from  the  head  of  the  lake  to  Niagara,  sending  Mr.  Talbot  to  the  Grand 
River  to  order  the  canoes  to  be  prepared.  The  Governor  expected  they 
would  be  in  readiness  for  him  to  leave  Brant's  on  the  26th.  The  ice  would 
not  allow  them  to  move  sooner.  Mrs.  Richardson  spent  the  day  with  me. 

NOTE. — John  Gamble,  born  in  1756,  was  son  of  William  Gamble, 
of  Duross  near  Enniskillen,  Ireland.  He  came  to  America  in  1779, 
serving  as  regimental  surgeon  during  the  Revolutionary  War,  after 
which  he  settled  in  New  Brunswick.  He  resided  there  until  1793, 
when  he  was  appointed  surgeon  to  the  Queen's  Rangers  stationed 
at  Niagara.  After  the  regiment  was  disbanded  at  Toronto  in  1802 
Dr.  Gamble  moved  to  Kingston.  He  died  in  1811  and  his  family 
returned  to  York  in  1820.  He  married  Isabella  Elizabeth,  daugh- 
ter of  Dr.  Joseph  Clarke.  One  of  their  sons  was  the  late  Joseph 
Clarke  Gamble,  barrister-at-law,  Toronto,  who  married,  first,  Mary 
Sayre,  daughter  of  D'Arcy  Boulton,  a  daughter  being  Miss  Sarah 
Gamble  of  Toronto.  He  took  as  his  second  wife  Harriet  Eliza, 
daughter  of  Honorable  John  Henry  Boulton,  and  of  their  issue  the 
following  survive : — F.  C.  Gamble,  Deputy  Minister  of  Public  Works, 
Victoria,  B.C.;  A.  W.  Gamble,  H.  Dudley  Gamble,  K.C.,  and  A.  G. 
Gamble,  Manager  of  the  Sterling  Bank,  Toronto;  Mrs.  C.  E.  Bowker 
(Elizabeth  Sophia),  of  London,  England;  and  Mrs.  I.  F.  Hellmuth 
(Harriet  Emily),  of  Toronto. 

Sat.  29th — Rain  and  damp  weather. 

Sun.  30th — I  walked  on  the  sands. 

Tues.  April  1st — I  rode  to  the  town;  a  delightful  evening. 

Wed.  2nd— I  rode. 

Mon.  14th — I  rode.    I  saw  a  fine  eagle. 

Tues.  15th — A  boat  came  from  Niagara,  where  the  river  is  still  full  of 
ice.  I  received  some  excellent  white  fish  from  thence.  A  boat  arrived 
from  the  Bay  of  Quinte  with  pork. 

220 


MBS  SIMCOE  AGAIN  AT  NIAGAEA 

Wed.  16t.h— Walked  towards  the  old  French  Fort. 
Fri.   18th — The   "  Caldwell "   arrived  from  Niagara.     She   left   it   the 
16th.     The  harbour  was  open  on  the  10th  of  this  month. 

NOTE. — There  is  no  entry  in  the  diary  from  Friday,  18th  April, 
until  2nd  May.  It  was  a  time  of  sorrow  for  the  Governor  and  his 
wife,  for  their  little  daughter  Katherine,  born  in  Niagara  on  16th 
January,  1793,  was  buried  on  the  17th  April,  1794.  It  is  rather 
peculiar  that  Mrs.  Simcoe  makes  no  reference  to  the  sad  event. 

Fri.  May  2nd — Governor  Simcoe  arrived  at  six  this  evening  from 
Niagara.  He  rode  from  the  Grand  River  to  the  La  Tranche,  where  he 
embarked  the  29th  of  March  in  canoes,  and  that  day  he  reached  the  site 
intended  for  New  London.  The  30th  he  slept  at  the  Delaware  village;  the 
31st  at  the  Moravian  village;  the  1st  of  April  at  an  Indian  trader's;  the  2nd 
arrived  at  Detroit;  two  days  the  snow  fell  incessantly,  so  that  they  were  wet 
thro'  in  the  canoe,  which  repelled  a  slight  attack  of  gout  the  Governor  was 
seized  with.  He  saw  wild  turkeys  and  eagles,  and  shot  a  deer  which  the 
wolves  drove  down  the  river.  The  Governor  stayed  four  days  at  Detroit, 
and  then  went  to  Captain  Elliott's  at  the  River  au  Raisin;  from  thence 
rode  30  miles  to  the  River  Miami,  in  Ohio,  and  stayed  at  Coll.  McKee's, 
of  Detroit,  a  little  distance  from  thence. 

On  the  way  they  passed  an  Indian  fort,  and  swam  the  horses  over  some 
creeks.  At  Coll.  McKee's  there  were  very  good  wild  turkeys.  On 
his  return  the  Governor  saw  Turtle  Island,  at  the  entrance  of  Miami  Bay, 
and  was  detained  some  days  among  the  Bass  Islands,  at  the  west  end  of 
Lake  Erie,  by  contrary  winds.  They  went  on  some  of  the  islands,  and  it 
being  St.  George's  Day,  gave  one  of  the  islands  that  name.  The  Governor 
killed  seven  rattlesnakes  with  a  small  stick  on  one  of  the  islands,  and 
Mr.  Pilkington  shot  a  sturgeon.  The  Governor  arrived  at  Fort  Erie  the 
25th  of  April. 

NOTE. — Captain  Matthew  Elliott  was  Assistant  Agent  of  Indian 
Affairs  in  1790  at  Detroit.  In  1795  he  became  Deputy  and  in  July, 
1796,  Superintendent.  In  1812  when  the  British  entered  the  fort 
at  Detroit,  the  regiment  of  Indians  was  led  by  Colonel  Elliott.  He 
was  an  intimate  friend  of  Tecumseh  and  fought  at  the  Battle  of  the 
Thames,  where  the  latter  fell.  At  eighty  years  of  age  he  took  the 
active  command  of  the  Indians  at  the  assault  on  Fort  Niagara  in 
1813.  His  death  took  place  in  1814.  One  writer  paid  re-garding 
Elliott  that  "His  Majesty  has  lost  one  his  most  faithful  and  zealous 
servants." 

Fri.  9th — At  seven  this  morning  we  set  off  in  a  boat  for  Niagara  with 
the  children  and  Mr.  Talbot,  intending  to  reach  the  head  of  the  lake 
to-night,  but  a  very  stiff  breeze  rising  ahead  about  four  o'clock,  we  put  on 
shore  12  miles  short  of  it.  The  tents  were  pitched  and  fires  made.  The 
Governor  and  I  walked  some  distance  on  the  beach,  and  Mr.  Talbot  amused 
himself  by  barking  elm  trees  as  the  Indians  do,  and  covering  his  tent 
with  it,  for  it  proved  a  very  wet  night.  The  children  and  Junk,  a  nurse, 
slept  on  the  office  boxes  in  the  tent. 

Sat.  10th— We  rose  at  daylight,  breakfasted  and  set  off,  but  the 
weather  was  so  misty  that  I  saw  less  of  the  country  towards  the  "  Head  of 
the  Lake  "  than  I  had  expected,  and  was  prevented  going  into  Burlington 
Bay.  After  some  hours  of  wet  weather  it  blew  very  fresh  and  cleared  up. 
A  wave  washed  into  the  boat,  of  which  no  notice  was  taken,  but  Collins,  a 
nurse,  laid  her  cloak  on  the  other  side.  People  sometimes  cross  from  the 

221 


DIARY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 


16-mile  creek  to  the  40-mile  creek  (Grimsby),  but  the  Governor  does  not 
like  meeting  those  breezes  which  rise  suddenly  on  this  lake. 

NOTE. — These    creeks    are    designated    by    their    distance    from 
Niagara,  if  on  the  south  side  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  from  Burlington 
if  on  the  north  side.     Oakville  on  the 
north  shore  is  situated  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Sixteen-Mile  Creek. 

10th— We  coasted  to  the  forty-mile 
creek,  forty  miles  from  Niagara,  and 
passed  in  at  three  o'clock.  The  mouth  of 
this  creek  forms  a  very  fine  scene;  a  very 
bold  spur  of  the  high  land  appears  beauti- 
ful in  the  distance.  It  is  about  three  miles 
off.  Some  cottages  are  pretty  placed  on 
the  banks  of  the  river,  and  a  saw  mill 
affords  a  quantity  of  boards,  which,  piled 
up  in  a  wood,  makes  a  varied  foreground. 
It  was  about  six  before  we  reached  the 
20-Mile  Pond,  the  mouth  of  another  creek. 

NOTE. — Twenty-Mile  Creek  runs 
into  Twenty-Mile  Pond  before  it 
reaches  the  lake.  Jordan,  Ontario,  is 
situated  three  miles  from  the  lake 
shore,  on  high  ground,  having  on  its 
left  a  deep  valley  through  which  flows 
the  "twentv-mile  creek." 


NIAGARA  TO  THE  "FORTY." 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 


10th— A  small  inlet  from  the  lake  carries  you  into  this  pond,  which 
is  two  miles  long.  The  banks  are  very  high,  of  a  fine  verdure,  and  the 
summit  covered  with  wood,  which  was  now  reflected  with  the  deepest 
shade  in  the  water  and  had  a  most  beautiful  appearance,  which  was  soon 
heightened  by  the  rising  moon,  giving  more  force  to  the  shadow.  Two 
houses  of  Coll.  Butler's,  of  the  Rangers,  were  distinguished  at  a  distance. 
We  had  not  eaten  since  eight  this  morning.  I  was,  therefore,  desirous 
to  get  something  for  the  children,  and  while  some  salmon  we  bought  of 
an  Indian  as  we  passed  Burlington  Bay  was  preparing  for  our  supper,  we 
walked  half  a  mile  with  the  children  to  a  farmhouse,  which  we  found 
inhabited  by  some  Pennsylvanians,  whom  Governor  Simcoe  had  assisted 
last  year  at  Niagara;  we  had  here  excellent  bread  and  milk  and  butter. 
We  then  returned  to  the  tents,  and  Francis  lay  down  on  his  greatcoat  on 
the  grass  and  went  to  sleep  till  his  tent  was  ready  for  him.  We  supped 
by  starlight  amid  this  fine  scenery  of  wood  and  water;  the  bright  fires  of 
the  soldiers  below  the  hill,  contrasted  with  a  dark  sky,  now  and  then 
brightened  by  a  gleam  of  moonlight,  had  a  beautiful  effect. 

Sun.  llth — We  left  this  beautiful  spot  about  eight  o'clock.  The 
entrance  to  the  Seventeen,  Sixteen,  Fifteen  and  Twelve  Mile  Creeks 
appeared  pretty  as  we  passed  them.  It  blew  so  fresh  we  were  afraid  of 
losing  the  awning  from  the  boat.  It  was  too  showery  for  me  to  venture 
in  the  canoe.  It  was  a  pretty  sight  to  see  how  swiftly  she  glided  through 
the  water.  We  arrived  at  Niagara  at  twelve,  and  before  two  1  wished  to 
return  to  York;  the  heat  here  was  so  great,  and  looking  on  the  land 
seemed  to  me  to  add  to  the  heat,  and  was  quite  disagreeable  after  having 
been  accustomed  to  look  on  the  bay  at  York,  and  the  river  here,  tho'  half 
a  mile  wide,  appears  narrow  after  leaving  that  expanse  of  water. 

222 


AN  EARLY  NIAGARA  MANSION 

NOTE. — There  is  no  Seventeen-Mile  Creek.  In  all  probability 
Mrs.  Simcoe  referred  to  the  Eighteen.  There  are  no  villages  at  the 
Fifteen,  Sixteen  or  Eighteen,  while  what  was  known  as  the  Twelve- 
Mile-Creek  is  now  St.  Catharines. 

Tues.  13th — I  went  to  see  Major  Smith's  house  he  has  built  on  this 
side  of  the  river.  It  is  a  very  good  one.  The  town  here  is  enlarged  and 
called  Newark. 

NOTE. — The  house  referred  to  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  as  Major  Smith's 
(afterwards  Lieutenant-Colonel  Smith),  was  built  about  1793,  by 
his  son,  D.  W.  Smith,  Surveyor-General  of  Upper  Canada.  In  his 


TWENTY-MILE  CREEK  (JORDAN,  ONT.),  1794. 

(From  a  Dra-wing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe,) 

"Tour  Through  Upper  Canada"  in  1795  La  Rochefoucauld  writes  of 
the  house  as  follows:  "In  point  of  size  and  elegance,  the  house 
of  Colonel  Smith,  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  Fifth  Regiment,  is  much 
distinguished.  It  consists  of  joiners'  work,  but  is  constructed,  em- 
bellished and  painted  in  the  best  style;  the  yard,  garden  and  court 
are  surrounded  with  railings,  made  and  painted  as  elegantly  as  they 
could  be  in  England."  D.  W.  Smith  owned  what  is  now  called  Court 
House  Square  or  Market  Square,  Niagara,  his  house  being  situated 
on  the  west  side  of  King  Street  between  Queen  and  Johnson.  In  1798 
the  house  was  offered  for  sale  for  a  free  Grammar  School,  with  four 
acres  as  endowment,  and  again  in  1800  at  a  reduced  price.  Governor 
Hunter,  however,  opposed  the  purchase  on  the  ground  that  the  house 
was  in  too  exposed  a  position,  being  opposite  Fort  Niagara.  Miss 
15  225 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  S1MCOE 

Janet  Carnochan  says  it  is  not  known  what  became  of  the  house,  but 
its  site  was  occupied  in  1812  by  the  (government  House,  which  was 
burned  in  1813. 

Niagara  was  called  "  Newark "  by  Lieutenant-Governor  Simcoe 
in  1792,  but  both  names  were  used  either  from  habit  or  fancy.  In 
1798,  however,  by  Act  of  the  Legislature  the  name  again  became 
"  Niagara." 


RESIDENCE  OF  D.  W.  SMITH,  NIAGARA. 

(From  a  Drawing  btj  Mm.  Simcoe.) 

Wed.  14th — Mr.  Pilkington  goes  to-morrow  to  see  and  to  give  orders 
for  fortifying  the  new  post  at  the  Miami,  the  fort  Governor  Simcoe  built 
by  order  of  Lord  Dorchester.  He  gave  me  some  sketches  taken  on  Lake 
Erie. 

Thurs.  16th — Some  ladies  dined  here  from  the  Garrison.  After  they 
went  I  drove  out  in  the  open  carriage  towards  the  Landing.  The 
apprehension  of  the  war  with  the  United  States  engages  my  atten- 
tion very  disagreeably;  at  the  same  time  I  reflect  that  I  should  not  have 
less  anxiety  in  any  other  part  of  the  world.  Had  we  remained  in  Eng- 
land probably  the  Governor  would  now  be  going  on  the  European  con- 
tinent, where  campaign  follows  campaign  without  a  prospect  of  peace, 
and  here,  if  a  war  takes  place,  the  result  must  be  speedily  decisive. 

Fri.  16th — Drove  this  evening,  after  dining  at  Mr.  Peter  Russell's,  the 
Receiver-General's,  towards  the  two-mile  creek;  the  road  horribly  bad. 

NOTE. — Two-Mile  Creek  and  Pond,  where  Honorable  Peter  Rus- 
sell lived,  is  two  miles  froon  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River,  due 
west,  and  has  been  a  favorite  resort  for  sportsmen.  The  new  military 
quarters  lately  purchased  by  the  Canadian  Government  are  close 
to  it. 

Sat.  17th — So  cold  an  east  wind  that  I  had  a  fire;  a  large  party  at 
dinner.  The  new  merchant  vessel,  called  the  "  Governor  Simcoe,"  arrived. 
She  sails  remarkably  well. 

NOTE. — The  schooner  at  first  known  as  the  "Governor  Simcoe" 
and  latterly  simply  as  the  "Simcoe,"  was  built  at  Kingston  in  1794 

226 


OPENING  OF  LEGISLATURE 

and  was  of  only  eighty-seven  tons  burthen.  She  was  at  first  intended 
for  the  North-West  Company's  lake  trade,  but  in  the  end  her  career 
appears  to  have  been  purely  local  and  confined  to  Lake  Ontario,  as 
she  is  frequently  referred  to  in  the  Gazettes  of  1797  and  1798  as 
plying  between  Kingston  and  Niagara,  the  latter  place  being  at 
that  time  oi  considerably  more  business  importance  than  the  capital 
of  the  province,  the  town  of  York.  The  "Simcoe"  was  so  constructed 
that  in  case  of  necessity  she  could  be  armed  with  eight  four-pounder 
guns  and  a  similar  number  of  swivels.  The  "Simcoe"  was  the  first 
vessel  built  for  trade  on  Lake  Ontario.  Her  first  captain  was  Captain 
Murney.  John  Clarke  says  in  his  "Memoirs"  (Vol.  VII. ,  Ontario 
Historical  Society  Papers),  with  regard  to  Captain  Murney: — "I 
recollect  a  Captain  Murney  building  a  schooner  in  the  County  of 
Prince  Edward,  of  red  cedar,  in  the  year  1800  or  1801,  which  vessel 
was  named  the  'Prince  Edward.'  I  was  on  board  the  following 
year,  and  crossed  from  Kingston  to  Niagara.  He  was  a  noble 
captain  of  a  staunch,  good  ship.  I  believe  Captain  Murney  married 
a  Miss  Smith  of  Kingston.  The  captain  was  father  of  the  late 
Honorable  Mr.  Murne}',  of  Belleville.  In  the  year  1812  this  schooner 
was  in  good  condition,  and  was  employed  as  a  Government  armed 
vessel  on  Lake  Ontario." 

Sun.  18th — Very  cold. 

Mon.  19th — The  wind  changed  and  the  weather  warm. 

Tues.  20th — I  am  always  glad  to  have  large  parties  at  dinner,  for  when 
I  sit  alone  I  do  nothing  but  think  of  the  threatened  war  in  this  country. 
After  the  ladies  leave  me,  Mr.  Talbot  drives  me  in  the  gig  towards  the 
Landing,  the  weather  being  usually  too  warm  to  walk,  and  the  Governor 
employs  two  or  three  hours  on  writing  in  an  evening.  This  evening  a 
cow  was  lying  in  the  road,  and  Mr.  Talbot  did  not  turn  out  of  the  way, 
expecting  she  would,  and,  before  he  was  aware  of  it,  one  wheel  went  over 
her  back,  but  as  she  lay  quite  still  the  carriage  did  not  overset. 

Wed.  21st — A  large  party  at  dinner. 

Thurs.  22nd — The  Governor  and  I  dined  alone.  We  fished  near  the 
wharf  at  Niagara. 

Sat.  24th — We  rode  in  the  morning,  and  were  prevented  going  to  the 
garrison  in  the  evening  by  a  great  fog. 

Sun.  25th — I  persuaded  the  Governor  to  ride  this  evening.  We  had 
not  ridden  a  mile  before  there  came  so  violent  a  shower  that  we  were  wet 
through  in  three  minutes,  and  the  claps  of  thunder  were  so  loud  as  to 
make  the  horses  start.  After  changing  our  clothes  we  sat  down  to  tea, 
and  agreed  with  Mr.  Talbot  that  the  rain  had  been  the  pleasantest  mode 
of  taking  a  shower  bath,  and  the  extreme  violence  with  which  it  fell  ren- 
dered us  less  liable  to  catch  cold  than  we  should  have  been  under  a 
gentle  shower. 

Wed.  28th— All  the  ladies  from  the  garrison,  the  fort  on  the  east 
side  of  river,  and  Newark,  drank  tea  here  previous  to  the  ball  which  is  to 
be  given  on  the  4th  of  June. 

Thurs.  29th — The  "  Mississaga,"  the  "  Caldwell  "  and  the  gunboats 
arrived,  bringing  some  of  the  members  of  the  House  of  Assembly  from 
the  lower  townships.  Capt.  John  McDonell,  of  Glengarry,  the  Speaker, 
etc.,  etc.,  dined  with  us. 

Mon.  June  2nd — The  House  of  Assembly  met  to-day.  We  went  to  thp 
garrison  in  the  evening  and  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Smith.  The  "  Missis- 

227 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

saga,"  "  Caldwell  "  and  gunboats  sailed.    Capt.  Brooking,  of  the  17th  Regt., 
went  in  the  "  Mississaga." 

Tues.  3rd — The  Governor  goes  to  the  fort  on  the  east  side  of  the  river 
almost  every  day,  to  see  the  works  which  the  Engineers  are  repairing. 
I  am  glad  to  take  the  opportunity  of  crossing  the  water  (and  glad  he  is 
induced  to  take  this  little  exercise)  and  walking  on  the  common  behind 
the  fort,  as  I  consider  the  air  so  near  the  lake,  and  where  the  ground 
is  high,  to  be  much  healthier  than  our  side  of  the  water.  The  Governor 
stayed  so  late  with  the  Engineer  this  evening  that  it  was  dark,  and 
Francis  fell  asleep  on  the  common  before  he  returned  to  us. 

NOTE. — Fort  Niagara  on  the  east  side  of  the  Niagara  River  was 
not  handed  over  by  the  British,  to  the  Americans  until  179(5. 

Wed.  4th — The  ball  was  held  in  the  Council  Chamber.  The  Governor 
and  I  and  Mr.  Talbot  went  into  the  room  after  all  the  company  were 
assembled.  There  were  22  couple.  I  did  not  dance.  The  ladies  were  all 
well  dressed.  We  supped  at  twelve  in  a  room  as  large  as  the  ballroom, 
and  we  came  away  at  two  o'clock.  The  whole  was  extremely  well  managed, 
as  Mr.  Talbot  ordered  it  himself. 

NOTE. — There  is  no  information  extant  as  to  the  location  of  the 
Council  Chamber.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  it  was  in  a  building 
which  was  an  addition  to  Navy  Hall. 

Thur.  5th — I  was  tired  by  sitting  up  late,  and  went  to  take  an  early 
dinner  at  the  Fort  with  Mrs.  Smith.  The  Governor  had  a  large  party  of 
gentlemen  to  dinner.  Mr.  Talbot  came  for  me  in  the  evening,  and  it  was 
so  cold  we  were  obliged  to  wrap  ourselves  up  in  great  coats  and  tippets. 

Fri.  6th — The  Governor  went  to  the  Fort  Chippawa,  and  returned  at 
night  wet  through.  Mrs.  D.  W.  Smith,  wife  of  the  Surveyor-General,  has 
added  a  boy  to  her  family  to-day. 

Sat.  7th — Francis'  birthday  was  not  kept  yesterday,  as  the  Governor 
was  from  home.  To-day  the  little  cannon  Mr.  McDonell  gave  him  fired  a 
salute  of  21  guns,  and  tho'  they  are  not  two  inches  long,  made  a  loud 
report  and  pleased  him  much.  Being  three  years  old,  he  was  dressed  in  a 
rifle  shirt  and  sash,  which  gave  him  somewhat  the  air  of  an  Indian.  He 
found  a  dead  snake,  and  gave  it  as  a  present  to  one  of  the  gentlemen 
with  us.  I  went  to  the  Fort  this  morning,  and  walked  in  the  evening. 
Mr.  Talbot  went  towards  the  Queenstown  Landing  in  his  canoe. 

Tues.  10th — Some  Seneca  Indians  came  here  from  the  northern  part 
of  the  State  of  New  York.  Francis  went  to  see  them  dance,  and  after- 
wards imitated  their  dancing  and  singing  surprisingly  well. 

Wed.  llth — I  rode  in  the  morning,  and  went  to  the  Fort  in  the  even- 
ing, to  walk  on  the  common. 

Fri.  13th — Mrs.  Smith,  Commodore  Grant  and  1  went  to  the  Landing 
in  a  boat  and  dined  with  Mrs.  Hamilton;  we  carried  Francis  with  us. 
Mr.  Talbot  came  to  meet  us  in  his  canoe  in  the  evening. 

Sat.  14th — The  "Mississaga"  arrived  from  Kingston.  Mr.  Brooking 
came  in  her. 

Mon.  16th — Company  at  dinner.  The  "  Onondaga,"  12  guns,  sailed 
for  Kingston.  Capts.  Fitzgerald  and  Cleddowe  went  in  her,  by  whom  I 
wrote  letters. 

NOTE. — Captain  Augustine  Fitzgerald  had  rank  in  the  regiment, 
13th  July,  1791,  and  in  the  army  the  previous  January. 

Tues.  17th— Capt.  Charlton,  of  the  5th  Regt.,  went  in  the  "Missis- 
saga." 


DINNER  AND  BOATING  PARTIES 

NOTE. — Captain  Edward  Charlton  of  the  5th  is  given  in  the  army 
list  as  having  rank  in  the  regiment  21st  July,  1783.  He  received 
rank  as  major,  1st  March,  1794. 

Thur.  19th — I  went  in  a  boat  this  evening. 

Sun.  22nd — Capt.  Talbot  sailed  in  the  "  Governor  Simcoe."  I  dined 
at  the  Fort,  and  rode  on  horseback  after  I  came  home. 

Mon.  23rd — A  large  party  of  the  members  of  the  House  of  Assembly 
dined  here. 

Tues.  24th— Mrs.  Mason,  wife  of  Mr.  J.  M.  Mason,  of  the  5th,  and  a 
party  from  the  Fort,  dined  here.  We  went  on  the  water  in  the  evening. 

NOTE. — John  M.  Mason,  ensign  in  the  5th,  became  lieutenant 
on  18th  October,  1793. 

Wed.  25th — A  large  party  to  dinner,  and  on  the  water  in  the  evening. 
Mrs.  Mason  saw  a  rattlesnake  in  her  garden  under  some  radish  leaves. 

Fri.  27th — I  dined  at  the  garrison. 

Sat.  28th— Mrs.  D.  W.  Smith  dined  with  me. 

Sun.  29th — A  rattlesnake  seen  under  the  wharf  not  100  yards  from  our 
house,  and  it  is  supposed  that  there  is  a  nest  of  them  there. 

Thurs.  July  3rd — Mr.  Tukel  arrived  from  England. 

Sat.  5th — We  dined  at  Major  Smith's,  and  his  grandchild  was  chris- 
tened. 

Mon.  7th — The  House  of  Assembly  (the  third  session  of  the  first  Legis- 
lature) prorogued.  General  Wayne,  of  the  United  States,  has  insinuated 
to  the  Six  Nations  that  the  western  nations  poisoned  those  of  their  chiefs 
who  died  at  the  meeting  at  Sandusky  last  year. 

NOTE. — Mrs.  Simcoe  must  have  been  in  error  as  to  the  date  of 
tlie  prorogation  of  the  third  session  of  the  first  Legislature,  for  offi- 
cial records  show  that  it  took  place  on  the  9th  July  and  not  on 
the  7th. 

Wed.  9th— Went  this  evening  to  the  Fort.  Mr.  Darling  stuffed  a  bird 
for  me  called  a  Recollect.  The  appearance  of  red  wax  on  its  brown  wings 
and  the  tuft  of  feathers  on  its  head  make  it  very  pretty.  (Probably  a 
waxwing.)  The  Indians  shoot  small  birds  with  such  blunt  arrows  that 
their  plumage  is  not  injured. 

Sun.  13th — Mr.  C.  Justice  Osgoode  sailed  for  Quebec.  The  Governor 
dined  at  the  mess. 

Mon.  14th — A  large  party  at  dinner. 

Tues.  15th— Rowed  in  a  boat  towards  the  Four-Mile  Creek.  Mrs. 
Smith  and  Mrs.  Mason  went  with  me. 

Wed.  16th — The  weather  very  hot.  We  went  out  in  a  boat.  While  we 
were  walking  in  the  garden  this  evening  about  50  Indians,  men  and 
women,  landed  from  their  canoes  and  encamped  outside  the  paling, 
brought  on  shore  their  luggage  and  made  fires;  they  were  met  by  a  party 
of  Senecas,  who  sat  round  their  fire.  All  this  passed  with  so  little  noise 
or  bustle  that  we  scarcely  heard  there  were  people  near  us.  What  a 
noise  would  the  encampment  of  50  Englishmen  have  made!  But  "  Rien 
de  trop  "  should  be  the  motto  of  these  people.  Those  who  draw  best  and 
make  no  smoke  without  producing  a  marked  effect  may  be  compared  to 
Indians  who  never  appear  to  make  one  motion  that  does  not  effect  the 
purpose  they  intend.  We  sent  some  bread  and  meat  to  this  party.  There 
is  always  an  appearance  of  distinctions  among  these  savages;  the  prin- 
cipal chiefs  are  usually  attended  by  apparently  inferiors,  who  walk 
behind  them.  I  call  them  aide-de-camps.  I  observe  none  but  the  chiefs 
shake  hands  with  the  Governor. 

229 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Thur.  17th — We  dined  in  a  boat  a  half-mile  from  hencer  under  a  steep 
rock  on  the  shore  of  the  Niagara  River,  which  affords  shade,  and  to  which 
the  boat  is  fastened.  Down  the  side  of  the  rock  a  fine  spring  pours 
rapidly  and  as  clear  as  crystal. 

The  Governor  was  walking  on  the  hill  this  evening  when  his  shoulder 
and  finger  were  struck  by  a  shot  fired  by  a  soldier  belonging  to  the  guard 
tent,  who  fired  at  an  Indian  dog  which  had  taken  away  some  pork.  A 
shot  remained  in  the  Governor's  finger,  and  was  very  painful.  A  gentle- 
man walking  with  him  was  struck  and  the  dog  severely  wounded,  which 
caused  great  concern  to  the  Indian  women.  An  Indian  was  also  struck 
by  the  shot.  The  Governor  immediately  gave  him  the  soldier's  gun  to 
appease  him,  and  reprimanded  the  soldier. 

Fri.  18th — Major  and  Mrs.  Smith  dined  under  the  rock  with  us. 

Sat.  19th — The  weather  still  excessively  hot,  tho'  some  rain  fell. 

Sun.  20th — A  cold,  east  wind.     I  breakfasted  at  the  garrison. 


THE  SERVOS  HOUSE,  NIAGARA,  1783-1911. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Owen  Staples,  in  the  J.  Ros*  Robertson  collection.) 

Sat.  26th — As  I  much  wished  to  visit  the  Forty-Mile  Creek,  the  Governor 
allotted  two  or  three  days  for  this  party  of  pleasure.  Mr.  Mayne  was 
chosen  to  accompany  us,  and  Francis  was  one  of  the  party.  At  two  o'clock 
we  embarked  with  a  fresh  east  wind,  which  fell  almost  immediately,  but 
has  occasioned  so  much  surf  that  we  could  not  go  on  shore  at  the  Four-Mile 
Creek;  about  two  miles  further  we  landed  and  dined  (Mr.  Servos  has  a 
house  at.  the  mouth  of  the  creek).  We  passed  Mr.  McNab's  house  at  the 
Eight-Mile  Creek,  and  beyond  the  Twelve-Mile  Creek  we  encamped  on  a 
point  without  noticing  that  the  field  abounded  with  a  coarse  weed,  which 
is  such  a  harbour  for  mosquitcs  that  the  tent  was  filled  with  them,  and 
we  were  glad  to  rise  and  breakfast  at  half  after  three  in  the  morning. 

NOTE. — The  oldest  house  in  Niagara  Township  is  that  owned  by 
Miss  Mary  Servos,  daughter  of  the  late  Colonel  Peter  Servos.  It 
is  built  on  an  eminence  commanding  a  view  of  the  Four-Mile  Creek, 
now  known  as  Virgil.  The  house  has  been  altered,  but  the  principal 
room,  with  its  heavy  rafters,  dates  back  to  1783.  This  room  was  used 
at  one  time  as  a  Government  store.  The  Servos  family  were  of  Prussian 

230 


PIONEERS  OF  THE  NIAGARA  DISTRICT 

origin.  Some  of  the  sons  were  present  at  the  siege  of  Niagara  (1759) 
while  grandsons  served  in  Butler's  Rangers.  Four  generations  of  the 
Servos  family  have  served  in  capacities  as  ensign,  lieutenant,  cap- 
tain and  colonel.  In  1779,  Governor  Haldimand  gave  Daniel  Servos 
a  commission  as  lieutenant  in  Colonel  Johnson's  company  of  North 
American  Indians,  and  in  1788  he  received  a  commission  from  Lord 
Dorchester,  to  be  captain  of  the  first  regiment  of  militia  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Nassau.  Mrs.  Jarvis,  wife  of  William  Jarvis,  Provincial 
Secretary,  1792-1817,  writes  of  the  Four-Mile  Creek,  "There  is  a 
great  mill  upon  it,  and  the  family  that  it  belongs  to  are  Dutch." 


INTERIOR  VIEW  OF  SERVOS  HOUSE. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Owen  Staples,  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  collection.) 

Allan  Macnab,  born  1768,  was  ensign  in  the  71st  Regiment  and 
afterwards  lieutenant  in  the  19th  Hussars.  He  served  with  General 
Simcoe  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  at  the  conclusion  of  which  he 
settled  in  Canada.  He  was  subsequently  Sergeant-at-Arms  in  the 
House  of  Assembly.  His  wife  was  Anne,  daughter  of  Peter  William 
Napier.  Macnab  died  in  1830.  The  late  Colonel  (the  Honorable 
Sir)  Allan  Napier  Macnab  of  Hamilton,  Ont.,  who  was  the  first 
Queen's  Counsel  appointed  in  Canada,  was  a  son  of  Allan  Macnab. 
The  name  Eight-Mile  Creek  has  been  replaced  by  that  of  Macnab. 

Sun.  27th — The  weather  misty,  damp  and  disagreeable.  Francis  caught 
cold,  and  was  so  ill  that  we  went  on  shore  at  the  Eighteen-Mile  Creek  and 
stopped  at  Sail's,  the  Indian's  house,  half  an  hour. 

233 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

We  stopped  at  the  Fifteen-Mile  Creek,  and  took  a  sketch  of  the  mouth 
of  that  river.  We  dined  on  the  beach  at  the  Twenty-Mile  Creek,  and 
went  across  the  pond  to  one  of  Coll.  Butler's  houses,  where  we  slept,  after 
taking  great  pains  to  smoke  the  house  and  fix  the  mosquito  net  well,  for 
this  place  abounds  so  much  with  mosquitos  that  the  farmer  does  not 
sleep  in  his  house  from  June  till  September,  but  sleeps  in  his  barn  to 
avoid  them.  The  pond  is  full  of  wild  rice,  a  marshy  weed.  The  N.B. 
wind  has  filled  up  the  inlet  so  much  that  the  boat  was  obliged  to  be  drawn 
over  sand. 

Mon.  28th— We  rose  at  six,  left  Francis  with  a  servant,  and  set  off  for 
the  Forty-Mile  Creek.  By  the  time  they  had  drawn  the  boat  over  the 
sand  into  the  lake,  a  strong  N.W.  wind  sprung  up,  which  was  exactly 
ahead  of  us  and  prevented  our  getting  to  the  Forty  till  two  o'clock,  tho' 
with  a  fair  wind'we  should  not  have  been  two  hours;  the  fog  excessively 
thick,  and  perfectly  counteracted  our  schemes  of  seeing  the  country. 
However,  we  walked  thro'  the  village  and  beyond  Green's  Mills  a  little 
way  up  the  mountain,  far  enough  to  see  where  the  stream  dashes  over 
very  dark  rocks,  surrounded  by  hemlock,  spruce  and  other  picturesque 
trees.  Green  ground  the  corn  for  all  the  military  posts  in  Upper  Canada. 
His  mill  stood  five  miles  east  of  Hamilton,  on  the  Stoney  Creek  road. 

A  mile  further  is  a  mill  and  small  waterfall,  and  at  a  season  when  the 
water  is  higher  the  scenery  must  be  wonderfully  fine;  at  present  it  is 
well  worth  seeing.  I  drank  tea  at  Green's,  and  unwillingly  left  this  fine 
scenery,  of  which  I  had  so  slight  a  view.  We  were  no  sooner  in  the  boat, 
expecting  a  rapid  passage  up  the  Twenty-Mile  Creek,  v/hen  the  wind 
veered  and  came  right  ahead,  so  that  it  was  ten  o'clock  before  we  arrived 
at  the  inlet.  It  was  quite  dark,  and  we  were  another  hour  getting  the 
boat  over  the  sand  and  rowing  to  the  house.  Mrs.  Green  advised  me  to 
give  Francis  crow's  foot  boiled  with  milk  till  it  becomes  red  and  thick, 
which  she  said  would  cure  the  present  complaint  in  his  stomach. 

There  are  100  people  settled  at  the  Forty,  and  there  have  been  but 
seven  graves  in  five  years.  The  Governor  promises  that  I  shall  ride  on 
the  mountain  above  the  Forty  this  season. 

NOTE. — In  writing  of  the  Forty-Mile  Creek,  where  Green's  Mills 
were  situated,  Rochefoucauld,  who  visited  the  place  in  travelling 
through  Canada  in  1795,  says: — "Forty-Mile  Creek  was  one  of  the 
chief  objects  of  our  tour.  This  stream,  which  intersects  in  a  straight 
line  the  range  of  mountains  extending  from  Queens'  Town,  flows,  with 
a  gentle  fall,  into  the  plain,  and  affords  some  wild,  awful,  yet  very 
pleasing  prospects  among  the  mountains.  Before  it  empties  itself 
into  the  lake,  it  turns  a  grist  mill  and  two  saw-mills,  which  belong 
to  a  Mr.  Green,  a  Loyalist  of  Jersey,  who  six  or  seven  years  ago 
(1788-9)  settled  in  this  part  of  Upper  Canada.  This  Mr.  Green 
was  the  constant  companion  of  the  Governor  on  this  journey  (along 
the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario).  He  is  apparently  a  worthy  man,  and 
in  point  of  knowledge  far  superior  to  the  common  caste  of  settlers 
in  this  neighborhood.  His  estate  consists  of  three  hundred  acres, 
about  forty  of  which  are  cleared  of  wood.  He  paid  one  hundred  and 
t \venty-five  dollars  for  forty  acres,  through  which  the  creek  flows 
that  turns  his  mill,  on  account  of  the  greater  value  they  bear  for 
this  reason,  the  common  price  being  only  five  shillings  ($1)  per 
acre.  Land  newly  c1  eared  yields  here,  the  first  year,  twenty  bushels 
of  corn.  The  soil  is  good,  though  not  of  the  most  excellent  quality. 
They  plough  the  land,  after  it  has  produced  three  or  four  crops,  but 

234 


THE   GOHGK   NEAR   FORTY-MILE   CREEK    (QBIM8BT),    1794. 
(Frmn  a  Drawing  by  Mr*.  Simcor.) 


AN  EXCURSION  FROM  NIAGARA 

not  very  deep,  and  never  use  manure.  The  price  of  flour  is  twenty- 
two  shillings  (4.40)  per  hundredweight;  that  of  wheat  from  seven 
to  eight  shillings  ($1.60)  per  bushel.  The  bushel  weighs  fifty-two 
pounds  upon  an  average.  Labourers  are  scarce  and  are  paid  at  the 
rate  of  six  shillings  ($1.20)  a  day." 

Tues.  29th — Embarked  at  nine,  rowed  a  little  up  the  creek  among  the 
wild  rice,  and  then  turned  to  the  lake,  the  wind  exactly  contrary  and  so 
very  fresh  that  we  were  obliged  to  go  on  shore  at  the  Seventeen-Mile 
Creek,  where  we  dined  and  walked  to  Schram's  farm,  where  the  women 
were  making  straw  hats.  I  gathered  crow's  foot.  Mr.  Mayne  had  a  fit 
of  the  ague — in  short,  everything  went  au  contraire  during  the  expe- 
dition. We  arrived  at  Niagara  before  eleven.  A  fine,  clear  evening  now 
we  are  returned  from  our  tour. 

Fri.  Aug.  1st — The  weather  insufferably  hot  at  Niagara.  We  walked 
to  Mr.  Smith's  and  supped  there,  which  was  very  pleasant,  as  the  rooms 
are  so  much  larger  than  ours  at  Navy  Hall.  Mrs.  Smith  now  resides  on 
this  side  of  the  water,  for  the  change  of  air  for  a  sick  child. 

Sat.  2nd — The  heat  extreme.  We  dined  in  the  boat  under  the  rock. 
A  thunderstorm  drove  us  into  Mrs.  Smith's  house. 

Sun.  3rd — The  Governor  went  early  this  morning  to  the  Tuscarora 
village,  which  is  about  two  miles  above  Lewiston,  N.Y.;  dined  on  the 
water  and  returned  early.  The  thermometer  96. 

Mon.  4th — The  thermometer  96,  but  Mr.  Vandeleur,  who  is  just  arrived 
from  Detroit,  calls  it  cool  weather.  The  thermometer  was  101  in  Fort 
Lernoult  (Detroit).  The  heat  and  mosquitos  do  not  affect  me  in  the 
violent  manner  they  used  to  do. 

Tues.  5th— A  storm  and  cold  wind. 

Thurs.  7th — Rode  in  the  evening.  The  whortle  berries  of  this  country 
are  larger  than  in  England,  quite  black,  and  if  dried  in  the  s\in  make  as 
good  puddings  as  Levant  currants,  quite  as  sharp.  The  Indians  live  in 
the  woods  where  they  grow  at  this  season  of  the  year,  and  boil  quan- 
tities of  them  into  cakes. 

General  Washington  was  seen  last  year  at  the  theatre  at  Philadelphia; 
lights  were  carried  before  him  to  the  stage  box,  where  he  sat  in  a  front 
row,  Mrs.  Washington  and  the  aide-de-camps  on  the  seats  behind  him,  the 
music  playing  "  God  Save  George  Washington,"  to  the  tune  of  "  God  Save 
the  King."  The  gentlemen  who  gave  this  account  went  to  the  theatre  this 
year  and  discovered  General  Washington  in  a  back  row  of  the  front  boxes, 
without  attendants,  the  Vice-President  and  Mrs.  Washington  in  the  same 
bench,  and  no  notice  taken  when  he  came  into  the  theatre.  The  next 
day  a  paragraph  in  the  papers  asserted  that  if  Washington  did  not  tane 
the  fort  at  Presqu'ile  he  ought  to  be  guillotined. 

NOTE. — The  projected  expedition  of  the  Six  Nations  to  clear  out 
the  settlers  at  Presqu'  Isle  was  abandoned  as  the  President  of  the 
United  States  interposed  to  prevent  further  encroachments  by  the 
Pennsylvanians  in  that  quarter. 

Frl.  8th — The  "  Onondaga "  called,  with  Mr.  Vandeleur  on  board. 
The  "  Mississaga  "  arrived,  with  the  Bishop  of  Quebec,  his  brother.  Mr. 
Mountain,  and  his  son,  who  is  the  bishop's  chaplain.  Mr.  Lemoine  arrived 
in  his  decked  boat  from  Kingston  across  the  lake.  She  left  Kingston  on 
Wednesday. 

NOTE. — The  Bishop  of  Quebec  to  whom  Mrs.  Simcoe  referred  was 
the  Right  Rev.  Jacob  Mountain,  D.D.  (the  name  was  originally 
Montaigne),  first  Protestant  Bishop  of  Quebec.  He  belonged  to  a 

237 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

French  Protestant  family  who  settled  in  England,  in  Norfolk  County, 
upon  the  revocation  of  the  Edict  of  Nantes.      He  was  educated  at 
Wyndham   and   Norwich,   and   afterwards   went   to    Cambridge.     At 
the  time  of  his  selection  for  the  see  of  Quebec 
he  was  examining  chaplain  to  the  Bishop  of  Lin- 
coln.    In  1793,  George  III.  erected  the  Canadas 
into  a   diocese  of  the   Church  of  England,  and 
Dr.  Mountain  was  appointed  to  take  charge.     He 
arrived    in    Quebec    1st    November,    1793.      The 
outlcok  was  anything  but  encouraging,  for  there 
were  but  six  clergymen  in  Lower  Canada  and  three 
in    Upper    Canada.      However,    by    indefatigable 
diligence   and  energy,   obstacles  were     overcome, 
and   Bishop   Mountain   may   well   be   called   the 
father  and*  founder  of  the  Anglican   Church  in 
Canada.     He  labored  here  for  thirty-two  years, 
BISHOP  MOUNTAIN,     his   death  taking  place   on   16th  June,   1825,  at 
Marchmont,   near   Quebec,    the    seat   of   the   late 
General  Sir  John  Harvey,  Bart.     Three  of  Bishop  Mountain's  sons 
followed  the  profession  of  their  father. 

In  the  register  of  St.  Mark's  Church,  Niagara,  an  entry  on  5th 
June,  1793,  records  the  marriage  of  Ensign  Lemoine  to  Susan  John- 
son, who  was  Susannah,  the  seventh  daughter  of  Molly  Brant  and 
Sir  William  Johnson. 

Sun.  10th — I  went  to  church.  The  Bishop  preached  an  excellent 
discourse,  Romans  1,  16  v.,  "  I  am  not  ashamed  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  for 
it  is  the  cower  of  God  unto  salvation  to  everyone  that  believeth,  to  the 
Jew  first,  and  also  to  the  Greek." 

Tues.  12th — An  express  from  Detroit.  It  is  now  decided  that  I  am 
to  go  to  Quebec  next  month.  The  hostile  appearance  Gen.  Anthony 
Wayne's  conduct  bears  makes  the  continuance  of  peace  with  the  United 
States  very  doubtful. 

Thurs.  14th — The  Governor  went  with  the  Bishop  to  see  the  Falls  of 
Niagara. 

Fri.  15th — The  Bishop  sailed  for  Kingston.  I  wrote  to  Mrs.  Caldwell 
to  take  a  house  at  Quebec  for  me.  Should  the  French  and  Americans 
assault  Quebec  this  winter  I  shall  find  more  comfort  in  Mrs.  Caldwell's 
society  than  in  that,  of  most  others,  as  such  a  scene  would  not  be  new  to 
her.  She  was  in  the  town  when  besieged  by  Montgomery,  1775.  Coll. 
Caldwell  was  one  of  the  most  active  of  the  defenders  of  it. 

Sat.  16th — I  went  to  the  garrison  this  evening. 

Sun.  17th— An  express  from  Detroit. 

NOTE. — This  means  that  the  Government  messengers  had  arrived 
with  letters  and  official  document?. 

Mon.  18th — The  Governor  and  myself  have  colds,  which  is  very 
unusual.  Notwithstanding,  we  crossed  the  water  and  rode  to  the  Landing 
at  Lewiston.  I  had  not  ridden  on  that  side  of  the  river  before.  We  dined 
in  the  boat  opposite  Mr.  Hamilton's,  at  whose  house  we  drank  tea,  and 
returned  to  Navy  Hall  in  the  boat. 

Tues.  19th — The  Governor  had  the  shot  extracted  from  his  finger.  It 
was  so  near  the  joint  that  it  is  feared  the  finger  will  always  be  stiff;  it 
was  a  large  shot. 

238 


ARRIVAL  OF  GEX.  SHANK 


GEN.  SHANK. 


Wed.  20th — A  wet  day.  Mr.  Hamilton  dined  with  us;  the  cannon  sent 
to  Fort.  Erie. 

Thurs.  21st — Mrs.  Hamilton  and  Mrs.  Richardson  here. 

Sun.  24th — Mr.  Crooks'  new  vessel,  named  "  The  York,"  sailed  for 
Kingston,  and  Mr.  LeMoine's  decked  boat  accompanied  her. 

XOTE. — Mr.  Crooks  was  the  brother  of  the  Honorable  James 
Crooks  of  the  Legislative  Council,  and  a  member  of  the  firm  of  W. 
and  J.  Crooks,  West  Niagara.  His  vessel  "The  York"  was  after- 
wards wrecked  at  the  Genesee  River. 

Mon.  25th — Capt.  David  Shank  arrived  with  the 
detachment  from  York,  to  go  to  the  Miamis. 

XOTE. — David  Shank  was  gazetted  lieutenant 
in  the  Queen's  Rangers,  March,  1777,  obtaining 
his  captaincy  October,  1778.  He  served  through- 
out the  Revolutionary  War,  and  when  his  corps 
was  disbanded  in  1783,  he  was  placed  on  half 
pay.  In  1791,  he  was  recalled  to  full  pa}',  when 
he  joined  the  Light  Infantry  battalion,  which 
was  also  given  the  name  of  Queen's  Rangers, 
raised  in  that  year  in  England  for  services  in 
Canada  under  Colonel  Simcoe.  Shank  became 
brevet-major,  1st  March,  1794,  and  on  Simcoe's 
returning  to  Europe  assumed  command  of  the  troops  in  Upper 
Canada  in  the  summer  of  1796.  He  became  lieutenant-colonel  in 
January,  1798,  and  took  command  of  his  regiment  in  the  following 
April.  He  remained  in  the  corps  until  it  was  disbanded  at  the 
Peace  of  Amiens.  On  September  3rd,  1803,  he  was  appointed  to 
the  command  of  the  Canadian  Fencibles.  He  became  major-general, 
1811,  lieutenant-general,  1821,  and  died  in  Glasgow,  16th  October, 
1831.  He  acquired  in  York  a  large  tract  of  land  in  what  is  now 
the  north  side  of  Queen  Street,  Toronto,  near 

Trinity    College.       The    portrait    is    from    the 
''    original  oil  painting  at  Wolford. 

Tues.  26th — I  received  the  finest  red  water  melons 

from  York  I  ever  saw. 

Wed.  27t>h— More  detachments  from  York  for  the 

Miamis. 

Thurs.  28th — Mr.  Sheaffe  returned  from  Oswego 

with  news  that  Lord  Howe  has  taken  seven  sail  of 

French  ships. 

NOTK. — Mr.    Sheaffe    was    Lieutenant    Roger 
Hale  Sliruffc  of  the  5th  Regiment.      He  was  born 
in  1763  in  Boston,  and  was  a  son  of  Mr.  William 
Sheaffe,  Deputy  Collector  of  Customs  at  that  port. 
He  entered  the  army  as  an  ensign  in  1 778  and 
rose  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant  in  1780.  He  served 
in  Canada  from  1787-97,  and  did  important  work.     Under  instruc- 
tions from  Dorchester  and  Governor  Simcoe,  Sheaffe  was  entrusted 
with  a  mission  in  connection  with  settlements  by  Americans  on  the 
16  241 


GEX.  SHEAFFE. 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

south  shore  of  Lake  Ontario.  Both  the  Governor-General  and  Gover- 
nor Simcoe  protested  against  these  settlements.  Sheaffe  was  made 
a  captain  in  1795.  In  1811  he  became  major-general.  In  recog- 
nition of  his  services  at  Queenston  Heights  he  was  made  a  baronet 
in  1813.  He  was  in  command  at  York  in  April,  1813,  and  was 
severely  and,  in  the  opinion  of  many,  justly  criticized  for  his  con- 
duct in  not  remaining  in  York  and  assisting  the  local  militia,  just 
before  the  attack  of  the  Americans.  He  was  made  a  general  in  1828. 
In  1810  he  married  Margaret,  third  daughter  of  Mr.  John  Coffin 
of  Quebec,  cousin  of  Admiral  Coffin.  Sheaffe  died  in  Edinburgh  in 
1851,  and  his  wife  a  few  years  later. 

Fri.  29th — An  express  from  Detroit  announces  that  General  Anthony 
Wayne  has  retired  from  the  Miami  Fort  after  having  summoned  it  to 
surrender.  He  came  within  shot  of  it,  and  found  it  stronger  than  he 
expected  and  that  there  was  cannon.  The  match  was  lighted  to  have 
fired  if  he  had  not  retired.  Major  Campbell,  who  commanded,  showed 
great  discretion  and  propriety  of  conduct.  If  the  Governor  had  waited 
until  the  opening  of  the  navigation  of  the  lakes  to  have  gone  to  the 
Miamis,  as  Lord  Dorchester  proposed,  the  fort  would  not  have  been  ren- 
dered defensible  enough  by  this  time  to  have  intimidated  General  Wayne, 
and  war  would  not  have  commenced  with  the  United  States. 

NOTE. — After  the  battle  of  Fort  Recovery,  General  Wayne,  "Mad 
Anthony,"  marched  to  within  thirty  miles  of  Fort  Miami,  recently 
built  by  Governor  Simcoe,  and  on  August  20th  drove  away  the 
Indians  who,  to  the  number  of  two  thousand,  had  gathered  nearby 
under  the  command  of  Little  Turtle.  After  this  engagement,  Major 
Campbell,  who  commanded  the  fort,  wrote  to  Wayne  expressing  sur- 
prise at  the  appearance  of  an  American  force  at 
a  point  almost  within  sight  of  the  British  guns. 
General  Wayne  in  reply  denounced  the  erection 
of  the  fortress  on  American  territory  as  the  highest 
act  of  aggression.  Then  he  set  fire  to  and  destroyed 
everything  within  sight  of  Fort  Miami. 

Governor  Simcoe  proceeded  with  Captain  Brant 
and  150  warriors  to  encourage  the  Indians,  but 
they  had  no  relish  for  another  brush  with  General 
Wayne's  forces.  Finally  in  October,  1794,  the 
United  States  Secretary  Randolph  communicated 
_^_  with  the  legation  in  the  United  States  and  mat- 

GEN  WAYNE          *ers  were  arranoe^  satisfactorily  by  a  withdrawal 

of  the  troops  and  the  abandonment  of  the  fort. 
Major  William  Campbell,  who  commanded  at  Miami,  was  of  the 
24th  Regiment.     He  had  rank  in  the  army  1st  December,  1778,  and 
in  the  regiment,  31st  May,  1781.     He  became  lieutenant-colonel  in 
1795. 

General  Wayne  was  brevetted  major-general  in  1783  and  in  1792 
was  appointed  major-general  and  comma nder-in-chief  of  the  army  in 
the  United  States. 

242 


MACKENZIE  THE  N.  W.  EXPLORER  ARRIVES 

Mon.  Sept.  1st — The  merchants  gave  a  dinner  to  commemorate  Lord 
Howe's  victory  of  the  1st  of  June.  The  Governor  and  the  officers  of  the 
garrison  dined  with  them.  Mrs.  Smith  and  some  ladies  dined  with  me. 

NOTE. — Lord  Richard  Howe  obtained  a  decisive  victory  off  Ushant, 
1st  June,  1794,  for  which  he  received  the  thanks  of  Parliament,  and 
two  years  after  he  was  made  admiral  of  the  fleet. 

Thurs.  4th — The  militia  officers  dined  with  the  Governor.  I  dined 
with  Mrs.  Smith. 

Mon.  8th — Mr.  Mackenzie,  who  has  made  his  way  from  the  Grand 
Portage  to  the  Pacific  ocean,  is  just  returned  from  thence,  and  brought  the 
Governor  a  sea  otter  skin  as  a  proof  of  his  having  reached  that  coast. 
He  says  the  savages  spear  them  from  the  rocks,  as  the  Indians  here  do 
sturgeon.  These  animals  are  amphibious,  but  generally  in  the  sea.  Mr. 
McKenzie  went  down  the  River  of  Peace  near  two  degrees  north  of  Lake 
Superior,  and  came  to  the  Rocky  Mountains,  on  which  rise  some  rivers 
that  fall  into  the  Atlantic,  and  others  which  empty  themselves  into  the 
Pacific  ocean.  He  went  down  a  river  which  falls  into  the  latter  and  rises 
not  700  yards  from  the  River  of  Peace.  He  afterwards  travelled  17  days 
by  land.  There  are  a  kind  of  large  sheep  on  the  Rocky  Mountains,  their 
horns  the  size  of  a  cow's.  The  Indians  near  the  coast  live  on  fish,  which 
they  are  very  dexterous  in  catching;  they  dry  salmon  in  boxes  in  a  kind 
of  upper  story  in  their  huts.  They  prepare  the  roes,  beating  them  up 
with  sorrel,  a  plant  with  acid  taste,  till  it  becomes  a  kind  of  caviare, 
and,  when  the  salmon  are  dried,  boil  and  mix  them  with  oil.  These 
savages  never  taste  meat,  and  think  if  any  was  thrown  into  the  river  the 
fish  would  go  away.  One  of  Mr.  McKenzie's  men 
having  thrown  the  bone  of  a  deer  in  the  water,  an 
Indian  dived  and  fetched  it  out,  nor  would  they  suffer 
water  to  be  ladled  out  in  a  kettle  in  which  meat  had 
been  boiled.  Are  these  not  veritable  fish  eaters?  Mr. 
McKenzie  observed  those  Indians  who  inhabited  the 
islands  on  the  coast  to  be  more  savage  than  the 
others.  The  otter  skins  are  sold  at  a  great  price, 
by  those  who  trade  on  the  coast,  to  the  Chinese. 

NOTE. — Sir    Alexander    Mackenzie    was    born 
in  Inverness,  Scotland,  about  1755.    He  emigrated 
to  Canada  in  his  youth  and  became  a  clerk  in  the 
North-West  Fur  Company.     From  1781  to  1789, 
he  traded  with  the  Indians  at  Lake  Athabasca, 
and  in  the  latter  year  discovered  the  river  which        SIR  ALEXANDER 
bears  his  name,  and  traced  it  from  its  source  to 
its  entrance  into  the  Arctic  Ocean,  where  he  arrived  in  July,  1789. 
In  1792,  he  led  another  exploring  party  westward  to  the  Pacific.     On 
his  return  to  England  in  1801,  he  published  his  "Voyages  from  Mont- 
real to  the  Frozen  and  Pacific  Oceans."     He  died  in  1820. 


243 


CHAPTER     XV. 
MRS.  SIMCOE  VISITS  QUEBEC. 

There  was  always  war  or  rumor  of  war  in  these  pioneer  days  in 
Canada.  Peace  between  the  United  States  and  Canada  had  been 
declared  years  before,  when  the  War  of  the  Ee volution  gave  indepen- 
dence to  the  American  people.  But  disquieting  rumors  were  always 
floating  in  the  air,  and  Niagara  was  a  centre  where  the  pros  and  cons 
were  always  a  ready  subject  of  conversation.  Mrs.  Simcoe  had  her 
fears.  She  had  resolved  upon  a  visit  to  her  friends  in  Quebec,  and 
while  she  felt  that  she  might  return  to  Upper  Canada,  she  was  not 
too  certain,  for  if  the  question  of  peace  or  war  was  not  speedily  set- 
tled it  would  be  too  late  for  her  to  return  without  considerable  dis- 
comfort and  possibly  danger. 

However,  she  said  good-bye  to  her  friends,  the  ladies  of  the 
garrison  at  Niagara,  whom  she  had  invited  to  tea  a  day  or  two  before 
she  determined  to  sail,  but  owing  probably  to  adverse  winds  it  was 
not  till  the  morning  of  the  13th  September,  1794,  that  the  anchor  of 
the  'Government  schooner  "Mississaga"  was  weighed  and  Mrs.  Simcoe 
and  her  family  left  Niagara  wharf. 

Tues.  Sept.  9th — Mrs.  Smith  and  the  ladies  of  the  garrison  drank  tea 
with  me.  The  Governor  sets  off  for  Detroit  to-morrow,  and  I  shall  sail 
for  Quebec  the  next  day.  If  I  hear,  with  official  certainty,  at  Quebec  that 
peace  with  the  United  States  is  agreed  on  in  England,  I  may  return  here 
this  autumn,  but  if  that  news  does  not  arrive  very  speedily  it  will  be 
too  late  for  me  to  return. 

KEY  TO  ILLUSTRATION  ON  OPPOSITE  PAGE. 

No.  1. — The  building  on  the  right  represents  a  building  on  Ontario  Street, 

near  the  piano  factory,  foot  of  Princess  Street   (Store  Street). 
No.  2. — A  building  on  the  site  of  the  late  ex-Mayor  Gaskin's  residence, 

south-east  corner  Ontario  and  Princess  Streets. 

No.  3. — The  old  Macaulay  House,  now  a  butcher  shop,  standing  on  south- 
west corner  of  Princess  and  Ontario  Streets,  west  side  of  Ontario 

Street,  and  south  side  of  Princess  Street. 
No.  4. — The  Protestant  Church,  back  of  Masonic  Hall  of  1792,   opposite 

the  present  Market-place. 
No.  5. — In  front  is  a  building  now  in  Market-square,  and  on  the  site  of 

General  Bradstreet's  batteries. 
No.  6. — Indian  storehouse,  near  the  water's  edge,  now  the  site  of  Folger 

and  Richardson's  wharves. 
No.  7. — Beyond  is  vacant  space,  at  present  occupied  by  the  Kingston  and 

Pembroke  R.R.,  and  in  front  of  the  City  Hall.     West  of  vacant 

space  are  buildings  on  Ontario  Street. 
No.  8. — Site   of   Swift's   wharf   at   the    foot   of   Johnson    Street,   near   the 

Grand  Trunk  Railway  depot. 

244 


THE  SISTER  OF  THAYENDANEGEA 

Fri.  12th — The  Governor  set  off  this  morning  for  Detroit.  Mrs.  Smith 
came  to  take  leave  of  me.  The  "  Mississaga  "  is  to  sail  as  soon  as  the 
wind  is  fair;  that  not  being  the  case  this  afternoon,  I  was  dissuaded 
from  going  on  board,  but  having  so  often  seen  a  wind  lost  by  not  embark- 
ing before  it  had  risen,  I  determined  to  go  on  board  and  wait  for  it,  which 
I  did  at  six  o'clock.  Capt.  McGill  accompanies  me,  in  order  to  see  that  the 
batteau  are  properly  prepared  and  attended. 

Sat.  13th — On  board  the  "  Mississaga."  At '  six  this  morning  we 
weighed  anchor.  The  Fort  and  Newark  looked  very  pretty  under  a  rising 
sun  as  we  left  Niagara  River.  The  wind  is  fair,  and  we  keep  the  south 
shore,  so  I  hope  to  discern  the  entrance  to  the  Genesee  River.  At  twelve 
the  wind  changed,  and  we  kept  the  north  shore.  Orders  were  given  for 
my  accommodation  that  no  person  should  have  a  passage  to  Kingston  in 
the  "  Mississaga,"  but  I  relented  in  favour  of  Brant's  sister,  who  was  111 
and  very  desirous  to  go.  She  speaks  English  well,  and  is  a  civil  and  very 
sensible  old  woman. 

NOTE. — About  1748,  Colonel  Johnson  (Sir  William)  contracted 
an  Indian  marriage  with  Miss  Mary  Brant,  "  Miss  Molly,"  sister  of 
Thayendanegea  (Joseph  Brant),  and  by  her  had  eight  children,  Peter, 
Elizabeth,  Magdalene,  Margaret,  George,  Mary,  Susannah  and  Anne. 
Elizabeth  married  Dr.  Robert  Kerr,  an  eminent  surgeon,  who  settled 
at  Niagara.  Susannah,  as  already  stated,  became  the  wife  of  Lieu- 
tenant Lemoine  of  the  24th  Regiment,  while  three  other  daughters 
married  Captain  Farley  of  the  16th  Regiment,  John  Ferguson  of  the 
Indian  Department  and  Captain  Earle  of  the  Provincial  Navy.  The 
records  of  the  first  Protestant  Church  (afterwards  St.  George's), 
Kingston,  show  that  on  16th  April,  1796,  Mary  Brant  was  buried  by 
Rev.  John  Stuart,  but  no  mention  is  made  of  the  place  of  burial. 

Mrs.  Grant  in  her  entertaining  book  speaks  of  Molly,  and  says 
that  Sir  William  "connected  himself  with  the  daughter  of  an  Indian 
sachem,  who  possessed  an  uncommonly  agreeable  person  and  good 
understanding  and  whether  ever  formally  married  to  him  according 
to  our  usage  or  not,  continued  to  live  with  him  in  great  union 
and  affection  all  his  life."  Colonel  Johnson,  in  his  private  diary, 
always  mentioned  Molly  kindly.  By  thus  forming  an  alliance  with 
the  family  of  an  influential  and  powerful  chief,  Colonel  Johnson 
evidently  aimed  at  a  more  extended  influence  over  the  Indians.  Nor 
did  the  result  disappoint  him. 

In  his  will,  Sir  William  ordered  the  remains  of  his  "  beloved  wife 
Catherine "  to  be  deposited  in  his  burial-place,  and  provided  mo«t 
liberally  for  his  "prudent  and  faithful  house-keeper,  Mary  Brant" 
and  for  all  her  children,  whom  he  calls  his  "natural  children."  He 
divided  the  remaining  part  of  his  money  and  lands  between  Colonel 
Glaus  and  Colonel  Johnson  and  their  wives,  his  estate  at  Fort  Johnson 
going  -to  his  son,  Sir  John  Johnson. 

Sun.  14th — We  have  had  a  very  rough  night  and  a  head  wind,  and 
nothing  but  being  on  deck  the  whole  day  prevented  my  being  very  sick. 
In  the  afternoon,  being  in  the  centre  of  the  lake,  I  discerned  both  the 
N.  and  S.  shores.  I  also  discerned  a  high  point  on  the  south  shore,  called 
the  Thirty-Mile  Creek  from  Niagara,  in  sight  of  the  Duck  Islands,  a  few 
miles  off  Point  Traverse  (in  Prince  Edward  County)  and  N.E.  of  it. 

247 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

NOTE. — These  are  two  islands,  known  collectively  as  The  Ducks. 
The  larger  island  is  the  further  to  the  east  in  the  lake  and  is  called 
the  Main  Duck,  while  the  smaller  island,  close  to  the  south-eastern 
extremity  of  Prince  Edward  County,  is  called  the  False  Duck. 
Sailors  frequently  speak  of  the  islands  as  the  "Main  Ducks"  and 
"False  Ducks,"  but  the  name  should  not  be  pluralized.  The  two  are 
properly  spoken  of  as  The  Ducks.  They  are  so  named  either  from 
their  shape — at  a  distance  they  roughly  resemble  ducks  in  the  water — 
or  from  the  fact  that  wild  ducks  formerly  abounded  in  the  vicinity. 
The  trip  was  slow  and  must  have  been  rough,  for  the  vessel  did  not 
reach  Kingston  until  8  a.m.  on  the  15th,  or  fifty  hours  from  Niagara 
to  Kingston,  a  distance  of  nearly  200  miles. 

Mon.  15th- — A  very  rough  night.  At  eight  this  morning  we  anchored 
in  Kingston  harbour.  Capt.  McGill  went  on  shore  and  engaged  the  only 
King's  batteau  which  was  there,  and  hired  one  of  the  merchant's  for  my 
baggage.  Capt.  Porter  came  on  board  to  know  my  commands,  and  some 
ladies  called  upon  me.  At  twelve  we  got  off  in  the  batteau,  which  had  a 
comfortable,  low  awning  of  twisted  osiers  or  willow  whose  twigs  are  used 
for  making  baskets,  which  was  more  convenient  at  this  season,  when  the 
weather  becomes  cold,  than  the  high  wooden  awnings.  In  less  than  half 
an  hour  it  began  to  rain,  and  continued  the  whole  day.  We  went  only  18 
miles  to  Gananowui.  Carey's  house  being  shut  up,  we  went  to  Fairfield's, 
close  by  the  mill.  Mr.  (Colonel)  Joel  Stone,  a  Loyalist,  who  settled  in 
Gananowui  about  1790,  is  building  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gananowui  River. 
Capt.  McGill  slept  in  the  boat.  Fairfield  accommodated  me  with  a  room. 

NOTE. — Captain  Richard  Porter  of  the  60th  was  captain  from 
26th  November,  1784,  and  major  from  1st  September,  1795. 

A  coincidence  in  the  history  of  the  60th  Regiment  in  North 
America  is  that  the  2nd  and  3rd  battalions,  as  part  of  the  first  Eng- 
lish garrison  at  Quebec,  were  present  in  September,  1759,  when  the 
British  ensign  was  hoisted  over  the  captured  city  by  an  officer  of 
the  Royal  Artillery;  arid  in  November,  1871,  one  hundred  and  twelve 
years  later,  a  detachment  of  the  1st  battalion  of  the  60th,  the  remnant 
of  the  last  English  garrison  of  Quebec,  consigned  the  Imperial  flag 
to  the  keeping  of  another  artillery  officer,  whilst  the  flag  of  the  Do- 
minion of  Canada  was  hoisted  in  its  stead. 

William  Fairfield,  a  U.  E.  Loyalist,  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of 
Ernestown,  in  all  probability  settling  there  about  1788.  In  1794 
he  appears  to  have  been  in  the  vicinity  of  Gananoque,  where  he  had 
a  grist  mill.  He  was  not  the  original  holder  of  the  land  at  Gananoque, 
but  must  have  rented  it  from  Sir  John  Johnson,  whose  grant  of 
land  was  on  the  east  side  of  Gananoque  River.  The  first  document 
registered  in  the  Registry  Office  at  Brockville  was  on  the  13th  De- 
cember, 1797,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening,  S.  Sherwood,  Deputy 
Registrar.  There  could  be  no  deed  of  land  until  1796  or  1797  because 
the  first  patents  were  issued  then.  William  Fairfield  was  for  many 
years  on  the  Commission  of  the  Peace  and  was  a  member  of  the 
Provincial  Parliament.  He  died  in  Ernestown  in  1816. 

248 


COL.  JOEL  STOXE  OF  GAXAXOQUE 

Joel  Stone,  a  II.  E.  Loyalist,  afterwards  known  as  Colonel  Stone, 
was  born  in  Guilford,  Conn.,  7th  August,  1749.  He  was  a  de- 
scendant of  William  Stone,  one  of  the  emgirants  who  sailed  from 
London,  Eng.,  in  May,1639,  landing  at  Xew 
Haven,  Conn.,  in  July.  He  served  uiu'er 
Sir  William  Howe  in  the  Revolutionary  War  and 
remained  in  New  York  until  the  evacuation  of 
the  British  in  1783.  In  July  of  that  year  he 
sailed  for  England  to  recover  a  legacy  to  which 
his  wife  was  entitled.  His  stay  there  was  pro- 
longed, for  he  did  not  return  until  1786,  arriv- 
ing in  Quebec  on  6  ton  October.  In  1792,  he 
settled  at  the  junction  of  the  Gananoque  and  St. 
Lawrence  Rivers,  the  Crown  having  given  him  a 
grant  of  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  Gan-  COL.  JOEL  STONE. 
anoque  River.  He  founded  the  town  of  Gan- 
anoque. In  1793,  his  wife  died,  and  in  1799,  he  married  a  second 
time.  Stone  was  the  first  Collector  of  the  Port,  and  on  2nd  January, 
1809,  he  was  appointed  colonel  of  the  2nd  Regiment  of  Militia, 
County  of  Leeds.  He  did  not  remain  long  in  command,  feeling 
obliged  on  account  of  declining  years  to  resign.  This  he  did  in  1812. 
His  death  took  place  in  Gananoque  on  20th  November,  1833. 

By  his  first  wife,  Leah  Moore,  Colonel  Stone  had  a  son  and  a 
daughter ;  the  former  died  unmarried,  but  his  daughter,  Mary,  married 
Charles  McDonald,  of  Gananoque  (an  elder  brother  of  the  Hon. 
John  McDonald),  and  of  this  marriage  one  of  the  descendants,  a 
grandson,  is  Mr.  Charles  McDonald  of  Gananoque,  Civil  Engineer. 

Stone's  second  wife  was  Abigail  Coggswell,  widow  of  Abraham 
Dayton.  There  were  no  children  by  this  marriage,  but  Henrietta 
Maria  Mallory,  a  grand-daughter  of  the  Colonel's  second  wife,  became 
a  member  of  the  family,  and  in  due  course  married  John  McDonald 
(afterwards  Hon.  John  McDonald).  He  was  a  member  of  the  Leg- 
islative Assembly  of  Upper  Canada,  and,  at  the  Union  in  1841,  was 
called  to  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  new  Province  of  Canada. 
Of  this  marriage  the  sole  male  representative  of  the  name  of  McDonald 
is  Judge  Herbert  S.  McDonald  of  Brockville,  Ont.  Herbert  M. 
Mowat,  K.C.,  of  Toronto,  and  John  McDonald  Mowat  of  Kingston 
are  grandsons  on  their  mother's  side. 

Mon.  15th — The  baggage  boat  was  not  arrived  at  Gananowui,  and  my 
boudet  or  canvas  stretcher  being  in  it,  I  was  at  a  loss  what  to  sleep  on, 
till  I  recollected  some  planks  I  had  in  the  boat.  I  laid  one  of  these,  sup- 
ported by  a  small  box  at  each  end,  and  put  a  carpet  over  it,  on  which  I  slept 
admirably.  Collins  had  a  small  room  within  mine  for  herself  and  the 
children.  Fairfield  built  the  little  vessel  I  saw  lying  in  Kingston  Harbour. 
She  contains  120  barrels,  and  is  gone  for  flour  to  the  Bay  of  Quinte.  Fair- 
field  told  me  he  had  been  36  miles  back  in  the  country  towards  the  Ottawa 
River;  the  Gananowui  runs  within  half  a  mile  of  a  river  that  falls  into  the 
Ottawa.  The  Indians  carry  over  that  portage.  He  saw  many  lakes  eight 

249 


COL.  JOEL  STONE  OF  GANANOQUE 

or  ten  miles  long.  He  went  to  catch  whitefish,  but  having  no  means  of 
taking  them  but  spearing  he  only  killed  23.  They  are  very  difficult  fish 
to  spear,  and  he  had  not  nets.  The  land  above  this  house  is  considerably 
higher  than  any  in  this  part  of  the  country,  and  falls  every  way  from  this 
height.  Here  are  abundance  of  ground  squirrels,  but  the  men  do  not  take 
the  trouble  of  skinning  them  when  killed,  tho'  the  fur  is  beautiful.  Mr. 
Stone  is  building  a  saw  mill  here,  opposite  Sir.  J.  Johnstone's.  It  will 
work  15  saws  at  once.  Stone's  grant  of  land  is  on  the  west  side  of  the 
river  and  Johnstone's  is  on  the  east  side. 


HOUSE  AND  MILL,  NEAR  GANANOQUE,  1794. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

NOTE. — Judge  McDonald,  of  Brockville,  is  under  the  impression 
that  this  view  is  on  the  St.  Lawrence  and  not  on  the  Gananoque 
River,  1794,  as  it  would  appear  that  the  latter  is  shown  at  the  right, 
where  it  enters  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  yet  there  could  not  have  been 
a  mill  on  the  bank  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  there  being  no  water  from 
that  source.  It  is  just  possible  that  the  buildings  shown  were  erected 
by  Colonel  Stone  along  the  bank  of  the  St.  Lawrence  at  this  spot, 
and  that  there  is  an  error  in  calling  one  of  them  a  mill. 

Tues.  16th — This  morning  Mr.  Stone  sent  me  excellent  cream  and 
butter.  We  did  not  embark  till  ten.  This  morning  was  so  wet  that  the 
Canadians  were  unwilling  to  move.  The  sun  shone  a  little  while,  but  the 
afternoon  proved  wet,  and  it  was  dark  before  I  came  to  Capt.  Cowan's, 
opposite  Oswegatchie.  Here  I  had  a  large  room  with  six  windows  in  it. 

Wed.  17th — We  embarked  at  six.  The  tea  kettle  was  boiled,  and  I 
breakfasted  in  the  boat;  showery  weather.  Passed  the  rapid  called  Les 
Gallettes  (Gallops  rapids  off  Pointe  Galloppe  in  Edwardsburgh).  The 
waves,  dashing  against  the  bottom  of  the  boat,  sounded  as  if  she  struck 
on  rocks,  and  their  appearance  more  agitated  than  those  we  see  in  a  ship- 
wreck on  the  stage.  A  mile  before  we  came  to  the  Long  Sault  there  was  a 
violent  storm  of  thunder,  lightning  and  rain,  and  as  we  were  about  to 
descend  the  rapid  another  violent  storm  arose,  which  was  a  good  accom- 
paniment to  a  terrific  scene.  This  rapid  is  very  long,  but  it  did  not  appear 
to  me  so  frightful  as  Les  Gallettes,  tho'  the  current  is  so  strong  for  the 
space  of  some  miles  that  we  went  nine  miles  in  the  hour  without  sailing. 
One  man  steers;  the  rest  row  occasionally,  but  the  Canadians  are  so 
accustomed  to  the  navigation  that  with  empty  boats  the  man  who  steers 
is  often  the  only  one  awake. 

I  dined  in  the  boat;  at  three  stopped  to  deliver  a  letter  at  Glengarry 
House,  where  Major  McDonell  lives.  At  four  a  thunderstorm  occasioned 
us  to  stop  at  the  boat-house  on  Lac  St.  Francis,  in  that  part  of  the  St. 
Lawrence  which  widens  above  Coteau  du  Lac,  where  Mr.  McGill  was  for 
staying  the  night;  but  I  thought  it  too  early,  and  sailing  across  the  lake 
a  good  way  from  shore  a  violent  gale  of  wind  arose  when  we  were  in  a 
line  with  Pointe  Mouille.  It  thundered,  rained,  and  became  perfectly 
dark;  the  boat  tossed  violently,  the  children  crying  and  Collins  sighing. 
The  wind  blew  so  strong  off  shore  that  I  feared  being  driven  out  into  the 
lake  and  lost,  or  driven  to  the  United  States  shore.  Capt.  McGill  thought 
there  was  some  difficulty,  as  he  promised  the  men  rum  if  they  exerted 

250 


FIRST  ADJUTANT-GENERAL  OF  MILITIA 

themselves  to  get  to  the  shore,  which  they  at  last  did,  and  I  waited  half 
an  hour,  intending  to  sleep  in  the  boat  rather  than  proceed  in  such  weather 
five  miles  to  the  Pointe  au  Bodet.  There  was  no  house  nearer.  The 
weather  then  clearing  up  and  growing  calm,  I  consented  to  proceed,  pro- 
vided they  kept  close  to  the  shore,  which  they  did,  and  about  ten  we 
arrived  at  Pointe  au  Bodet.  Mr.  John  McDonell,  the  Adjutant-General  of 
Militia  of  Upper  Canada,  had  arrived  there,  and  he  gave  me  up  his  rooms, 
in  which  were  large  fires,  very  comfortable  after  the  cold,  rough  evening 
I  had  been  out  in. 

NOTE. — Mr.  J.  A.  Macdonell  of  Glengarry  states  that  John  Mac- 
donell  "was  appointed  by  Lieutenant-Governor  Simcoe  to  be  first 
adjutant-general  of  militia  in  Upper  Canada,  and  was  the  founder 
of  our  militia  system." 

I  find  among  my  Simcoe  manuscript  an  account  of  part  of  the 
journey,  in  the  handwriting  of  Mrs.  Simcoe,  though  the  heading  is  not 
written  by  her.  It  reads : — 

A  SIMCOE  RELIC. 

"A  Short  Journal,  with  Rough  Sketches  contained  in  a  letter 
addressed  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  to  her  husband,  the  Lieutenant-Governor, 
in  .1794,  when  on  her  way  in  a  covered  boat  from  Kingston  to  Mon- 
treal and  Quebec." 

It  is  in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  Governor  Simcoe  written  on  the 
17th  September,  1794,  and  really  a  more  extended  account  than  what 
appears  in  the  diary  proper  for  the  15th-17th  September.  The  first 
paragraph  is  undated.  It  refers  to  Mrs.  Simcoe's  friends  who  were 
evidently  visiting  Kingston  and  who  desired  to  go  east  to  Montreal, 
and  states  that : 

"  Miss  M'Donell,  Miss  Bouchette,  Capt.  Porter  and  Mr.  Salmon  came 
on  board  the  '  Mississaga.'  Capt.  Bouchette  wanted  to  refuse  the  ten 
guineas.  He  say'd  it  was  too  much.  I  believe  he  was  very  well  satisfied." 

Mon.  Septr.  15th— Left  Kingston  at  half-past  twelve  in  a  boat  with  a 
comfortable  awning  of  hoops  and  oil  cloth,  accompanied  by  another  batteau 
with  the  baggage;  a  fine  and  strong  wind,  delightful  sailing.  At  four  the 
wind  came  ahead,  and  we  were  obliged  to  row.  In  half  an  hour  after 
we  left  Kingston  it  began  to  rain  hard,  and  continued  to  rain  the  whole 
night. 

Gary's  house  shut  up,  as  he  was  gone  to  Kingston.  Rained  too  hard 
for  me  to  pitch  the  tent  or  sleep  in  the  batteau.  Slept  at  Fairfield's  house, 
close  by  the  mill  at  Gananoqui.  He  is  the  farmer's  son  who  built  a  small 
vessel  at  Gananoqui.  She  is  now  gone  for  a  load  of  flour  to  the  Bay  of 
Quinte.  I  think  I  saw  her  in  the  harbour  at  Kingston.  She  has  carried 
120  barrels;  looks  not  much  larger  than  the  "  Onondaga."  Mr.  M'Gill 
stayed  in  the  batteau. 

NOTE. — The  vessel  which  Mrs.  Simcoe  mentions  as  having  been 
built  by  Fairfield  was  no  doubt  built  by  him  for  Colonel  Joel  Stone. 
This  contention  is  borne  out  by  the  fact  that  a  letter  dated  2nd  Feb- 
ruary, 1793,  at  Gananoque,  written  by  Stone  to  Governor  Simcoe, 
says : — "Permit  me  to  inform  your  Excellency  that  I  have  recovered  my 

251 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


health  some  time  in  November  last  from  ; 
Lake   Ontario  last  July,   since  which  I 


FAIKFIELD'S  HOUSE  AND  MILL. 

(From  a  Draining  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 


i  fever  I  took  at  the  head  of 
am  commissioned  to  build 
a  schooner  of  40  tons 
burthen,  on  my  premises 
here.  She  is  to  sail  out 
of  this  river  and  is  to  be 
called  the  'Leeds  Trader,' 
and  I  expect  will  sail  by 
the  first  of  July  next." 
As  all  the .  land  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Ganan- 
oque Eiver,  near  Ganan- 
oque, was  granted  by  the 
Crown  to  Colonel  Joel 
Stone  and  that  on  the  east  side  to  Sir  John  Johnson  or  his  heirs,  it 
would  appear  that  Fairfield  must  have  been  a  "squatter"  or  an  em- 
ployee, and  therefore  may  have  been  captain  of  Colonel  Stone's 
vessel. 

Fairfield  say'd  he  had  been  35  miles  back  from  his  present  house  to 
catch  whitefish,  but  having  no  means  but  spearing,  and  they  are  remark- 
ably swift  and  difficult  to  spear,  he  took  but  23.  Was  out  two  nights. 
There  are  many  lakes  eight  or  ten  miles  long.  The  land  at  Gananoque 
is  very  bad  between,  fit  for  nothing,  but  twelve  miles  back  becomes  very 
good. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Charles 
Britton,  a  resident  of 
Gananoque  for  many 
years,  fixes  the  site  of 
Fairfield's  mill  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river  on 
lot  1027  in  the  village  of 
Gananoque  back  of  Skin- 
ner and  Company's  fac- 
tory. The  Gananoque 
Eiver  runs  northwest 
from  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  a  mile  north  of  the 
town  it  inclines  east  and 
continues  northeast  from 
Kingston. 

Tues.  16th— A  very  wet  morning  after  a  night  of  incessant  rain;  the 
Canadians  would  not  stir,  so  I  waited  to  breakfast.  Mr.  Stone,  who  is 
building  a  mill  opposite  Fairfield's,  came,  and  was  extremely  civil;  brought 
butter  and  milk.  About  nine  the  rain  ceased.  I  walked  to  look  at  the 
mill,  and  embarked.  Gave  a  dollar  to  the  people.  Mr.  M'Gill  said  Stone 
was  too  much  of  a  gentleman  to  offer  anything  to.  The  mill  he  is  build- 
ing is  to  have  15  saws.  He  says  there  is  a  portage  of  only  half  a  mile 
from  the  Gananoqui  to  the  Rideau.  The  Indians  carry  over  it,  that  is,  50 
or  60  miles  to  the  Grand  River.  He  say'd  the  hill  behind  Fairfield's  house 
is  the  highest  ground  anywhere  about  the  country,  the  land  descending 

252 


VIEW  FROM  FAIRFIELD'S  HOUSE. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mr*.  Simcoe.) 


POLITENESS  IX  THE  OLDEX  TIME 

from  it  every  way.  Fairfield  say'd  there  is  a  fall  30  miles  up  the  Ganan- 
oqui  50  feet  high,  and  many  slight  rapids.  About  twelve  the  day  grew 
fine  and  pleasant.  Our  Canadians  are  old  and  do  not  sing;  however,  I 
made  them  sing  "  Trois  Filles  d'un  Prince,"  tho'  indifferently. 

Capt.  Porter  say'd  to  Mr.  M'Gill  the  "  Sophia "  might  be  two  weeks 
in  one  trip  to  Oswegatchie.  Rain  in  the  afternoon.  Got  on  to  Capt.  Cowan's, 
just  opposite  Fort  Oswegatchie,  an  admirable  large  room,  six  large  windows 
in  it,  12  feet  high.  Capt.  Cowan  spoke  much  of  the  weakness  and  unpro- 
vided state  of  the  inhabitants  in  case  of  war  with  the  States;  he  par- 
ticularly mentioned  as  dangerous  the  circumstances  of  settlers  who  call 
themselves  residents  under  the  King's  Government  (but  some  whose 
loyalty  is  very  doubtful),  building  saw  mills  on  the  opposite  shore.  One, 
Honeywell,  in  particular,  who  had  been  a  notorious  rebel,  and  since  his 
residence  under  the  King's  Government  was  once  confined  at  Kingston  for 
improper  behaviour.  This  man  has  a  saw  mill  directly  opposite  this 
house,  with  many  thousand  boards  cut.  Capt.  Cowan  says  these  mills 
afford  ample  provision  for  rafts,  on  which  the  Americans  might  pop  over 
and  ravage  this  country.  A  well-known  road  thro'  the  woods  from  Oswe- 
gatchie to  Crown  Point,  in  Lake  Champlain,  or  to  Lake  George,  is  so  pass- 
able that  30  or  40  head  of  cattle  pass  with  ease  in  eight  days. 

XOTE. — Captain  David  Cowan,  R.X.,  was  one  of  the  early  settlers 
of  this  part  of  the  country.  His  home  "opposite  Fort  Oswegatchie" 
(Ogdensburg),  would  be  Prescott,  in  the  County  of  Grenville. 
In  1819  he  lived  in  the  Township  of  Charlotteville,  County  of  Xor- 
folk,  but  owned  some  450  acres  of  land  in  the  Township  of  Pittsburg, 
six  miles  west  of  Gananoque,  -which  was  granted  him  in  recognition 
of  his  services  during  the  War  of  1812.  He  was  an  uncle  of  Mr. 
Alexander  Cowan  of  Pittsburg  Township,  Frontenac  County,  U.C. 
Miss  Margaret  Cowan,  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Alexander  Cowan,  married 
the  late  George  B.  Holland,  of  Toronto,  whose  descendants  live  in 
Toronto,  Gananoque  and  Brockville. 

An  interesting  mention  is  made  of  Captain  Cowan  in  the  Memoirs 
of  John  Clark,  of  Port  Dalhousie,  in  Volume  VII.  of  the  Ontario 
Historical  Society  Papers  and  Eecords.  It  reads: — 

"There  were  two  worthies  amongst  us  equal,  if  not  superior,  to 
Beau  Xash,  in  the  old  times.  These  were  Captain  Cowan,  of  the  navy, 
and  Staff-Surgeon  Fleming  of  the  army.  They  in  every  particular 
were  the  essence  of  politeness.  The  Chippewa  (sic)  Bridge  in  that 
day  was  nearer  the  mouth  of  the  Chippewa  (sic)  River  than  the 
present  bridge,  consequently  was  of  greater  span.  One  fine  morning 
these  two  gents  being  at  Chippewa,  were  crossing  the  bridge  at  oppo- 
site ends,  and  both  being  somewhat  halt  in  their  legs,  when  they 
stepped  on  the  bridge,  commenced  to  bow  to  each  other  and  did  not 
stop  bowing  till  they  met  each  other  in  the  centre  when  they  took  a 
most  cordial  grip  and  passed  on.  So  much  for  Captain  Cowan  and 
Dr.  Fleming  of  bygone  days'  politeness." 

Wed.  17th — Embarked  at  six;  fine  wind,  showery.  Passing  the  first 
rapid  at  Chimney  Island  the  water  is  very  frightful.  A  little  below  John's 
Town  saw  a  deer  crossing  the  river,  a  canoe  trying  to  overtake  it.  The 
deer  swam  up  the  stream  and  got  ashore.  At  half-past  nine  passed  Matilda 
township  and  the  Rapid  Plat,  20  miles.  At  half  after  three  Mr.  M'Gill 
wanted  to  give  a  message  from  you  to  the  Speaker  (John  Macdonell),  so 

253 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

we  stopped  for  him  to  deliver  it,  and  I  take  the  opportunity  of  sending 
this  book,  that  you  may  know  we  got  safe  and  well  so  far  and  had  a 
pleasant  journey.  Fray  give  this  book  to  Mr.  D.  W.  Smith,  to  send  back 
to  me  immediately,  for  I  mean  to  make  some  pretty  drawings  from  these 
rough  sketches. 

I  should  not  have  sent  you  this  rough  one,  but  that  I  know  you  will 
be  glad  in  any  way  to  know  myself  and  the  children  are  well,  and  as  com- 
fortable as  is  possible  to  be  anywhere  in  your  absence. 

We  have  had  a  good  deal  of  thunder  and  rain  to-day.  A  thunder- 
storm was  hardly  passed  when  we  entered  the  Long  Sault.  Had  it  con- 
tinued, what  a  flneward  element.  The  Long  Sault  Rapid  was  less  alarm- 
ing than  I  expected,  but  very  grand  and  fine,  and  nothing  but  reason 
would  keep  one  from  being  afraid.  Your  sight  must  be  terrified,  tho' 
knowledge  makes  you  rest  satisfied. 

Ever  most  attachedly  yours, 

E.  SIMCOE. 

The  going  down  the  river  is  so  fine  a  thing  altogether  I  wish  for  you 
every  moment.  I  should  be  in  ecstasies  if  you  were  here  to  partake  of 
them. 

Thurs.  18th — Embarked  at  six,  and  reached  the  Cedar  Rapids,  opposite 
the  village  of  that  name,  at  ten;  from  thence  I  went  in  a  .caleche  to  the 
Cascades  between  Grand  Island  and  Isle  Perault,  from  whence  I  was  two 
hours  going  in  the  boat  to  La  Chine,  eight  miles  above  Montreal.  I  waited 
there  two  hours  for  a  caleche,  and  set  out  in  it  with  Francis,  but  the  road 
was  so  rough  and  the  carriage  so  indifferent  that  I  was  obliged  to  stop 
and  take  Collins  with  me  to  hold  the  child,  or  we  should  have  been  shaken 
out.  I  was  so  fatigued  with  this  eight  miles  to  Montreal  that  I  deter- 
mined never  to  go  in  a  post  caleche  again.  The  carriage  was  driven 
tandem,  the  first  horse  tied  to  the  other  by  a  rope,  which  did  not  in  the 
least  confine  him.  The  horses  generally  went  different  ways  and  at  a 
great  rate. 

I  went  to  Mr.  Gray's  at  Montreal,  but  his  house  being  under  repair, 
Mr.  Frobisher,  another  merchant,  requested  me  to  be  at  his  house,  where 
I  should  be  better  accommodated,  and  indeed  it  is  elegantly  fitted  up.  He 
sent  his  carriage  for  me. 

NOTE. — Edward  William  Gray  was  a  man  well  known  in  military, 
civil  and  social  circles  in  Montreal.  He  was  born  on  the  4th  De- 
cember, 1742,  in  England  and  came  to  Montreal  in  the  autumn 
of  1760  in  the  "Vanguard,"  man-of-war,  and  was  initiated  into 
Freemasonry  on  2nd  October,  17GO,  when  the  ship  was  in  the  St. 
Lawrence,  in  front  of  Quebec.  His  Masonic  certificate  is  in  the  Arch- 
ives Department  at  Ottawa,  and  it  is  the  earliest  certificate  known 
to  the  craft  in  Canada.  In  the  Masonic  institution  there  were  in  the 
olden  time  three  kinds  of  warrants  given  to  lodges.  A  civil  warrant 
was  for  a  lodge  composed  of  citizens  of  a  certain  place.  Another 
warrant  was  known  as  a  "sea  warrant,"  for  members  on  board  a 
British  man-of-war,  while  a  third  warrant  was  known  as  a  "field 
warrant"  given  to  soldiers  in  a  British  regiment.  It  is  permissible 
to  hold  these  lodges  either  in  the  quarters  of  a  regiment  or  on  board 
a  man-of-war  "in  the  most  convenient  place  adjacent  to  the  ship." 
In  January,  1760,  a  warrant  was  issued  for  a  lodge  on  board  the 
"Vanguard,"  man-of-war,  of  which  Thomas  Dunckerley  was  W.M. 
The  lodge  on  the  occasion  of  this  initiation  was  held  no  doubt  in  a 
lodge  room  in  the  city  of  Quebec,  for  there  were  a  number  of  military 

254 


COLD  WEATHER  IN  THE  ST.  LAWRENCE 

lodges  stationed  in  the  fortress,  that  possessed  Masonic  warrants.  Wil- 
liam Gray  was  postmaster  of  Montreal  for  many  years,  and  sheriff  of 
the  District  of  Montreal.  His  Commission  as  Deputy-Provost-Marshal, 
corresponding  to  that  of  sheriff,  is  dated  15th  June,  1765.  He  was 
appointed  Deputy  Public  Appraiser  and  Vendue  Master  on  llth 
August,  1766,  and  was  promoted  to  the  office  of  Provost-Marshal  on 
1st  May,  1775.  He  was  appointed  major  of  a  corps  of  volunteers 
raised  amongst  the  merchants  of  Montreal  at  the  time  of  the  Ameri- 
can invasion,  and  for  services  rendered  was  afterwards  given  the 
rank  of  colonel,  commanding  the  English  militia  in  the  city  and 
suburbs  of  Montreal.  He  died  on  22nd  December,  1810. 

Fri.  19th — Mrs.  Frobisher  came  from  her  country  house  to  dine  with 
me.  1  saw  the  large  sheep's  horn  Mr.  Mackenzie,  the  North-West  explorer, 
brought  from  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Major  Duke  called  to  enquire 
whether  I  would  have  men  from  the  26th  to  row  my  batteau,  but  I  pre- 
ferred the  Canadians.  Mr.  Smith,  of  the  7th  Fusiliers,  brought  me  letters 
from  England. 

NOTE. — Major  George  Duke's  first  commission  in  the  26th  is 
dated  10th  September,  1779,  with  rank  of  captain.  In  October,  1793, 
he  was  in  command,  as  major,  at  St.  John's  and  Isle-aux-Noix, 
Lower  Canada.  In  the  army  list  his  name  is  given  also  as  "Charles" 
Duke,  with  the  statement  that  he  "sold  out,"  though  the  date  is  not 
given. 

The  26th,  or  Cameronian  Regiment,  was  formed  in  1689,  deriving 
its  popular  designation  of  "Cameronians"  from  the  sect  (named  after 
one  of  its  first  preachers,  Richard  Cameron).  The  regiment  was 
formed  at  the  time  when  the  religious  persecution  by  the  Stuart 
family  led  many  of  their  subjects  of  the  Presbyterian  persuasion 
in  Scotland  to  take  up  arms.  In  1787  the  regiment  was  stationed 
at  Quebec,  in  1789  at  Montreal,  and  in  1790  at  Niagara,  and  at 
various  other  stations  in  Canada  until  1800,  when  it  returned  to 
England.  The  unfortunate  Captain  John  Andre,  who  joined  the 
26th  from  the  44th  Regiment,  was  commissioned  on  18th  January, 
1777.  He  was  executed  on  2nd  October,  1780.  Andre  was  a  personal 
friend  of  Governor  Simcoe. 

Sat.  20th — A  very  wet  day,  so  I  stayed  at  Mr.  Frobisher's. 

Sun.  21st — I  left  Montreal  at  nine,  with  a  good  many  buffalo  skins  in 
the  boat,  as  the  weather  grows  very  cbld,  and  every  ten  leagues  I  feel  it 
more  so;  the  weather  very  windy  and  disagreeable;  an  unpleasant  squall 
near  Varennes,  on  the  river  near  Montreal.  We  afterwards  passed  St. 
Sulpice,  on  the  north  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  La  Valtrie,  a  pretty 
village  among  oaks,  and  reached  D'Autray,  thirteen  leagues  from  Mont- 
real, at  six  o'clock.  I  walked  the  last  half-mile  to  warm  myself.  I  had  a 
good  fire  at  the  Post  House,  and  wrote  till  eleven.  I  was  charged  six 
shillings  for  rooms,  fire  and  milk.  I  carried  tea,  cold  tongue  and  fowl,  or 
herrings,  which  composed  our  supper. 

NOTE. — Dautrey,  spelled  Dautre  on  old  maps,  is  on  the  north 
shore  of  River  St.  Lawrence,  about  half-way  between  the  village  of 
Lanoraie  and  the  River  des  Chaloupes. 

255 


.  DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  22nd — Set  out  at  six;  passed  Berthier,  a  village  on  the  north 
shore,  at  twelve;  came  to  N.  York,  missed  the  house  we  were  directed  to  go 
to,  stopped  at  another  while  the  men  lighted  their  pipes;  previous  to  pass- 
ing Lake  St.  Pierre  had  a  distant  view  of  Maskinonge,  in  the  county  of 
that  name,  RiviSre  du  Loup  (the  county  town  of  Maskinonge)  and 
Machiche;  at  seven  arrived  at  Three  Rivers,  one  of  the  oldest  towns  in  the 
province,  founded  in  1618,  and  had  a  good  fire  at  the  Maison  de  poste,  and 
very  cheap  (a  much  better  house  than  the  inn  kept  by  an  Englishman, 
where,  instead  of  two  dollars,  I  might  have  paid  eight). 

NOTE. — The  MSS.  reads  1ST.  York.  The  map  drawn  by  Mrs. 
Simcoe  shows  "1ST.  York"  on  Lake  St.  Peter.  There  is  no  trace  of 
the  name  now. 

After  drinking  tea  (or  supper)  and  the  children  are  gone  to  bed,  I  dress 
my  hair,  which  I  have  not  time  to  do  in  the  morning,  change  my  habit, 
and  lay  down  on  a  boudet  (or  folding  bed)  before  the  fire,  covered  with  a 


MONTREAL  EAST  TO  POINT  DU  LAC,   1794. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  ) 

fur  blanket.  I  do  not  undress  when  I  have  not  my  bed,  which  is  the  case 
at  present.  I  came  21  leagues  to-day,  and  felt  it  very  cold,  but  the  chil- 
dren mind  it  so  little  that  Francis  will  not  keep  on  his  gloves. 

Tues.  23rd — Left  Three  Rivers  after  breakfast.  In  the  afternoon  the 
weather  was  particularly  fine,  and  the  scenery  between  Grondines  and 
Cap  Sante  was  peculiarly  beautiful,  illuminated  by  the  setting  sun.  The 
churches  of  Deschambault  and  Cap  Sante  are  very  picturesque  objects 
among  the  wood,  and  the, high  ground  near  the  latter  is  of  the  finest 
verdure,  covered  with  large,  detached  trees,  has  a  very  fine  appearance; 
indeed,  going  down  the  St.  Lawrence  affords  the  most  delightful  scenery, 
whether  it  be  between  Kingston  and  Montreal,  among  the  numberless 
wooded  islands  of  all  sizes,  or  the  woody,  rocky  shores  bordering  the 
rapids,  and  the  transparent  clear  waters. 

NOTE. — Deschambault,  a  village  in  Portneuf  County,  P.Q.,  on 
north  shore,  forty  miles  above  Quebec.  'Cap  Sante  is  31  miles  from 
Quebec.  During  the  French  regime  it  was  a  French  post  and  after 
the  Battle  of  the  Plains  the  army  was  quartered  in  the  vicinity  for 
several  months. 

256 


ARRIVAL  AT  QUEBEC 

Tues.  23rd — From  Montreal  to  Quebec  the  country  is  more  diversified 
by  villages  and  houses,  and  is  very  pretty,  excepting  a  part  of  it  in  passing 
Lake  St.  Peter,  which  is  flat  and  low,  but  from  Deschambault  it  again 
becomes  fine.  The  opposition  of  a  strong  current  makes  the  voyage  up  the 
river  very  tedious,  but  the  velocity  with  which  the  boat  passes  down 
affords  incessant  variety  of  objects,  and  nothing  can  be  pleasanter.  I 
cannot  tho'  but  regret  leaving  the  climate  of  our  upper  country  (Upper 
Canada),  the  warmth  of  which  gives  an  idea  of  comfort  to  the  most 
uninhabited  scenes. 

We  came  19  leagues  to-day,  and  arrived  at  six  at  Cap  Sante,  and  I 
found  myself  at  the  house  where  I  had  met  with  so  much  civility  on  my 
way  from  Quebec.  The  woman  recognized  and  welcomed  me  with  her 
usual  French  politeness;  by  great  industry  she  had  saved  some  money  to 
make  the  miserable  cottage  it  had  been  formerly  fit  for  the  reception,  of 
travellers.  She  said  my  calling  there  accidentally  had  made  her  think  of  so 
doing.  Her  husband  is  quite  uncivilized,  but  she  had  been  educated  at  a 
convent.  An  orchard  full  of  fine  apples  was  in  great  beauty,  just  ready  to 


MAP  OF  ROUTE  FROM  THREE  RIVERS  TO  QUEBEC. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simeoe.) 

be  gathered.  I  had  much  satisfaction  at  seeing  the  progressive  state  of 
improvement  making  here.  I  was  made  happy  in  receiving  a  letter  to-night 
from  Mrs.  Caldwell,  pressing  me  in  the  kindest  manner  to  reside  with  her 
till  my  house  at  Quebec  could  be  prepared  for  me. 

Wed.  24th — The  tide  prevented  my  leaving  Cap  Sante"  till  nine  o'clock. 
Fine  weather.  Passed  the  mills  at  Jacques  Cartier;  landed  at  a  romantic 
spot  named  Cap  Rouge,  three  leagues  above  Quebec.  I  walked  a  mile  to 
the  Maison  de  Poste,  dressed  myself,  and  went  in  a  caleche  four  miles  to 
Belmont,  where  I  met  with  the  most  friendly  reception  that  was  possible. 

Thur.  25th — I  received  a  great  many  visits  from  my  acquaintances  at 
Quebec,  who  all  appeared  glad  to  see  me. 

Fri.  26th — Many  more  visitors.  Coll.  Caldwell  and  Miss  Johnson 
dined  at  St.  Foix  (St.  Foye),  but  I  could  not  prevail  on  Mrs.  Caldwell  to 
leave  me,  and  I  could  not  accept  Lady  Dorchester's  invitation,  as  my 
clothes  had  not  arrived. 

Mon.  29th — The  Bishop's  family  and  Coll.  and  Mrs.  Despard  dined  here. 

NOTE. — Mrs.  Despard  was  the  wife  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  John 
Despard  of  the  7th  Regiment  who  had  brevet  rank  as  colonel  from 
13th  July,  1791. 

17  257 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

Tues,  30th — Coll.  Caldwell  proposed  my  taking  his  house  at  "iSans 
Bruit,"  which  I  felt  disposed  to  do.  I  went  to  see  it  to-day.  The  weather 
was  very  cold  and  some  snow  fell,  which  gave  me  an  unfavourable  idea 
of  Sans  Bruit,  and  I  did  not  like  the  thoughts  of  so  cold  a  place.  I  called 
on  Mrs.  Mountain,  wife  of  the  Bishop,  at  Powell  Place,  and  on  Mrs.  Despard 
at  Woodfield.  It  is  said  that  peace  is  settled  between  Great  Britain  and 
the  United  States,  but  as  I  have  not  heard  it  officially  (or  even  in  that  case 
could  I  tell  how  Gen.  Wayne  may  previously  have  acted  at  the  Miami)  I 
cannot  venture  to  return  with  Mr.  McGill  to  Niagara.  He  sets  out  to-day. 
Some  snow  fell. 

Wed.  Oct.  1st — Coll.  and  Mrs.  Caldwell  went  to  their  mill.  Miss  John- 
son and  I  drove  to  Quebec. 

Thurs.  2nd — I  breakfasted  with  Mrs.  Murray,  and  went  to  the  house 
offered  me  in  Palace  Street,  which  I  liked  very  well.  Coll.  and  Mrs.  Cald- 
well returned  to  dinner.  We  drank  tea  at  Mr.  Nathaniel  Taylor's,  Deputy 
Commissary  General. 

NOTE. — Mrs.  Murray  was  the  wife  of  Bichard  Murray,  who  is 
given  in  the  list  of  Protestant  house-keepers  as  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  in  1794. 

Tues.  7th — We  dined  at  the  Bishop's;  a  very  large  party  there,  and 
Coll.  and  Mrs.  Despard. 

Wed.  8th — Miss  Johnson  and  I  went  to  Quebec. 

Sun.  12th — Coll.  Beckwith  and  several  friends  dined  here.  Coll.  Cald- 
well, having  found  that  I  was  the  daughter  of  his  old  friend,  Coll.  Gwillim, 
who  fought  at  Quebec  under  Wolfe,  and  with  whom  he  stayed  some  time 
In  London  after  the  death  of  Genl.  Wolfe,  is  now  doubly  kind  and  inter- 
ested about  all  my  concerns. 

NOTE. — (Colonel)  George  Beckwith  was  Acting  Adjutant-General 
at  Quebec  in  1794. 

Mon.  13th — I  took  possession  of  my  house  in  Palace  Street.  Dined  at 
the  Chateau. 

Thurs.  16th — Quebec — I  have  bought  a  covered  carriole,  but  until  the 
snow  falls  I  cannot  use  it.  Coll.  Caldwell  sends  a  caliche  for  me  to  go  to 
Belmont,  as  it  does  not  seem  worth  while  to  buy  one  for  so  short  a  time 
as  I  suppose  it  will  be  possible  to  use  it. 

Fri.  17th — Dined  and  slept  at  Belmont. 

Sat.  18th — Came  home;  22  visitors  this  morning. 

Wed.  22nd— Dined  and  slept  at  Belmont. 

Thurs.  23rd — Came  here;  a  great  many  visitors  this  morning.  The 
certainty  of  peace  relieved  me  from  so  much  uneasiness  that  I  scarcely 
seem  to  feel  the  banishment  from  the  upper  country  as  much  as  I  ex- 
pected to  have  done.  Yet  at  times  I  have  doubts  whether  an  American 
mob  may  act  in  opposition  ,to  their  executive  government. 

I  have  been  amused  by  a  play  called  "  Carthusian  Friar,"  written  by  a 
lady,  an  emigrant.  Coll.  Caldwell  calls  almost  every  day  to  know  whether 
offers  of  service  other  people  make,  they  premise  with  saying,  "  If  Coll. 
I  want  anything,  and  is  so  attentive  to  all  my  business  that  whatever 
Caldwell  has  not  done  it  already."  Coll.  Beckwith  has  been  very  civil.  I 
have  added  a  horse,  a  cow  and  a  cat,  and  a  Canadian  driver  to  my  estab- 
lishment. Patras  drives  admirably.  I  have  heard  from  the  Governor,  but 
the  letter  was  dated  Fort  Erie,  six  days  after  he  left  Niagara. 

Sun.  26th — Dined  at  M.  Baby's  (Hon.  Francis  Baby).  Baron  de  Rue, 
M.  D'Anoilt  and  many  others  there.  Th«  office  ordered  to  be  shut  on 
Sunday. 

Thurs.  30th— Dined  at  the  Chateau 

258 


PLEASANT  DAYS  AT  THE  CAPITAL 

Tues.  Nov.  4th — I  have  heard  that  all  was  well  at  Detroit  on  the 
13th  of  October,  and  Governor  Simcoe  returned  to  Niagara.  Instead  of 
the  usual  frost  and  snow  at  this  season,  we  have  damp,  mild  weather, 
which  disagrees  with  everybody.  I  have  a  cold,  which  keeps  me  at  home. 
The  wind  is  east,  and  has  prevented  the  Fusiliers  sailing  for  Halifax; 
they  have  been  on  board  ship  for  a  week.  An  east  wind  at  this  season 
is  most  extraordinary. 

Thurs.  6th — The  "  Eweretta  "  and  convoy  sailed  to  London  this  morn- 
ing. 

NOTE. — Ship  "  Eweretta,"  Alex.  Patterson,  master,  sailed  to  and 
from  London. 

Tues.  llth — I  attempted  to  go  to  Belmont  in  my  carriole,  but  the  roads 
were  too  bad.  I  drank  tea  at  the  Chateau. 

Wed.  12th— ^Dined  with  Madame  Baby. 

Thurs.  13th — Spent  the  evening  at  Mrs.  Ogden's,  wife  of  Isaac  Ogden, 
Judge  of  Admiralty. 

Pri.  14th — Dined  at  Mrs.  Winslow's. 

Sat.  15th — The  weather  so  bad  I  put  off  going  to  Powell  Place. 

Sun.  16th — Some  snow.  Francis  and  I  went  to  Belmont  in  an  open 
carriole. 

Tues.  18th — Drove  from  Belmont  to  Powell  Place;  went  to  Quebec  at 
four;  dined  and  went  in  the  evening  to  the  Chateau.  When  I  left  it,  called 
at  home  for  my  great-coat,  and  went  with  Miss  Murray  in  an  open  carriole 
at  ten  o'clock  at  night  to  Belmont;  a  little  snow,  but  very  mild. 

Thurs.  20th — Letters  have  been  received  from  Governor  Simcoe  dated 
Niagara,  Oct.  30th. 

Tues.  25th — A  heavy  fall  of  snow  and  the  thermometer  five  degrees 
below.  I  dined  at  Mr.  Ainslie's,  Collector  of  Customs.  Baron  de  Rue 
there;  he  was  promised  letters  of  recommendation  by  Coll.  Harping  (at 
Quebec,  Nov.,  1794),  who  died.  The  Dauphin,  eldest  son  of  Louis  of 
France,  is  dead. 

Fri.  28th — I  dined  at  Mr.  Dunn's.  The  stoves  so  heated  that  the  ther- 
mometer in  the  room  must  have  been  at  90.  Ice  and  fruit  were  in  great 
request. 

NOTE. — Honorable  Thos.  Dunn  was  a  member  of  the  Executive 
Council,  Lower  Canada.  As  senior  member  he  was  administrator  on 
two  occasions,  first  in  1805,  on  the  departure  of  Sir  Eobert  Shore 
Milnes,  and  again  during  the  interval  between  Governor  Craig  and 
Sir  George  Prevost. 

Sat.  29th — A  violent  snowstorm,  and  very  severe,  cold  weather;  but 
in  Miss  William's  room,  daughter  of  the  Clerk  of  the  Executive  Council, 
where  I  dined,  the  thermometer  must  have  been  at  86. 

iSun.  30th — I  dined  at  Belmont;  returned  in  the  open  carriole. 

Tues.  Dec.  2nd — Dined  at  the  Chateau;  supped  at  Mr.  Taylor's. 

Wed.  3rd— I  dined  at  Belmont. 

Thurs.  4th— I  dined  at  the  Chief  Justice's  (Osgoode);  a  pleasant 
French  party  there. 

NOTE. — Chief  Justice  Osgoode  had,  after  leaving  Upper  Canada, 
been  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  Lower  Canada.  Chief  Justice  Smith 
had  died  3rd  December,  1793. 

Fri.  5th — Went  to  breakfast  at  Belmont;  drank  tea  with  Madame 
Baby. 

Sat.  6th — Dined  at  Thomas  Grant's,  of  the  Surveyor's  Office.  I  have 
had  letters  from  Governor  Simcoe,  tho'  nearly  a  month  after  the  time  I 

259 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

ought  to  have  received  them.  Mr.  Gray  kept  them  at  Montreal  till  he  had 
an  opportunity  of  sending  them  by  a  gentleman,  in  order  to  save  the 
postage  of  so  large  a  packet.  The  Governor  proposed  my  meeting  him  at 
Pointe  an  Bodet,  which  is  the  boundary  of  this  province,  in  January  or 
February,  as  soon  as  the  ice  is  good.  As  I  had  not  thought  of  moving 
till  the  weather  communication  was  open,  this  scheme  is  doubly  delightful 


LADY  DORCHESTER. 

(From  a  copy  of  a  miniature  in  England.) 

to  me  as  being  an  unexpected  pleasure,  and  I  think  I  shall  like  travelling 
en  carriole  very  much.  Mr.  Mayne,  of  the  Rangers,  is  to  meet  me  at 
Montreal.  I  desired  he  may  not  come  further. 

Lady  Dorchester  was  so  obliging  to  insist  on  sending  me  one  of  her 
open  carrioles — mine,  being  a  covered  one,  was  disagreeable  in  a  morning — 

260 


LADY  DOKCHESTEIl 

and  this  will  greatly  add  to  my  amusement;  indeed,  she  and  Lord  Dor- 
chester have  been  uniformly  polite  and  obliging  to  me;  she  is  one  of 
those  few  who  appear  to  act  upon  principle,  and  with  a  consistency  which 
is  not  to  be  moved.  I  think  her  a  sensible,  pleasant  woman,  and  I  like 
the  parties  at  the  Chateau  excessively,  for  there  are  forty  or  fifty  people 
in  an  evening,  and  I  think  it  is  very  amusing  to  walk  about  the  room  and 
have  something  to  say  to  everybody  without  a  long  conversation  with  any. 

NOTE. — The  following  interesting  incident  in  connection  with 
the  marriage  of  Sir  Guy  Carleton  and  Lady  Maria  Howard  is  given 
in  the  Life  of  Dorchester,  Morang's  "Makers  of  Canada " : — 

"Almost  immediately  on  the  passing  of  the  Quebec  Act  Carleton 
sailed  for  Canada  and  landed  on  September  18th,  1774.  During 
his  long  stay  in  England  he  had  married  the  Lady  Maria  Howard, 
daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Effingham,  who  with  her  two  children  born 
of  the  marriage  accompanied  her  husband  across  the  Atlantic.  The 
lady  was  less  than  half  Carleton's  age,  which  was  now  forty-eight. 
A  family  tradition  attributes  the  fact  of  Carleton's  remaining  so 
long  unmarried  to  an  early  disappointment  in  a  love  affair  with  his 
cousin,  Jane  Carleton.  The  circumstances  of  his  marriage  were 
somewhat  singular,  and  were  given  to  me  by  the  present  representa- 
tive of  the  family.  Lord  Howard  of  Effingham,  then  a  widower, 
was  a  great  personal  friend  of  Carleton's,  and  of  about  the  same  age. 
On  this  account  and  also  foreseeing  for  him  a  distinguished  career, 
he  cordially  accepted  his  overtures  for  the  hand  of  his  eldest  daughter, 
Lady  Anne.  She  and  her  younger  sister,  Lady  Maria,  had  seen  a 
great  deal  of  Sir  Guy  at  their  father's  house,  and  doubtless  regarded 
him  as  a  benevolent  uncle  rather  than  a  potential  lover.  In  time, 
however,  they  became  aware  that  other  schemes  were  abroad,  and 
on  a  certain  occasion  when  Carleton  arrived  at  the  house  and  was 
closeted  with  his  Lordship  it  seems  to  have  been  pretty  well  understood 
what  he  had  come  for.  The  two  young  ladies  were  sitting  together 
in  another  apartment  with  a  relative,  a  Miss  Seymour,  and  when 
a  message  came  to  Lady  Anne  that  her  presence  was  required  by 
her  father  its  purport  seems  to  have  been  well  known.  When  this 
young  lady  returned  to  her  friends  her  eyes  were  red  from  tears. 
The  others,  waiting  impatiently  for  her  news,  were  the  more  im- 
patient as  well  as  perplexed  at  her  woe-begone  appearance.  'Your 
eyes  would  be  red,'  she  replied  to  their  queries,  '  if  you  had  just 
had  to  refuse  the  best  man  on  earth.' 

"  *  The  more  fool  you,'  was  the  unsympathetic  rejoinder  of  her 
younger  sister,  Lady  Maria.  '  I  only  wish  he  had  given  me  the 
chance.' 

"  It  appears  that  Lady  Anne  was  already  in  love  with  Carleton's 
nephew,  whom  she  afterwards  married,  and  who  served  under  hi? 
uncle  in  Canada. 

"There  the  matter  rested  for  some  months  till  Miss  Seymour  one 
day  confided  to  Sir  Guy  what  Lord  Howard's  younger  daughter  had 
remarked  on  hearing  of  his  discomfiture.  This  so  much  interested 
the  middle-aged  lover,  who,  no  doubt,  had  recovered  from  a  perhaps 

261 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

not  very  violent  passion,  that  in  due  course  he  presented  himself  as 
a  suitor  for  the  younger  daughter,  who  proved  herself  as  good  as 
her  word.  Miss  Seymour,  who  lived  to  old  age,  used  to  tell  the 
story  to  members  of  the  Dorchester  family  who  only  passed  away 
in  comparatively  recent  years. 

"  Lady  Maria  was  small  and  fair,  upright  and  extremely  dignified, 
and  was  ceremonious  to  a  degree  that  in  her  old  age  almost  amounted 
to  eccentricity.  She  had  been  brought  up  and  educated  at  Ver- 
sailles, which  may  be  held  to  account  for  her  partiality  for  the  French 
at  Quebec,  and  may  possibly  have  influenced  her  husband  in  the 
same  direction." 

Tues.  9th — I  drank  tea  at  the  Chateau. 

Wed.  10th — Went  to  Belmont  and  to  Powell  Place,  where  I  dined  and 
slept. 

Fri.  12th— Went  to  Belmont. 

Sat.  13th — Lord  and  Lady  Dorchester  called  upon  me.  'Mr.  D.  W. 
Smith  writes  me  word  from  Niagara  that  the  Governor  went  to  York  on 
the  13th  of  November,  and  was  to  proceed  immediately  from  thence  to 
Kingston  in  a  boat  coasting  by  the  Bay  of  Quinte. 

Tues.  16th — At  the  Chateau.  I  am  also  sure  to  meet  Madame  Baby 
there,  who  is  one  of  the  most  agreeable  people  at  Quebejc. 

Wed.  17th— At  Mr.  Craigie's  (John  Craigie). 

NOTE. — Honorable  John  Craigie,  brother  of  Lord  Craigie,  Lord 
of  Session  in  Scotland,  was  Commissary-General  and  Provincial 
Treasurer.  He  married  Susannah,  second  daughter  of  John  -Coffin, 
a  descendant  of  Tristram  Coffin,  and  a  Loyalist  who  left  Boston  in 
1775,  and  settled  with  his  family  in  Quebec. 

Thur.  18th— The  last  ship  that  sailed,  the  "  Bridget," 'is  lost.  The 
August  packet  is  taken  by  the  French,  and  three  officers  of  the  4th  Regi- 
ment who  were  on  their  way  hither  in  her.  One  of  their  wives  desired 
to  preserve  a  book  of  drawings,  and  the  captors  immediately  threw  it  into 
the  sea. 

Fri.  19th — I  supped  at  Mr.  Plenderleath's. 

NOTE. — John  Plenderleath,  afterwards  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
49th  Regiment,  was  assistant  storekeeper-general  at  Quebec  in  1794. 
He  served  in  the  War  of  1812,  receiving  many  wounds  while  in  action. 
He  returned  to  England  in  later  years,  where  he  died. 

Sat.  20th — Wed.  24th — At  home  on  account  of  Francis'  illness,  which 
Dr.  Nooth  cannot  define,  whether  it  was  worms,  gravel  or  plum  stones,  or 
what. 

Thurs.  25th — I  heard  an  admirable  sermon  preached  by  the  Abb6  des 
Jardins  at  the  French  church,  and  afterwards  an  excellent  one  by  our  own 
Bishop. 

Fri.  26th — Mr.  Coffin  gave  a  dinner  and  ball  on  the  marriage  of  Mr. 
(Herman  Witsius)  Ryland,  Lord  Dorchester's  secretary.  He  had  been 
engaged  to  the  lady  ten  years,  but  pecuniary  circumstances  would  not 
allow  them  to  marry  before  he  left  England  last  year  with  Lord  Dor- 
chester; those  difficulties  being  removed,  she  had  had  dependence  enough 
on  him  to  come  this  winter  under  the  conduct  of  his  friend,  Mr.  Finlay 

262 


HERMAN  WITSIUS  RYLAND 

(Dep.  P.M.G.)-     I  was  so  fatigued  with  having  sat  up  with  Francis  for 
gome  nights  that  I  did  not  enjoy  the  ball. 

NOTE. — Herman  Witsius  Ryland  was  born  in  England  in  1770. 
He  took  part  in  the  American  War,  returning 
to  England  with  Sir  Guy  Carleton.  On  the  lat- 
ter's  appointment  as  Governor-General,  Mr.  Ry-* 
land,  as  'Civil  Secretary,  accompanied  him  to  Can- 
ada, filling  the  position  not  only  while  Dorchester 
was  in  office,  but  during  the  terms  of  succeeding 
Governors.  He  resigned  in  1811,  continuing  to 
fill,  however,  his  position  as  clerk  of  the  Executive 
Council  until  his  death  in  1838.  His  son,  George 
Herman  Ryland,  then  held  the  office  until  the 
union  of  the  Canadas.  Mrs.  Henry  J.  Low,  of 
Montreal,  and  Mr.  Herman  Ryland,  of  Quebec,  are 
grandchildren  of  Herman  Witsius  Eyland,  and  Mr. 
H.  Ryland  Low,  of  Montreal,  is  a  great-grandson.  HERMAN  W.  RYLAND. 

Mon.  29th — Met  Lord  and  Lady  Dorchester  at  Mr.  Grant's,  so  1  did  not 
go  to  the  concert. 

Tues.  30th — Drove  in  my  open  carriole  to  Belmont;  returned  after 
dinner  and  went  to,  Mr.  Ainslie's;  won  five  rubbers  at  whist,  having  been 
braced  and  brightened  by  the  cold  drive  this  afternoon. 

Wed.  31st — Drove  to  Fort  Louis  Gate,  and  walked  on  the  plains  with 
Lady  Dorchester;.  su*pped  at  Mrs.  Ogden's. 


263 


CHAPTER  XVI. 
RETURN  TO  UPPER  CANADA. 

Mrs.  Simcoe,  satisfied  that  the  war  trouble  she  feared  was  not 
imminent,  determined  to  return  to  Upper  Canada  notwithstanding 
her  aversion  to  a  winter  journey  west,  as  expressed  in  some  of  her 
letters.  She  resolved  to  make  the  trip  by  the  only  available  route, 
a  land  journey  along  the  north  side  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

Her  stay  at  Quebec  had  been  a  round  of  pleasure  and  gaiety.  Those 
in  official  circles,  as  well  as  the  leaders  in  the  social  life  of  the 
ancient  city,  had  welcomed  her  return,  and  as  her  diary  shows,  had 
paid  'her  respect  and  kindly  courtesy,  for  every  day  functions,  ?ome 
of  the  major  character  and  others  of  a  minor,  occupied  her  time. 
Mrs.  Simcoe  was  a  most  affectionate  wife,  and  every  express  to 
Upper  Canada  carried  letters  to  the  Governor  telling  him  of  her 
daily  doings  at  Quebec.  She  left  Belmont  on  the  afternoon  of  6th 
February. 

Late  in  the  fall  of  1794  the  Governor  had  left  Niagara" for  the  pur- 
pose of  making  a  personal  inspection  of  different  parts  of  the  pro- 
vince. He  visited  York  and  from  thence  proceeded  to  Kingston,  where 
he  arrived  on  4th  December.  The  journey,  owing  to  the  lateness  in 
the  season,  was  stormy  and  hazardous,  but  was  accomplished,  how- 
ever, without  mishap.  His  time  in  Kingston  was  fully  and  actively 
employed,  and  the  early  part  of  February  found  him  at  Johnstown, 
a  hamlet  east  of  Prescott.  Here  he  laid  plans  for  a  road  to  the  forks 
of  the  Rideau,  for  the  establishment  of  settlements  previously  sur- 
veyed, and  for  personally  investigating  the  water  communication  with 
the  Ottawa.  All  schemes  were  perforce  set  aside.  In  March  Mrs. 
Simcoe  joined  her  husband  at  New  Johnstown  (Cornwall),  and  after 
spending  a  few  days  at  Johnstown  they  repaired  to  Kingston,  where 
the  Governor  became  very  ill  and  was  unable  to  travel  for  several 
weeks.  On  the  15th  May  they  left  for  York. 

Thurs.  Jan.  1st,  1795 — I  dined  at  the  Chateau.  There  were  about  forty 
persons.  In  the  evening  there  was  a  rout  or  assembly,  for  introducing 
strangers.  These  routs  used  to  be  held  frequently,  but  since  Mr.  Carleton's 
death,  which  is  many  months  since,  there  has  not  been  any. 

NOTE. — Thomas  Carleton.  a  son  of  Lord  Dorchester,  born  in  1774, 
died  in  1794. 

My  having  dined  at  the  Chateau  without  having  been  formally  intro- 
duced is  a  compliment  not  usually  paid.  There  were  63  ladies  this  evening. 
I  won  a  rubber  at  whist;  there  was  but  one  card  table.  The  people  are 
unaccountably  formal  when  they  come  to  the  Chateau,  tho'  Lady  D.  pro- 
poses cards  and  wishes  them  to  be  amused. 

Pri.  2nd — At  Madame  Baby's;  the  thermometer  ten  degrees  above.  I 
preferred  coming  home  in  the  open  carriole. 

264 


A  ROUND  OF  ENJOYMENT 

Tues.  6th — I  went  with  Lady  Dorchester  in  her  carriole  beyond  Wood- 
field.  The  carriole  was  large  and  pleasant,  and  a  seat  in  front  for  children. 
Her  drivers  are  Canadians  and,  therefore,  will  not  wear  liveries.  The 
Canadian  coats,  with  capots  and  sashes,  look  very  picturesque.  I  drank 
tea  at  the  Chateau,  and  Miss  Carleton  danced. 

NOTE. — Miss  Carleton  was  a  daughter  of  Lord  Dorchester. 

Wed.  7th — I  dined  en  famille  at  the  Chateau,  carrying  the  children. 
Supped  at  Mrs.  Taylor's. 

Thurs.  8th — I  went  to  Belmont. 

Fri.  9th— I  went  to  Powell  Place  in  a  snowstorm,  and  returned  to 
Belmont  at  night. 

Sun.  llth — Coll.  Beckwith  mentioned  Governor  Simcoe  having  the 
rank  of  Major-General.  (He  received  this  rank  in  October,  1794.) 

Mon.  12th — Dined  at  Madame  Baby's;  went  to  the  concert.  Ther- 
mometer 10  degrees  below. 

Tues.  13th — Dined  at  the  Chateau;  a  "rout"  in  the  evening.  Miss 
Carleton  is  very  ill  and  Lady  Dorchester  the  picture  of  misery. 

Wed.  14th — I  went  to  Belmont  in  the  open  carriole;  dined  and  returned 
in  time  to  go  to  Mrs.  Le  Maistre's,  where  I  played  cards  and  supped. 
Spent  two  or  three  days  at  Powell  Place. 

Tues.  20th — A  ball  at  the  Chateau,  as  the  18th  was  Sunday.  The 
ladies  much  dressed.  Miss  Williams  the  most  so.  Miss  Carleton  stayed  a 
very  short  time  in  the  room,  having  been  excessively  ill  for  this  last  week. 

Thurs.  22nd — Mild  weather  and  a  S.E.  wind,  which  occasions  a  good 
deal  of  illness,  and  also  inconvenience,  for  the  meat,  bought  as  usual  in 
large  quantities  in  the  autumn,  will  not  keep. 

Sat.  24th — I  walked  on  the  plains  with  Lady  Dorchester,  and  have 
learned  to  wrap  myself  up  enough  to  defy  the  cold,  but  the  weight  of  clothes 
is  very  fatiguing.  Dined  with  Mrs.  Taylor.  Drank  tea  at  the  Chateau. 

Sun.  25th — At  Belmont. 

Mon.  26th — Drank  tea  with  Miss  Mountain.  Lord  Dorchester  sent  his 
dormeuse,  a  travelling  carriage  adapted  for  sleeping,  that  1  might  see 
whether  I  should  like  that  sort  of  a  carriage  to  travel  in  to  Upper  Canada. 
It  is  like  an  open  carriole,  with  a  head  made  of  sealskin,  and  lined  with 
baize;  a  large  bear  or  buffalo  skin  fixes  in  front,  which  perfectly  secures 
you  from  wind  and  weather,  and  may  be  unhooked  if  the  weather  is  fine 
or  mild;  a  low  seat,  and  feather  bed  to  keep  one's  feet  warm.  I  drove  a 
mile  or  two  in  it  and  like  it  much,  and  bespoke  one  to  be  made  the  same. 

Tues.  27th— I  dined  at  the  Chateau.     Francis  is  ill. 

Wed.  28th — I  dined  at  Mr.  George  Longmore's.  Francis  is  worse.  A 
letter  from  the  Governor. 

NOTE. — Mr.  George  Longmore  was  an  apothecary  on  the  Hospital 
staff,  and  a  surgeon  in  the  Ordnance  Department. 

Thurs.  29th — Dined  at  the  Chateau,  and  carried  the  children  there. 

Fri.  30th— Dined  at  Mr.  Taylor's;   supped  at  Mr.  Coffin's. 

Sat.  31st — Lady  Dorchester  came  to  see  me.  I  dined  at  the  Chateau 
and  supped  at  Madame  Baby's.  Mr.  Mayne  is  arrived  at  Montreal,  and  the 
Governor  on  his  way  to  Coll.  Gray's  to  meet  me.  Sent  off  my  baggage  on 
a  traineau,  a  sled  used  for  that  purpose,  to  Montreal. 

Sun.  Feb.  1st — Dined  at  Mr.  Taylor's.     Drank  tea  at  the  Chateau. 

Mon.  2nd— Dined  at  Mr.  Taylor's.  Went  to  Miss  Williams'.  It  was 
her  birthday,  and  there  was  a  ball.  Danced  with  Capt.  Archdall,  of  the 
King's  Own  Regiment  of  Foot. 

NOTE. — Captain  Archdall  received  his  rank  in  the  4th,  or  King's 
Own,  Regiment  of  Foot  on  2nd  September,  1795. 

265 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Tues.  3rd — Dined  at  the  Chateau. 

Wed.  4th — Drove  to  Powell  Place,  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Craigie;  went 
with  her  to  the  concert;  returned;  played  three  rubbers  at  whist  and 
supped. 

Thurs.  5th — Lady  Dorchester  called  to  take  leave  of  me.  I  slept  at 
Belmont. 

Fri.  Feb.  6th— I  left  Belmont  at  two  o'clock;  the  children,  Collins  and 
a  great  deal  of  baggage  in  a  heavy  dormeuse  or  carriole,  with  a  head  built 
after  that  of  Lord  Dorchester's.  I  went  six  leagues  to  Pointe  aux 
Trembles.  It  was  quite  dark  before  I  arrived  there;  a  tolerable  Post 
House. 

Sat.  7th — I  set  off  at  seven;  the  weather  bright  and  pleasant,  tho'  the 
wind  B.  At  Jacques  Cartier  the  ice  was  so  rotten  I  was  obliged  to  go  a 
league  higher  to  cross  the  river  with  safety;  when  1  came  to  Ste.  Anne's 
the  sun  shone  so  bright  I  thought  I  should  have  time  to  go  two  stages 
further  to  Cap  Madeleine,  near  Three  Rivers,  where  I  was  advised  to  sleep 
if  I  went  further  than  Ste.  Anne's;  but  when  I  came  to  the  next  stage, 
Champlain  (75  miles  S.W.  of  Quebec),  I  was  frightened  at  the  ice  cracking 
on  the  river,  and  when  I  stopped  at  the  Post  House  it  was  so  perfectly 
dark  that  I  could  not  reconcile  myself  to  going  further. 

Sun.  8th — The  house  at  Champlain  was  wretched,  and  the  people  said 
that  travellers  never  slept  at  it,  but  on  my  repeating  a  request  for  a  room 
they  gave  up  their  sitting-room,  which  appeared  so  dismal  that  I  could  not 
sleep,  tho'  I  lay  down  on  a  boudet.  In  the  night  a  great  dog  crept  in  from 
under  the  stove,  and  people  were  talking  continually.  The  children  went 
to  bed.  I  would  not  allow  them  to  stay  to  breakfast  in  a  place  I  had 
wished  to  quit  from  the  moment  I  entered  it.  The  people  looked  as  if 
they  belonged  to  the  cave  dwellers.  When  I  came  to  Cap  Madeleine  I 
had  the  expectation  of  passing  very  bad  ice  within  a  mile,  which  intimi- 
dated me  so  much  that  I  would  not  stay  to  breakfast.  We  went  two 
leagues  above  the  usual  place  of  crossing,  and  even  there  saw  water  on 
each  side  of  the  carriage.  We  were  driven  by  so  very  old  a  man  that  they 
sent  another  to  take  care  of  him  over  the  most  dangerous  part  of  the  road. 
I  wanted  to  detain  him  the  whole  stage,  but  he  would  not  stay  to  affront 
the  old  man;  he  said  he  had  driven  over  GO  years.  He  was  very  near  over- 
turning us  before  we  came  to  Three  Rivers.  It  was  Sunday  and  the  streets 
filled  with  people,  so  I  would  not  go  out  to  breakfast,  but  kept  Collins 
(who  never  liked  losing  a  meal)  without  her  breakfast  till  five  in  the 
afternoon,  when  we  arrived  at  a  very  comfortable  Post  House  at  Maskin- 
onge,  a  village  on  the  north  shore,  where  I  had  a  very  good  dinner  and 
stayed  that  night.  We  had  travelled  twenty  leagues  and  a  half. 

Mon.  9th — The  Dep.  P.M.G.  at  Quebec  having  sent  orders  to  all 
the  Post  Houses  on  the  road  to  keep  horses  ready  for  me,  and 
told  the  courier  to  pay  for  them,  I  had  not  the  least  trouble  of  waiting  or 
paying.  "  Labadie  (the  courier)  paye  tout,"  and  they  ask  me  no  further 
questions.  The  weather  has  been  delightful  to-day.  I  thought  the  expanse 
of  miles  of  ice  from  Pointe  aux  Trembles  to  Montreal  looked  very  formid- 
able, but  it  was  good  ice,  'and  we  arrived  at  Mr.  Edward  Gray's  at  five 
o'clock,  having  travelled  twenty-four  leagues  and  a  half  since  we  left 
Maskinonge  at  five  this  morning.  The  post  horses  are  very  good;  they 
drive  tandem,  and  change  every  three  leagues. 

Tues.  10th — I  set  off  at  eight  this  morning  in  my  dormeuse.  Mr.  Mayne 
followed  in  a  carriole,  and  servants  in  a  third.  When  I  was  told  we  were 
to  go  with  the  same  horses  to  Pointe  au  Bodet,  63  miles,  I  thought  we 
should  have  a  very  tedious  journey,  but  it  was  far  from  being  so;  the  ice 
was  excellent. 

It  was  a  delightful  drive  across  the  wild  part  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
below  its  junction  with  the  Ottawa  to  the  Cedars,  where  we  rested  the 
horses  two  hours,  and  they  brought  us  to  the  Pointe  au  Bodet  by  six 
o'clock.  When  we  were  on  Lake  St.  Francis  my  driver  left  the  carriage 

266 


THE  RETURN  TO  UPPER  CANADA 

and  walked  behind  with  the  other  drivers;  every  half-mile  he  came  and 
whipped  the  horses  violently,  and  I  saw  no  more  of  him  till  we  had  gone 
another  half-mile,  the  horses  steadily  pursuing  a  slight  track  on  the  snow; 
but  had  there  been  air  holes  in  the  track  they  pursued,  as  sometimes  hap- 
pens on  the  ice,  what  would  have  become  of  us?  It  put  me  in  mind  of  the 
reindeer,  who  travel  self-conducted.  The  Governor  came  half-way  to 
Pointe  au  Bodet  to  meet  me  to-day,  and  returned  to  Coll.  James  Gray's, 
as  I  was  not  arrived. 

Wed.  llth — I  set  out  by  seven,  and  by  eleven  had  the  pleasure  to  see 
the  Governor  quite  well  at  Coll.  Gray's,  where  we  stayed. 

Fri.  13th — Mr.  Mayne  returned  to  Montreal.  The  Governor  and  I  set 
out  towards  Kingston;  stopped  an  hour  at  a  good  inn,  where  the  sessions 
are  held — the  last  house  in  Stormont;  went  about  35  miles  to  Mr.  Patter- 
son's at  the  Rapide  Plat,  where  we  slept — a  damp  room.  The  roads  to  the 
west  of  Montreal  are  excellent,  because  they  drive  the  horses  abreast  and 
make  the  carrioles  wider. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Patterson  was  a  son-in-law  of  the  Honorable  John 
Munro  and  lived  in  what  has  been  known  for  more  than  a  hundred 
years  as  "  The  Old  Blue  House,"  about  four  miles  east  of  Iroquois.  It 
stood  on  a  bluff  of  the  river  at  "Flagg's"  at  the  head  of  Rapide  du 
Plat,  but  has  been  moved  twice  within  the  past  twenty  years,  and  now 
stands  on  the  north  side  of  the  road.  It  is  only  half  the  original 
size,  a  wing  having  been  removed  and  the  front  altered  in  changing 
the  old  house  from  place  to  place.  Within  its  walls  were  entertained 
almost  every  noted  man  of  the  first  forty  years  of  the  history  of 
Upper  Canada. 

Sat.  14th — Came  to  dinner  at  Johnstone,  opposite  Oswegatchie,  fifteen 
miles  from  the  Rapide  Plat. 

This  place  was  laid  out  for  a  town,  but  there  are  but  a  few  houses 
built;  one  of  them  is  intended  for  an  inn.  The  Governor  has  been  residing 
at  it  for  a  fortnight,  expecting  me  here.  I  intend  to  stav  here  ten  days. 
Major  Littlehales  is  with  him,  and  they  keep  a  very  good  house,  promising 
to  give  me  turkeys  and  venison  every  day.  There  are  two  comfortable 
rooms,  and  what  I  most  desire  are  the  stoves  in  them.  The  weather  is 
severely  cold  and  bright.  We  play  at  whist  in  the  evening.  The  journey 
has  quite  established  Francis'  health,  tho'  he  was  so  ill  when  we  left 
Quebec. 

NOTE. — Johnstown  is  just  east  of  Prescott,  the  scene  of  the 
Battle  of  the  Windmill  of  1837.  It  is  not  to  be  confused  with  "New 
Johnstown,"  the  name  by  which  Cornwall  was  first  known. 

Thurs,  19th — I  had  not  been  here  two  days  when  I  felt  the  violent 
effects  of  a  cold  I  caught  by  sleeping  in  a  damp  room  at  the  Rapide  Plat; 
it  has  particularly  fallen  into  my  eyes  and  affected  them,  so  much  so  that 
I  think  I  shall  never  recover  totally.  I  was  obliged  to-night  to  throw  off 
rrost  of  the  wrappages  I  had  bound  about  my  eyes  and  head,  and  go  to  a 
ball  given  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  province  to  the  Governor;  people  came 
40  miles  to  it  in  carrioles.  I  was  really  so  ill  I  could  scarcely  hear  or  see, 
and  possibly  neglected  the  very  people  I  meant  to  be  most  civil  to. 

Fri.  20th — Drove  seven  and  a  half  miles  to  dine  at  Mr.  Jones';  returned 
by  nine  o'clock. 

NOTE. — Ephraim  Jones,  ninth  son  of  Colonel  Elisha  Jones,  was  a 
United  Empire  Loyalist  who  settled  in  the  township  of  Augusta, 
county  of  Grenville.  He  is  stated  in  Lord  Dorchester's  list  to  have 

267 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

been  a  Commissary.  After  the  Revolutionary  War  Mr.  Jones  had 
charge  of  the  supplies  granted  by  the  British  Government  to  the 
settlers  in  Upper  Canada.  He  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  and  a 
member  of  the  first  House  of  Assembly.  In  1790  he  received  a 
grant  of  three  hundred  acres  of  land  in  the  township  of  Augusta, 
now  owned  by  Thomas  Murdock. 

Sat.  21st — Dined  at  Mr.  T.  Frazier's  (Fraser). 

Sun.  22nd — Dined  at  Mr.  W.  Frazier's  (Fraser). 

Mon.  23rd — Thurs.  26th — A  great  deal  of  snow  fell  these  days,  and  the 
inhabitants  endeavoured  to  persuade  the  Governor  not  to  set  out  till  the 
snow  was  beaten;  but  a  gentleman  residing  with  us  had  business  at  Kings- 
ton, and  assured  the  Governor  it  would  be  excellent  travelling.  So  we  set 
off  at  eight,  and  met  two  Mr.  Jones',  who  were  coming  to  request  the 
Governor  not  to  undertake  the  journey  yet.  When  they  found  him  deter- 
mined to  proceed,  they  said  they  would  go  also,  to  beat  the  way  and  to 
hasten  our  journey;  they  took  us  into  their  lighter  carriages,  or  we  never 
should  have  got  on,  the  snow  was  so  heavy.  We  stopped  at  another  Jones', 
where  there  was  the  largest  wood  fire  I  ever  saw;  he  also  set  out  to  beat 
the  road,  and  so  did  several  other  people.  One  gentleman  came  some  miles 
below  Oswegatchie  for  that  purpose,  and  with  this  assistance  we  went  19 
miles  to  Mr.  Jessup's  house  in  the  woods,  where  we  slept,  but  the  people 
who  so  civilly  travelled  with  us  had  to  go  back  again,  as  there  was  no 
accommodation  for  them  and  their  horses.  It  was  six  before  we  arrived. 
It  was  the  coldest  day  remembered  in  Upper  Canada.  Mr.  Jones'  finger 
was  slightly  frost  bit;  he  was  speaking  of  a  very  pretty  pond  near  one  of 
his  mills".  1  asked  him  of  what  size.  He  said  300  acres. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Jessup  was  Major  Edward  Jessup,  born  in  Stamford 
County,  Conn.,  in  1735.  After  the  failure  of  the  Burgoyne  expedi- 
tion in  1781  the  provincials  were  re-organized,  and  the  corps  known 
as  the  Loyal  Rangers  was  formed.  Major  Edward  Jessup  was  in 
command.  He  spent  several  years  in  England  and  on  returning  to 
Canada  settled  in  Gremille,  in  the  township  of  Augusta,  the  pioneer 
town  of  Prescott  having  been  begun  on  his  property.  His  son,  Lieu- 
tenant Edward  Jessup,  was  elected  as  member  for  Grenville  in  the 
second  Legislature.  The  son  died  in  Prescott  in  1815,  while  the 
father  died  at  the  same  place  in  the  following  year.  The  site  of 
Major  Jessup's  house  is  now  occupied  by  the  entrance  to  Fort  Wel- 
lington, Prescott.  The  surviving  descendants  of  Major  Edward 
Jespup  are  Mr.  Edward  Jessup,  until  recently  Collector  of  Customs 
at  Prescott,  and  Misses  Clarendon  and  Zaire  Jessup. 

Fri.  27th — We  left  Mr.  Jessup's  at  nine,  drove  nine  miles  through  the 
woods  to  a  small  cottage;  then  proceeded  18  miles  to  Gary's,  beyond  the 
Gananowui.  We  went  four  miles  on  the  ice  before  we  came  to  that  river, 
at  the  mouth  of  which  the  ice  is  very  bad,  so  we  drove  as  fast  as  possible, 
as  that  is  thought  the  safest  way  on  rotten  ice;  I  was  very  much 
frightened,  for  it  was  dark,  and  I  knew  that  if  they  did  not  keep  exactly 
the  right  track,  which  could  scarcely  be  seen,  we  were  in  the  greatest 
dangers. 

When  we  arrived  at  Gary's  we  heard  that  Mr.  Forsyth  had  lost  both 
his  horses  three  days  ago  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gananowui,  by  keeping 
too  far  from  the  shore;  they  saved  the  carriole  by  cutting  the  traces,  but 
neither  he  nor  his  companions  were  dexterous  enough  to  save  the  horses. 
The  people  of  the  States  are  particularly  expert  in  saving  horses  from 

268 


AT  GANANOQUE  AND  KINGSTON 

drowning;  they  travel  with  ropes,  which  they  fasten  round  the  horses' 
necks  if  they  fall  into  the  water;  pulling  it  stops  their  breath,  and  then 
they  float  and  can  be  pulled  out;  then  they  take  off  the  rope  as  quickly  as 
possible,  and  the  horse  travels  on  as  well  as  before. 

When  Governor  Simcoe  was  driven  by  Swayzie  to  Detroit  he  carried 
these  "  choke  ropes,"  and  had  occasion  to  use  them.  A  "  choke  rope,"  or 
check  band,  is  a  small  strap  of  rope  or  leather  by  which  the  bridle  is 
fastened  around  the  neck  of  a  horse. 

Sat.  28th — Gary's  an  indifferent  house,  but  warm.  We  left  Gary's  at 
nine,  drove  near  the  mills  at  Gananowui;  stopped  at  a  farm  at  Rowland's, 
half-way  to  Kingston,  where  we  arrived  at  six  o'clock,  having  travelled  20 
miles  thro'  woods.  I  was  amused  by  observing  the  various  barks  of  trees 
— the  most  deeply  indented  and  light  coloured  white  ash,  the  rugged  shag 
bark  hickory,  the  regular  marked  iron  wood,  the  perpendicular  ribbed 
cedar,  the  bass  wood,  the  varieties  of  white  and  black  oak,  the  maple, 
chestnut,  etc;  the  strong  lines  on  the  pine,  particularly  the  Norway,  which 
Is  of  a  yellow  brown,  and  when  cut  approached  to  a  bright  orange  colour; 
among  all  this  the  smooth  bark  of  the  beech  looked  as  naked  as  a  frog, 
and  had  a  very  mean  appearance  amongst  the  rest  of  the  trees. 

The  following  verses  were  found  in  the  MSS.  of  the  diary.  They 
are  dated  "Kingston,  January  1st,  1795,"  and  were  evidently  com- 
posed by  Governor  Simcoe  in  anticipation  of  his  wife's  return  to 
Upper  Canada. 

"  Kingston,  January  1st,  1795. 

"Twice  six  revolving  years  have  run  their  course  thro'  yonder  azure 

plains,  diffusing  joy. 

Gladness  and  light    has  discontinuous  mov'd, 
Since  thou,   Eliza,  overflowing  source  of   happiness  domestic,   dost 

employ 

My  wedded  thoughts,  most  honour'd,  most  belov'd. 
And  if  the  gathering  clouds  of  fleeting  life 
Besides,  thy  presence   soon  illumines   the   scene, 
And  pleasure  draws  from  elemental  strife; 
And  now  when  Night  and  Absence  intervene 
0  may  my  wishes  wing  thy  speedy  way ; 
Return,  thou  source  of  joy;  return,  thou  source  of  day." 

Sun.  March  1st — We  are  very  comfortably  lodged  in  the  barracks  at 
Kingston.  As  there  are  few  officers  here,  we  have  the  mess  room  to  dine 
in  and  a  room  over  it  for  the  Governor's  office,  and  these,  as  well  as  the 
kitchen,  are  detached  from  our  other  three  rooms,  which  is  very  comfort- 
able. The  drawing-room  has  not  a  stove  in  it,  which  is  a  misfortune,  but 
it  is  too  late  in  the  winter  to  be  of  much  consequence.  We  have  excellent 
wood  tires.  I  went  to  church  to-day  and  heard  an  excellent  sermon  by 
Mr.  Stuart. 

NOTE. — The  barracks  where  Mrs.  Simcoe  stayed  were  the  Sol- 
diers' or  the  old  Tete  du  Pont  barracks,  located  on  almost  the  same 
site  as  the  present  barracks,  Kingston.  There  are  none  of  the 
buildings  standing  now,  but  on  the  square  are  the  remains  of  the 
foundations  of  the  buildings  erected  towards  the  latter  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century. 

Tues.  3rd — A  thaw.  Mr.  Frazier,  who  drove  my  carriole,  set  out 
yesterday  to  return  home. 

269 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Sat.  7th — Dined  at  Mr.  Stuart's,  the  Rector  of  Kingston. 

Sun.  8th — An  express  from  York. 

Mon.  9th — We  are  desirous  of  seeing  the  Bay  of  Quinte;  the  ice  is  as 
smooth  as  possible  and,  I  am  told,  very  pleasant  to  drive  upon,  and 
possibly  the  change  of  air  may  abate  the  violent  cough  I  still  have.  We 
therefore  determined  to  set  out  to-day.  We  called  at  Mr.  Booth's  farm,  11 
miles  distant;  the  next  11  miles  brought  us  to  Mr.  Macdonell's,  where  we 
dined  and  slept. 

NOTE. — The  "King's  Sawmills,"  subsequently  known  as  Booth's 
Mills,  were  situated  on  Lot  No.  18  in  King's  Township. 

Tues.  10th — Set  off  and  drove  four  miles  on  this  delightful  ice  to  Mr. 
Fisher's,  in  Hay  Bay.  He  was  not  at  home.  We  proceeded  15  miles 
further  to  Mr.  Cartwright's  mills,  on  the  Appanee  River,  and  slept  at  his 
house,  a  romantic  spot. 

NOTE. — Hay  Bay  is  in  the  township  of  Fredericksburg,  running 
S.W.  into  East  Bay,  making  the  fork  of  the  north  channel  of  the 
Bay  of  Quinte.  Mr.  Fisher  of  Hay  Bay  was  probably  Judge  Fisher, 
who  lived  in  that  district  at  the  time. 

The  Appanee  River  is  in  Lennox  County,  Ont.  The  original 
spelling  was  "Appanee,"  or  variations,  such  as  "Appanea,"  "Appanie." 
On  a  map  of  1815  it  is  to  be  found  "Apannee."  In  the  Clark 
Record  book  it  is  given  twice  as  Napanee,  once  in  1788  and  again  in 
1789.  On  the  original  Crown  Lands  map  the  river  is  named  "Ap- 
pannee,"  and  the  following  legend  on  the  map,  "Mills  built  on  the 
Appinnie  River  under  the  sanction  of  Lieutenant-Governor  Hamil- 
ton," locates  the  site  on  the  left  bank  in  Fredericksburg  Township. 
Since  Naw-paw-nay  is  the  Indian  (Mohawk)  for  "flour"  this  is  some- 
times given  as  the  origin  of  the  name,  but  since  the  original  name 
has  not  the  initial  "N,"  and  as  the  name  was  there  before  the  flour 
mill  was  erected,  we  must  look  elsewhere.  An  intelligent  Indian 
student  suggested  that  it  is  related  to  "opining,"  which  means 
"potato."  The  suggestion  has  also'  been  made  by  a  student  of 
Canadian  history,  Mr.  W.  S.  Herrington,  K.C.,  of  Napanee,  that  the 
Indian  name  for  flour  (Naw-paw-nay)  may  have  been  derived  from 
or  may  have  originated  from  the  name  Napanee  after  flour  milling 
began  at  the  Falls. 

Mr.  Robert  Clark  was  instructed  by  the  Government  to  build  a 
saw  and  also  a  grist  mill  at  the  Falls  on  the  Napanee  River,  the  work 
being  under  the  direction  of  Honorable  Richard  Cartwright.  Mr.  C. 
C.  James,  Deputy  Minister  of  Agriculture,  states  that  in  a  record 
book  in  his  possession  the  first  entry,  "Appenea  Falls,  8th  November, 
1785,"  marks  the  beginning  of  construction.  The  saw  mill  was  set 
up  March,  1786,  and  the  grist  mill  on  25th  May,  1786.  The  latter  is 
the  mill  shown  in  Mrs.  Simcoe's  picture.  Grinding  wheat  began  in 
December  of  1786,  or  early  in  1787.  For  some  years  the  mill  was 
in  charge  of  a  Government  officer  named  James  Clarke,  who,  by  the 
way,  was  in  no  way  related  to  Robert  Clark,  the  builder.  In  August, 
1799,  the  Government  transferred  the  mill  and  lots  18  and  19  in  the 
7th  concession  of  Fredericksburg  to  Honorable  Richard  Cartwright. 
The  mills  were  situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  just  below  the 

270 


THE  CARTWRIGHT  FAMILY 

Falls.  Until  recent  years  the  old  Joy  sawmill  occupied,  in  all  prob- 
ability, the  exact  site  of  the  original  sawmill,  and  the  Ross  grist  mill, 
just  below  it  and  situated  under  the  hill,  which  was  in  operation 
some  years  ago,  was  the  successor  of  the  original  grist  mill.  Whether 
it  occupied  the  exact  site  cannot  now  be  determined,  but  if  it  was  not 
the  original  mill  reconstructed,  it  must  have  occupied  approximately 
the  same  site. 

Richard  Cartwright,  great-grandfather  of  Sir  Richard  Cartwright, 
was  born  in  1720.  He  came  to  America  and  settled  in  New  York  about 
1742,  removing  to  Canada  after  the  Revolutionary  War.  His  son 
(Honorable)  Richard  Cartwright,  who  owned  the  mills  at  Napanee 
after  1799,  was  born  2nd  February,  1759,  and  died  1815.  He  served 
in  Butler's  Rangers  1778-9  and  was  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council  of  Upper  Canada  from  1792.  He  was  also  a  Justice  of  the 
Common  Pleas. 

Two  of  the  sons  of  Honorable  Richard  Cartwright  were  Robert 
David  and  John  Solomon.  Reverend  Robert  David  married  Harriet, 
daughter  of  Conway  Edward  Dobbs  of  Dublin,  Ireland,  a  son  being 
Sir  Richard  Cartwright,  and  a  grandson  A.  D.  Cartwright,  secretary 
of  the  Railway  Commission,  Ottawa.  John  Solomon  married  Sarah 
Hayter  Macaulay,  daughter  of  Dr.  James  Macaulay  of  the  Queen's 
Rangers.  James  S.  Cartwright,  K.C.,  Master  in  Chambers,  and  John 
R.  Cartwright,  K.C.,  Deputy  Attorney-General,  are  surviving  sons. 

Wed.  llth — We  are  now  half  way  up  the  Bay  of  Quinte.  Had  we  set 
out  a  week  sooner  we  might  have  gone  50  miles  further,  but  a  geneial 
thaw  is  so  soon  expected  that  we  do  not  venture.  We  are  now  travelling 
on  a  coat  of  upper  ice  formed  about  a  fortnight  since,  and  between  that 
and  the  original  ice  is  two  feet  of  water.  The  rapidity  with  which  a  thaw 
comes  on  is  incredible;  from  the  ice  being  excellent,  in  six  hours  it  is 
sometimes  impassable. 

We  set  out  at  eleven  and  drove  14  miles  to  Trumpour's  Point,  so  named 
from  a  man  of  that  name  who  lives  there.  He  was  formerly  in  the  IGth 
Dragoons,  and  lives  by  selling  horses;  his  wife  gave  me  some  good  Dutch 
cakes,  as  I  could  not  wait  to  eat  the  chickens  she  was  roasting  in  a  kettle 
without  water.  This  house  commands  a  fine  view.  We  passed  a  village 
of  Mohawk  Indians  at  Mohawk  Bay,  opposite  the  Appanee  River. 

From  Trumpour's  we  went  to  Mr.  McDonell's  and  slept  there.  This 
bay  is  about  a  mile  across,  thickly  inhabited  on  the  north  side.  The  farms 
are  reckoned  the  most  productive  in  the  province.  The  journey  has  been 
of  great  benefit  to  my  health. 

NOTE. — Paul  and  Haunts  Trumpour,  who  were  brothers,  appear 
to  have  been  the  only  pioneers  of  this  family  in  the  Bay  of  Quinte 
District ;  and  the  latter,  it  would  seem,  came  direct  to  Prince  Edward 
County,  while  the  former  settled  at  Adolphustown.  There  is  no  rec- 
ord of  Haunts  having  lived  at  the  latter  place,  but  the  name  of  Paul 
is  to  be  found  in  the  "  Annual  Return  of  the  Inhabitants  of  Adol- 
phustown," continuously  from  1794  to  1812. 

The  Mohawk  Settlement  was  on  the  Bay  of  Quinte,  west  of  Rich- 
mond, and  between  the  river  Shannon  and  Bowen's  Creek. 

18  273 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Thur.  12th — Left  Mr.  McDonell's,  called  at  Booth's,  and  arrived  back 
at  Kingston  at  three  o'clock. 

Sun.  15th — An  express  by  land  arrived  from  Niagara,  and  went  by 
York  and  the  Bay  of  Quinte,  for  the  navigation  is  not  yet  open  across 
the  lake.  Mr.  Mayne  arrived  from  Montreal;  he  says  the  roads  are  now 
very  good.  Mr.  Stuart  preached  one  of  the  most  impressive  and  best 
sermons  I  have  ever  heard,  the  text — "  Now  is  the  accepted  time,  now  is 
the  day  of  salvation." 

Wed.  18th — An  express  went  to  Niagara.  A  person  lately  crossing 
Lake  Champlain  passed  a  large  hole  in  the  ice  and  an  infant,  alive,  lying 
by  the  side  of  it.  By  tracks  it  appeared  that  a  sleigh  had  fallen  in,  and  it 
was  known  that  a  heavy-laden  sleigh,  with  families  in  it,  left  the  country 
on  the  opposite  shore  the  day  before;  probably  the  mother  threw  the  child 
out  as  the  sleigh  went  down.  The  gentlemen  carried  the  infant  to  Mont- 
real, where  a  subscription  was  raised  for  her  maintenance — a  good  cir- 
cumstance this  for  the  commencement  of  a  heroine's  life  in  a  novel. 

Fri.  20th — A  severe  frost.  Mr.  Mayne  drove  me  on  the  harbour,  and 
Lt.  Frasier,  of  the  60th  Regiment,  drove  the  Governor.  A  large  party  to 
dinner. 

Sat.  21st — The  Governor  so  ill  to-day  he  could  not  leave  his  room  to 
dine  with  Mr.  Breakenridge. 

NOTE. — James  Breakenridge  settled  in  Bennington,  Vt.  He  was 
lieutenant  of  militia;  born  in  1721,  died  1783,  leaving  issue,  besides 
others,  two  sons,  David  and  James,  who  were  officers  in  the  Royalist 
Army  (Roger's  Rangers),  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  at  the  conclusion 
of  which  they  came  to  Canada.  Mr.  Breakenridge  of  whom  Mrs. 
Simcoe  writes  was  James,  colonel  of  militia  and  lieutenant  of  County 
of  Leeds,  who  settled  in  Elizabethtown.  The  late  Mr.  Walter  B. 
Read,  K.C.,  Toronto,  son  of  the  late  D.  B.  Read,  K.C.,  was  a  great- 
grandnephew  of  James  Breakenridge  of  Elizabethtown. 

Tues.  31st — Capt.  Parr  came  to  take  command  of  the  garrison;  he 
relieves  Capt.  Porter,  of  the  60th  Regiment. 

NOTE. — Captain  Parr  was  the  son  of  John  Parr,  Governor  of 
Nova  Scotia  in  1782.  Rochefoucauld,  in  writing  of  a  visit  to  King- 
ston in  July,  1795,  says  that  he  and  his  pajty  "had  a  letter  from 
General  Simcoe  to  the  commanding  officer  in  Kingston,  who,  at  our 
arrival,  was  Captain  Parr  of  the  60th  Regiment.  Six  hours  after, 
the  detachment  commanded  by  that  gentleman  was  relieved  by  an- 
other of  the  same  regiment,  under  the  orders  of  Major  Dobson.  This 
circumstance,  however,  did  not  prevent  Captain  Parr  from  giving  us 
the  most  obliging  proofs  of  civility  and  kindness.  He  is  the  son  of 
the  aged  Governor  of  Nova  Scotia." 

Fri.  April  24th — The  Governor  has  been  so  ill  since  the  21st  of  March 
that  I  have  not  left  his  room  since  that  day.  He  has  had  such  a  cough 
that  some  nights  he  could  not  lie  down,  but  sat  in  a  chair,  total  loss  of 
appetite,  and  such  headaches  that  he  could  not  bear  any  person  but  me 
to  walk  across  the  room  or  speak  loud.  There  was  no  medical  advice  but 
that  of  a  horse  doctor  who  pretended  to  be  an  apothecary.  The  Governor, 
out  of  consideration  for  the  convenience  of  the  staff-surgeon,  had  allowed 
him  to  remain  at  Niagara,  and  his  not  being  made  to  attend  his  duty  has 
caused  me  a  great  deal  of  anxiety  to  see  the  Governor  so  ill  without 
having  proper  attendance.  Capt.  Brant's  sister  prescribed  a  root — it  is, 

274 


A  GALE  ON  LAKE  ONTARIO 

I  believe,  calamus,  a  genus  of  palm,  one  species  of  which  yields  a  resin 
called  dragon's  blood,  the  root  of  which  is  the  sweet  flag — which  really 
relieved  his  cough  in  a  very  short  time. 

Sat.  25th— Walked  out  this  morning. 

Sun.  26th — I  went  to  church.  It  rained.  My  umbrella  was  forgotten, 
and  the  wet  through  my  sleeves  gave  me  a  cold,  which  perhaps  I  was  more 
susceptible  of  from  not  having  been  out  of  the  house  so  long. 

Mon.  27th — I  had  a  fit  of  the  ague.  The  first  boats  went  down  to 
Montreal. 

Wed.  29th — I  had  a  fit  of  the  ague. 

Fri.  May  1st — The  first  boats  arrived  from  Montreal  to-day.  The 
unusual  mild  weather  occasioned  Lake  Champlain  to  freeze  very  late. 
Mr.  Frobisher's  sleigh  was  lost  in  crossing  it;  it  contained  many  bags  of 
dollars  and  valuable  things. 

Sun.  3rd — The  ague  again. 

Mon.  4th — As  I  am  going  away  so  soon,  I  am  obliged  to  invite  the 
ladies  to  dinner,  but  I  am  ill  and  weak.  I  was  obliged  to  sit  in  the  draw- 
ing-room while  they  went  to  dinner. 

Tues.  5th — The  ague. 

Wed.  6th.     Ladies  dined  here.     I  walked  in  the  evening. 

Thurs.  7th— Very  ill  indeed. 

Mon.  llth — I  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Stuart,  and  much  fatigued  by  that 
drive — only  a  mile. 

Tues.  12th — I  went  on  board  the  "  Onondaga,"  the  Government 
schooner,  but  the  wind  coming  ahead,  we  could  not  sail. 

Thurs.  14th — I  saw  "  The  Mohawk  "  launched,  a  Government  boat  of 
80  tons.  She  is  the  size  of  the  "  Mississaga."  She  came  with  such 
rapidity  that  it  appeared  as  if  she  would  have  run  down  the  ship  we  were 
in,  which  was  at  anchor  ahead  of  her.  I  went  on  shore,  and  walked  on 
Point  Frederick  and  the  hill  above  it.  Miss  Bouchette,  daughter  of  Com- 
modore, dined  on  board  with  me.  I  have  not  had  the  ague  since  I  have 
been  in  the  ship. 

NOTE. — Point  Frederick  is  between  Kingston  Harbour  and  Haldi- 
mand  Cove. 

Fri.  15th — We  weighed  anchor  at  twelve.  After  sailing  five  miles  a 
head  wind  and  a  stiff  gale  arose;  we  returned  to  the  harbour.  At  two  the 
wind  changed  and  we  sailed  again;  a  wet  afternoon. 

Sat.  16th— Unpleasant,  cold  weather,  little  wind. 

Sun.  17th — About  5  p.m.  we  were  off  Gibraltar  Point  at  York.  It 
blew  extremely  hard  from  the  shore;  the  Captain  chose  to  turn  the  Point 
without  shifting  a  sail;  he  was  supposed  to  be  not  sober,  and  the 
Governor  ordered  the  English  lieutenant  to  give  orders,  and  he  brought  us 
safely  into  York  Harbour.  We  were  certainly  in  great  danger,  for  the 
"  Onondaga  "  is  so  built  that  she  would  overset  sooner  than  carry  away 
anything.  I  was  unusually  frightened,  having  dreamt  twice  following  the 
other  night  that  I  was  lost  in  the  "  Onondaga."  My  servant  came  several 
times  to  tell  me  we  were  going  to  the  bottom.  I  told  her  to  shut  the  door 
and  leave  me  quiet,  for  the  motion  of  the  ship  made  me  sick. 

Mon.  18th — At  one  o'clock  we  went  on  shore. 

Thurs.  21st — A  moor-hen — a  kind  of  water  fowl,  which  lives  on  rushes 
in  marshy  ground — was  brought  to  me  to-day,  and  repeatedly  pecked  at 
the  reeds  represented  in  the  tapestry,  not  touching  any  other  part. 

York,  Sun.  24th — Some  ladies  dined  with  me.  Walked  in  the  evening. 
The  weather  damp  and  cold. 

Mon.  25th — I  went  with  the  Governor  to  the  mill  (the  Government 
mill)  on  the  Humber,  and  gathered  a  beautiful  species  of  polygala  or 
milk  wort.  I  was  slightly  attacked  by  the  ague. 

Wed.  27th— The  ague. 

275 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  June  1st — I  went  in  a  boat  to  Francis'  estate,  Castle  Frank.  I 
drank  tea  at  Playter's. 

NOTE. — Immediately  beyond  the  Castle  Frank  woods,  on  the 
property  later  known  as  Drumsnah,  was  the  estate  of  Captain  George 
Playter,  and  directly  across,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  that  of 
his  son,  Captain  John  Playter,  both  of  whom  emigrated  from  Penn- 
sylvania after  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Official  records 
show  that  Township  Lot  No.  20,  in  the  2nd  Concession  on  east  side  of 
Yonge  and  north  side  of  Bloor,  was  granted  to  Captain  George 
Playter  on  20th  August,  1796.  Captain  George  Playter's  house  stood 
on  the  present  site  of  Mr.  A.  E.  Kemp's  residence,  No.  2,  Castle 
Frank  Crescent.  This  residence  was  'built  in  1902,  and  when  the 
excavations  were  being  made  the  laborers  came  upon  the  stone  founda- 
tion of  Captain  George  Playter's  residence  of  1795. 

One  of  Captain  George  Playter's  sons  was  James  Playter,  who 
had  a  son  James.  His  children  are  Edgar  Manning,  manager  of  a 
branch  of  the  Canadian  Bank  of  Commerce,  Queen  and  Bathurst 
Streets,  Toronto ;  Nelson,  of  Toronto ;  Catherine  Louisa  and  Mary  M. 
Playter,  while  Mrs.  Barlow  Cumberland  of  Port  Hope  is  a  direct 
descendant  of  Captain  George  Playter  of  early  York,  through  his 
daughter  Mary,  who  became  the  wife  of  Thomas  Ward,  a  barrister  at 
York,  afterwards  of  Port  Hope,  Ontario. 

Thurs.  4th — Company  at  dinner,  and  a  ball  in  the  evening  as  usual 

Sat.  6th — Francis  gave  a  dinner  on  his  birthday  to  the  soldiers'  chil- 
dren. The  Shaws  dined  with  him  at  an  upper  table. 

Tues.  9th — We  sent  the  children  and  servants  in  the  "  Onondaga,"  and 
intend  going  ourselves  to-morrow  in  the  canoe.  Dined  at  Commissary 
McGill's. 

Wed.  10th — The  weather  so  bad  we  could  not  move. 

Thurs.  llth — The  weather  continues  adverse  to  our  quitting  York. 
We  had  a  dance  this  evening. 

Mon.  15th — We  set  out  in  a  canoe  at  seven,  dined  at  the  Sixteen- 
Mile  Creek,  and  arrived  at  Jones',  three  miles  beyond  Burlington  Bay,  at 
seven  in  the  evening.  I  was  delighted  with  the  canoe,  the  motion  so 
easy,  so  pleasant,  so  quiet,  like  what  I  should  suppose  being  in  a  palan- 
quin. We  sat  on  cushions  in  the  bottom  of  the  canoe.  The  Indians 
brought  us  strawberries  not  quite  ripe.  Jones'  sister  put  them  in  a  sauce- 
pan with  water  and  sugar,  and  boiled  them,  and  I  thought  them  very 
good  with  my  tea. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Augustus  Jones  was  Deputy-Surveyor.  The  family 
emigrated  from  Wales  to  America,  and  settled  on  the  Hudson  River. 
He  was  recommended  to  Governor  Simcoe  by  Mr.  Cobden  and  at  the 
Governor's  request  came  to  Canada  and  practised  his  profession  as 
surveyor  in  different  parts  of  the  province.  His  house  was  built  on 
the  'shore  near  Stoney  Creek,  presumably  the  site  of  what  was  known 
as  the  "  Salt  Works  Farm."  Aueruetus  Jones  and  Brant  were  friends, 
and  owing  to  the  proximity  of  their  homes,  exchanges  of  hospitality 
were  frequently  made,  and  many  pleasant  hours  spent  together. 

Tues.  16th — We  left  Jones'  at  seven,  dined  near  the  Twenty,  and 
arrived  at  eight  o'clock  at  Navy  Hall. 

276 


CHAPTER    XVTT. 
VISIT  OF  DUKE  DE  LA  ROCHEFOUCAULD. 

In  1795,  Mr.  Hammond,  the  British  Ambassador  at  Washington, 
had  informed  Governor  Simcoe  in  an  official  letter  that  the  Duke  de  la 
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt,  who  was  on  a  visit  to  the  United  States, 
proposed  paying  a  visit  to  Upper  Canada  and  to  Niagara.  Letters 
to  the  same  effect  came  from  the  Duke  of  Portland,  who  was  a  personal 
friend  of  Rochefoucauld's. 

The  Duke  was  an  eminent  man  in  France.  He  was  born  in  1747 
and  lived  beyond  the  allotted  span,  for  he  was  eighty  years  of  age 
when  he  died  in  1827.  His  loyalty  to  the  unfortunate  Louis  XVI. 
was  his  undoing,  for  he  was  compelled  to  seek  other  climes  while  his 
native  France  was  in  the  throes  of  revolution.  He  spent  several 
years  in  England  and  America,  but  returned  to  France  under  the 
Consulate.  There  he  resumed  the  active  part  he  had  played  in  edu- 
cation, benevolence  and  reform. 

The  Duke  was  welcomed  by  the  Governor  in  June,  1795,  and 
accepted  his  invitation  to  "  remain  with  him,  to  sleep  in  his  house  and 
consider  ourselves  as  at  home."  The  visit  of  the 
Duke  and  what  he  wrote  concerning  his  visit  to 
Upper  Canada  are  not  pertinent  to  the  contents 
of  this  volume,  and  will  be  found  in  the  biography 
of  Governor  Simcoe,  now  in  course  of  preparation. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  Duke  wrote  a  work  on  his 
travels  in  North  America,  the  contents  of  which 
were  severely  criticized.  He  seemed  to  have  no 
appreciation  of  the  fact  that  he  and  his  party  were 
guests,  and  he  violated  all  the  rules  of  hospitality 
by  relating  private  conversations  and  gossip,  color- 
ing and  garbling  and  distorting  incidents  and  con- 
versations as  if  his  purpose  was  to  sow  the  seeds 
of  discord  and  ill-feeling.  He  apparently  had  no 
consideration  of  personal  delicacy,  and  instead  of 
writing  in  a  friendly  manner  he  seemed  to  regard  himself  when 
writing  concerning  the  British  Government  as  a  "foreigner  and  a 
foe,"  as  the  English  translator  of  his  volume  admits.  The  Duke  was 
in  Canada  from  the  20th  June  until  the  22nd  July,  1795.  The 
Governor,  Lord  Dorchester,  had  doubts  as  to  the  advisability  of  his 
visit,  and  refused  to  permit  the  Duke  to  descend  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  visit  Lower  Canada.  His  remarks  about  Mrs.  Simcoe  show  he 
lacked  the  predominant  characteristic  of  a  French  gentleman  and 
that  he  forgot  that  he  was  the  guest  not  only  of  the  Governor  but 

277 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

of  his  charming  wife,  who,  with  true  British  hospitality,  were  both 
doing  all  they  could  to  make  his  visit  a  pleasant  one.  He  says: — 

"Mrs.  Simcoe  is  a  lady  of  thirty-six  years  of  age.  She  is  bash- 
ful and  speaks  little;  but  she  is  a  woman  of  sense,  handsome  and 
amiable,  and  fulfils  all  the  duties  of  the  mother  and  wife  with 
the  most  scrupulous  exactness.  The  performance  of  the  latter  she 
carries  so  far  as  to  act  the  part  of  a  private  secretary  to  her  husband. 
Her  talents  for  drawing,  the  practice  of  which  she  confines  to  maps 
and  plans,  enable  her  to  be  extremely  useful  to  the  Governor." 

As  an  "Anglo-Canadian"  (D.  W.  Smith),  who  reviewed  that  part 
of  the  Duke's  work  referring  to  his  visit  to  Upper  Canada,  wrote 
after  the  death  of  General  Simcoe  in  1806,  "  Was  it  well  done  of  the 
ci-devant  Duke  de  la  Rochefoucauld  (while  he  was  fostered  by  an 
English  Governor,  in  a  country  where  he  was  received  with  as  much 
attention  as  if  he  had  then  actually  enjoyed  his  honours  and  his 
prosperity)  to  publish  to  the  world  that  this  exemplary  lady  per- 
formed the  duties  of  a  wife  with  so  much  scrupulous  exactness  as  to 
act  the  part  of  a  private  secretary  to  her  husband  ?  Was  she  thus  to 
be  metamorphosed  into  a  clerk  because  she  sometimes  copied  her 
husband's  confidential  despatches?  Fye,  sir — you  should  have  re- 
spected the  lady's  delicate  feeling;  although  you  had  none  such  for 
her  lord.  But  Mrs.  Simcoe  is  well  known  to  all  who  loved  and 
followed  the  General's  fortunes,  and  no  reflection  on  her  conduct, 
whether  powerful  or  puerile,  can  shake  their  attachment  to  the  relict 
of  their  friend,  or  induce  the  world  to  believe  or  form  any  opinion  on 
the  Duke's  assertions,  except  that  of  ill-nature  and  ingratitude  in 
his  own  breast." 

Dr.  Scadding  in  his  work  of  "Toronto  of  Old"  writes  that  the 
Duke  in  his  statement  about  Mrs.  Simcoe  might  have  added  "that 
her  skill,  facility  and  taste  were  attested  by  numerous  sketch-books 
and  portfolios  of  Canadian  scenery  in  its  primitive  condition,  taken 
by  her  hand,  to  be  treasured  up  carefully  and  reverently  by  her 
immediate  descendants,  but  unfortunately  not  accessible  generally 
to  Canadian  students." 

Mrs.  Simcoe  was  not  favorably  impressed  with  her  visitors.  She 
thought  "their  appearance  is  perfectly  democratic  and  dirty,"  and 
this  conviction  was  evidently  a  settled  one,  for  she  writes,  "I  dislike 
them  all." 

Mon.  22nd — The  Duke  de  Liancourt  arrived,  strongly  recommended 
by  the  Duke  of  Portland,  Mr.  Hammond,  etc.;  therefore  Genl.  Simcoe  is 
obliged  to  pay  every  attention  to  him.  He  is  attended  by  Mr.  Gilmard,  an 
Englishman,  a  French  naval  officer  named  Duoetit-Thouars,  and  M.  de 
Blacons.  Their  appearance  is  perfectly  democratic  and  dirty. 

Wed.  24th — Monsr.  Blacons  returns  immediately  to  the  United  States, 
where,  I  hear,  he  keeps  a  shop.  Monsr.  Dupetit-Thouars  and  Gilmard  are 
going  to  visit  York. 

Mon.  29th — The  Governor  took  the  Duke  de  L'iancourt  to  see  Forty- 
Mile  Creek.  I  dislike  them  all. 

Thur.  July  2nd — The  Governor  returned.  Mrs.  McGill  came  to  stay  a 
few  days  with  me  during  the  Commissary's  absence. 

278 


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THE  POWELL  FAMILY 


Sun.  12th — The  thermometer  95  in  the  shade. 

Tues.  21st — Mrs.  McGill  returned  to  York. 

Fri.  24th — Coll.  and  Mrs.  Campbell,  from  Detroit,  dined  with  me. 

Sat.  Aug.  1st — Excessive  hot  day.  Coll.  and  Mrs.  Campbell  went  in 
our  boat  to  Queenstown;  we  rode.  From  thence  they  drove  up  the  mountain, 
and  we  dined  in  the  arbour  by  the  side  of  the  river,  from  which  we  were 
driven  by  a  violent  shower.  We  drank  tea  at  Mrs.  Hamilton's,  and  came 
home  in  the  boat. 

Wed.  5th — We  went  to  the  Queenstown  landing  with  Mrs.  Macaulay, 
and  dined  by  the  rock  which  Hennepin  mentions;  a  very  pleasant  day. 

NOTE. — Father  Louis  Hennepin,  a  missionary,  arrived  at  Quebec 
in  1675,  and  joined  the  party  of  La  Salle  in  1678.  When  they 
reached  the  Illinois  Kiver  La  Salle  was  forced  to  return  and  Hennepin 
proceeded  without  him  in  1680,  exploring  the  Upper  Mississippi. 
His  picture  of  the  Falls  of  Niagara  is  the  earliest  picture  of  the 
cataract  known.  He  mentions  a  rock  at  Niagara,  and  calls  it  "le 
Gros  Kocher."  It  is  between  the  two  falls. 

Mon.  10th — The  House  of  Assembly  (the  fourth  session  of  the  first 
Legislature)  prorogued  to-day. 

NOTE. — It  is  true  that  York  was  now  the  official  capital,  but 
there  was  no  building  in  York  that  would  accommodate  the  Legis- 
lature, so  it  continued  to  be  held  at  Niagara. 

Tues.  llfch — We  rode  to  Judge 
Powell's;  dined  at  Mrs.  Tice's, 
and  obtained  her  consent  to  our 
staying  a  fortnight  at  her  house. 
She  is  to  give  us  two  rooms,  and 
we  are  to  have  a  tent  pitched  for 
the  servants.  The  situation  is 
peculiarly  dry  and  healthy,  on  the 
mountain  five  miles  from  the  Falls 
of  Niagara.  There  is  a  shed  or 
gallery  before  the  house,  and 
some  oak  trees  close  to  it.  There- 
fore there  is  always  shade  and 
cool  air  here  when  we  were  suf- 
fering from  intense  heat  at  Navy 
Hall.  We  rode  home  in  the  even- 
ing. 

NOTE. — Chief  Justice  William  Dummer  Powell  was  born  in  Bos- 
ton in  1755.  The  grandfather  of  the  Chief  Justice  came  from  Eng- 
land as  Secretary  to  Lieutenant-Governor  Dummer.  The  family  was 
.an  old  Welsh  one,  their  estate  in  Wales  being  known  as  Caer-Howell. 
When  a  lad  of  nine,  William  Dummer  was  sent  to  England  to  be 
educated,  and  from  there  went  to  Holland  to  acquire  a  knowledge 
of  French  and  'Dutch,  and  in  1772  returned  to  Boston.  In  1779 
he  was  called  to  the  bar  by  the  Middle  Temple,  and  in  1789  appointed 
a  Commissioner  of  the  Peace  of  the  Province  of  Quebec.  In  this 
year  he  left  Montreal  with  his  family  for  Detroit,  which  was  still 
in  possession  of  the  British.  In  1791  he  was  appointed  Com- 
missioner of  Oyer  and  Terminer  and  Jail  Delivery  for  Quebec,  and 
in  1792  to  the  same  office  in  Upper  Canada.  Up  to  the  War  of  1812, 

281 


CHIEF  JUSTICE 
POWELL. 


MRS.   POWELL. 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


Powell  had  been  a  Puisne  Judge,  but  in  1815  was  promoted  to  the 
Chief  Justiceship.  The  Chief  Justice  married  in  1773  Ann,  daughter 
of  Dr.  J.  Murray  of  Norwich,  England,  of  the  family  of  Murray  of 
Philiphaugh.  He  retired  from  the  Bench  in  1825,  and  died  in 
Toronto  nine  years  later.  The  living  descendants  of  the  Chief 
Justice  bearing  the  Powell  name  are  the  families  of  John  Bleecker 
Powell,  Collector  of  Inland  Revenue,  Guelph;  Arthur  Wellesley 
Powell  of  Montreal,  and  Dr.  Robert  Winyard  Powell  of  Ottawa, 
Ont.  Brindley  Powell  and  William  Dummer  Powell  reside  in  the 
United  States. 

Wed.  12th — We  sailed  in  the  boat  to  the  Queenstown  landing,  and 
arrived  at  Mrs.  Tice's  to  dinner.  In  the  evening  we  walked  to  the  whirl- 
pool. 

Thur.  13th — The  Governor  drove  me  in  the  carriage  for  the  first  time; 
we  went  to  the  Falls  and  returned  by  starlight,  tho'  the  road  has  many 
stumps  of  trees  on  the  sides,  of  which  I  was  a  little  afraid. 

Fri.  14th — We  breakfasted  at  six  and  called  on  Mrs.  Hamilton  (wife 
of  Capt.  Hamilton)  at  the  Chippawa.  On  our  return  stopped  at  Canby's 
Mill.  From  thence  the  rapids  above  the  Falls  appear  very  grand.  Near 
this  mill,  about  a  year  ago,  a  burning  spring  was  discovered,  which,  if  a 
candle  is  held  to  it,  will  continue  flaming  a  great  while. 

NOTE. — Captain  James  Mathew  Hamilton,  son  of  Rev.  Nicholson 
Hamilton  of  Donoghadee,  County  Down,  Ireland,  born  1768,  was 
ensign  of  the  5th  Northumberland  Regiment  of  Foot  in  1786.  He 

received  his  lieutenancy  on  16th 

July,  1794,  and  his  captaincy  on 

llth  August,  1799.     He  served 

with    his  regiment   in    Canada, 

being  stationed  at  Mackinac  for 

some  time.    While  there  he  mar- 
ried   Louisa,    daughter    of    Dr. 

David  Mitchell,  surgeon-general 

to  the  Indian  Department,  who 

performed  the  ceremony,  there 

feeing   no   minister   of   any   de- 
nomination in  that  part  of  the 

country    in    those    early    days. 
CAPTAIN  HAMILTON.    They  >  were  remarried"  by    Rev. 

Robert  Addison  at  Niagara.    In 

St.  Mark's  Register  the  marriage  is  third  on  the  list,  and  is  thus 
quaintly  recorded:  "August  24th,  1792,  Captain  James  Hamilton 
to  Louisa  Mitchell  his  wife.  They  had  been  married  by  some  com- 
manding officer  or  magistrate  and  thought  it  more  decent  to  have 
the  first  repeated."  From  the  time  of  Rev.  Robert  Addison's  arrival 
he  kept  the  register,  which  became  the  St.  Mark's  Church  register 
in  1809,  when  the  church  was  opened.  In  1795,  Captain  Hamilton 
was  in  command  at  Chippawa  and  about  1800  he  returned  to  Eng- 
land, where  he  sold  his  commission.  His  wife  died  in  1802,  and 
he  remarried,  his  second  wife  being  Louisa  Jupp.  He  returned  to 

282 


MRS.  HAMILTON. 


AN  OUTING  AT  THE  FALLS 

Canada  about  1828.  Ann  Elizabeth,  eldest  daughter  of  Captain 
James  Hamilton  by  his  first  wife,  married  Thomas  Gummersall 
Anderson.  One  of  their  daughters  is  Mrs.  W.  H.  Eowe  of  Toronto. 

Mr.  Basil  G.  Hamilton  of  Wilmer,  B.C.,  is  a  grandson  of  Captain 
Hamilton,  being  descended  from  the  latter's  second  wife. 

Between  the  village  and  the  falls  of  Chippawa  there  were  three 
mills;  the  lower  for  the  manufacture  of  flour;  the  two  upper  mills, 
which  were  near  to  each  other,  and  adjoining  to  the  road,  were  for 
the  purpose  of  sawing  timber  into  boards,  and  for  manufacturing 
iron.  The  latter  mills  are  referred  to  as  Canby's  and  Burch's,  as 
Benjamin  Canby  and  John  Burch  had  mills  in  this  locality. 

About  three  miles  from  Chippawa,  in  the  township  of  Willoughby, 
there  is  a  spring  of  water  whose  vapor  is  highly  inflammable,  and  is 
emitted  for  a  time  with  a  considerable  degree  of  force.  If  collected 
within  a  narrow  compass,  it  is  capable  of  supporting  combustion 
for  nearly  twenty  minutes,  and  of  communicating  to  Avater  placed  over 
it  in  a  small  confined  vessel  the  degree  of  boiling  temperature. 

Fri.  14th — I  went  to  see  it  to-day,  but  it  has  not  been  cleared  out  for 
some  time,  and  the  cattle  having  trod  in  it  and  made  it  muddy,  it  did  not 
deserve  the  name  of  the  burning  spring.  We  had  our  small  tent  and  some 
cold  meat  hung  under  the  carriage.  We  pitched  the  tent  near  the  Falls  and 
dined,  after  which,  being  fatigued  by  the  heat,  I  lay  down  in  the  tent  and 
slept,  lulled  by  the  sound  of  the  Falls,  which  was  going  to  sleep  in  the 
pleasantest  way  imaginable.  After  tea  we  had  a  very  pleasant  drive  home. 

Sat.  15th — The  Governor  drove  the  children  to  the  whirlpool,  and  1 
rode  part  of  the  way;  we  carried  our  tent  and  provisions  as  yesterday,  and 
dined  on  a  point  from  whence  the  whirlpool  and  the  opposite  bank  of  the 
river,  on  which  is  a  mill,  form  altogether  a  very  fine  scene;  the  mill 
appears  like  a  part  of  the  perpendicular  flat  rock  on  which  it  stands.  In 
the  bay  (or  whirlpool),  formed  by  two  immensely  high  points  of  land, 
are  now  a  number  of  logs  collected  by  Canby  at  his  saw  mill  above  the 
Falls;  the  dam  which  confined  them  having  given  way  in  a  flood,  the 
logs  came  down  the  Falls  and  were  stopped  here  by  the  various  strong 
eddies  in  this  agitated  pool,  where  they  whirl  about,  and  probably  will 
continue  so  till  the  end  of  the  world,  for  they  never  appear  to  go  beyond 
the  circle  of  a  certain  distance,  and  sometimes  are  set  quite  upright  by  the 
currents;  it  is  a  curious  scene. 

Sun.  16th — A  most  excessive  hot  day.  The  Governor  went  to  Navy 
Hall. 

Mon.  17th — The  weather  extremely  warm;  the  Governor  returned  at 
eleven.  This  evening  we  drove  to  a  farm  inhabited  by  Painter.  It  is 
just  opposite  the  Fort  Schlosser  Fall.  I  was  so  delighted  with  the  sight  of 
the  Falls  from  this  spot,  just  above  what  is  called  the  "  Indian  ladder," 
which  gives  so  different  a  view  of  them  from  what  I  saw  at  the  Table 
Rock  that  I  am  determined  to  return  here  again.  The  road  is  tolerable 
for  a  carriage.  It  was  quite  dark  before  we  got  home. 

NOTE. — The  Indian  Ladder  was  on  the  Canadian  side,  and  a  sec- 
ond ladder  was  made  near  it  for  Mrs.  Simcoe  more  easily  to  descend. 
The  ladder  consisted  of  a  tall  cedar  with  the  branches  lopped  off  about 
a  foot  from  the  trunk  and  placed  against  the  face  of  the  cliff.  By 
some  it  was  said  to  be  about  half  a  mile  below,  or  north  of  Table 

285 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Rock,  by  others  a  mile.  It  is  said  there  was  also  an  Indian  ladder 
on  the  American  side.  Colonel  John  Clarke  in  his  Memoirs  (On- 
tario Historical  Society  Records,  Vol.  VII.,  1906)  says  "I,  however, 
remember  the  Indian  Ladder  (so  called),  having  often  gone  down  on 
it,  being  only  a  long  pine  tree  with  the  branches  cut  off,  leaving  only 
enough  to  place  your  foot  on,  to  hold  to,  when  ascending  or 
descending." 

Wed.  19th — At  home  all  day — a  thunderstorm. 

Thurs.  20th — A  wet  morning.  The  Governor  went  to  Navy  Hall.  A 
cold  evening.  Mr.  Pilkington  called. 

Sat.  22nd — The  Governor  drove  towards  the  Falls  in  the  evening. 

Sun.  23rd — In  the  evening  we  rode  to  the  mill  near  the  whirlpool.  I 
made  a  sketch,  in  which  a  large,  living  birch  tree,  suspended  by  the  roots, 
with  the  head  downwards,  hanging  between  a  'bold  rifted  rock  near  a  cas- 
cade, if  well  drawn,  would  have  a  most  picturesque  appearance.  The 
miller  who  lives  here  has  a  project  of  finding  means  to  drag  these  logs  on 
shore,  in  which  case  it  will  answer  him  to  build  a  saw  mill  here,  for  it  is 
not  unusual  for  floods  to  bring  down  a  quantity  of  logs  from  Canby's  mill, 
and  the  timber  is  not  at  all  injured  by  having  passed  the  great  Fall. 

Mon.  24th — Mr.  Pilkington,  having  been  desired  to  put  one  or  two 
short  ladders  to  make  the  descent  easy  from  rock  to  rock  by  the  side  of 
the  "Indian  Ladder,"  which  is  a  notched  tree,  we  set  out  to-day,  deter- 
mined to  make  our  way  to  the  bottom  of  the  rocks  below  the  Falls.  We 
stopped  near  Painter's  house  to  look  at  the  Fort  Schlosser  Fall,  and  then 
descended  the  hill,  which  I  found  much  easier  than  had  been  represented, 
and  very  little  more  difficult  than  the  usual  way  to  the  Table  Rock,  altho' 
it  carried  us  so  many  feet  below  it.  I  rested  half-way,  and  sketched  the 
rock  and  ladder  above  me.  The  view  from  the  margin  of  the  water  is 
infinitely  finer  than  from  the  Table  Rock.  We  were  near  a  mile  distant 
from  it.  The  Governor  walked  with  a  guide  nearly  underneath  it,  but  as 
the  path  over  the  rocks  was  bad  and  not  one  picturesque  scene  to  be  gained 
by  it,  I  did  not  attempt  going,  but  sat  endeavouring  to  sketch  the  scene 
till  my  paper  was  quite  wet  by  the  spray  from  the  Fort  Schlosser  Fall. 
The  quantity  of  cypress  and  cedar  with  which  the  sides  of  the  rocks  are 
covered  adds  greatly  to  the  beauty  and  richness  of  the  scenery.  We  dined 
on  the  rocks  beneath  the  overhanging  cedars.  A  man  speared  a  large 
sturgeon  this  afternoon  near  where  we  were  working.  As  we  ascended  the 
hill  again,  when  near  the  top  of  it  I  stopped  to  observe  a  most  picturesque 
view  of  the  Falls,  seen  in  parts  thro'  the  rough  spreading  branches  of 
hemlock  spruce  trees,  which  formed  a  noble  foreground,  and  the  setting 
sun  added  richness  to  the  scene.  I  rested  myself  at  Painter's  house,  where 
they  prepared,  besides  tea,  those  cakes,  baked  in  a  few  minutes  on  an  iron 
before  the  fire,  which  the  people  of  the  States  make  so  well;  eggs  and 
sweetmeats,  and  bacon  or  salt  fish,  they  usually  offer  with  tea.  I  believe 
it  is  a  more  substantial  meal  with  them  than  their  dinner,  which  is  slight. 

I  came  home  by  moonlight  after  a  most  pleasant  day.  All  the  time 
I  have  been  at  Mrs;  Tice's  has  been  filled  up  with  seeing  the  most  delight- 
ful scenery,  and  nothing  to  interrupt  the  pleasure  of  dwelling  on  the 
sights.  The  waggons  arrived  to  carry  the  General's  baggage  to  Fort  Erie. 
He  is  going  as  far  as  Long  Point,  on  Lake  Erie. 

Tues.  25th — The  Governor  and  I  and  Francis  went  in  the  carriage  to 
Fort  Chippawa,  but  finding  the  baggage  had  not  arrived,  could  proceed 
no  further;  dined  and  slept  at  Capt.  Hamilton's,  who  commands  here. 

We  walked  this  evening,  and  I  made  some  sketches.  Weather  exces- 
sively hot;  the  Governor  very  ill.  We  slept  in  a  room  in  the  Block  House, 
where  the  logs  were  some  distance  apart.  Without  this  contrivance,  used 

286 


A  DAY  AT  FORT  ERIE 

as  loopholes  in  the  case  of  attack,  as  well  as  for  admitting  air,  I  think  the 
heat  would  have  been  insufferable;  as  it  was,  I  left  my  bed  and  lay  on  the 
floor. 

Wed.  26th— Went  out  early  in  the  boat  with  Capts.  Darling  and 
Smith.  The  latter  brought  me  a  thermometer  I  had  been  long  wishing 
for,  and  the  Governor  bought  it  of  an  officer  going  to  England;  almost 
immediately  it  fell  out  of  my  hand  and  was  broken,  to  my  great  vexation. 
The  Governor  set  out  on  horseback,  but  finding  himself  very  ill,  made 
signs  to  come  ashore,  which  we  did  half-way  between  the  Chippawa  and 
Fort  Erie,  and  at  a  very  good  farmhouse  he  stay'd  the  whole  of  the 
day  till  six  in  the  evening,  when  we  proceeded  in  the  barge  to  Fort  Erie. 
We  ordered  dinner  and  made  ourselves  quite  at  home  here,  supposing  it 
an  inn,  and  afterwards  found  we  were  mistaken.  It  was  not  an  inn,  but 
the  home  of  a  very  hospitable  farmer.  The  whole  of  the  shore  we  passed 
to-day  is  flat  and  uninteresting.  About  Fort  Erie  the  verdure  is  greater 
than  I  have  seen  in  Canada,  and,  being  unaccustomed  to  green  without 
being  enriched  by  warm  brown  tints,  it  gave  me  such  an  idea  of  damp 
and  cold  that  I  immediately  put  on  a  fur  tippet  and  thought  it  quite  com- 
fortable, tho'  there  was  no  particular  change  in  the  weather,  but  only  in 
the  tints.  I  saw  some  of  the  vessels  which  are  built  on  this  lake  and 
rigged  like  scows,  a  large,  flat  bottomed  boat.  They  are  better  painted, 
and  have  a  more  respectable  appearance  than  those  on  Lake  Ontario. 

We  slept  in  an  indifferent  house,  two  miles  beyond  the  Fort,  kept  by 
very  dirty  people,  but  it  has  the  advantage  of  being  very  near  the  lake. 

NOTE. — Fort  Erie  is  in  Welland  County,  on  Lake  Erie.  It  was 
first  fortified  during  the  French  occupation  and  greatly  strengthened 
during  the  War  of  1812.  Since  then  it  has  gone  gradually  to  decay 
and  has  long  been  dismantled. 

Thurs.  27th — An  excessive  hot  day.  We  pitched  the  tent  among  some 
trees  near  the  beach,  which  is  a  very  pleasant  spot,  and  the  house  is  too 
dirty  to  stay  in.  I  dined  in  my  tent,  the  Governor  at  the  Fort.  The  beach 
is  covered  with  flat  rocks,  among  and  upon  which  are  cray  fish  in  very 
shallow  pools  of  water.  I  amused  myself  by  catching  them.  The  lake 
is  narrow  here,  and  has  not  the  sea-like  appearance  of  Ontario.  The 
opposite  shore  is  seen  and  some  rising  land  beyond  it,  but  a  flat  horizon, 
without  fine-shaped  or  pointed  hills. 

Fri.  28th — The  heat  intense;  if  my  thermometer  had  not  been  broken 
I  might  have  ascertained  it.  I  sat  in  my  tent;  the  flat  rocks  and  shallow 
water  extend  a  prodigious  way  into  the  lake.  One  of  the  servants  went 
to  the  lake  to  wash  his  clothes.  Francis  followed  him  up  to  his  knees  in 
water  and  sat  on  a  rock  by  him;  presently  an  Indian  went  to  wash  his 
clothes,  and  the  group  looked  very  picturesque.  Francis  came  back  com- 
pletely wet  to  fetch  a  loaf  of  bread  he  desired  to  give  to  the  Indian.  Com- 
modore Grant  arrived  to-day  from  Detroit  in  the  "  Chippawa,"  the  largest 
of  the  King's  vessels  on  this  lake.  There  was  an  Indian  council  to-day. 
The  Governor  had  company  at  dinner.  I  dined  in  my  room. 

Sat.  29th — Breakfasted  in  the  tent.  The  Governor  went  to  an  Indian 
council;  he  returned  to  an  early  dinner,  intending  to  go  this  evening  to 
Point  Abino  on  his  way  to  Long  Point.  I  accompanied  him  in  his  car- 
riage to  Fort  Erie,  from  whence  I  went  in  a  boat  to  the  Chippawa. 
Mr.  Bing,  having  just  arrived  from  Detroit,  went  with  me.  I  slept  at 
Capt.  Hamilton's,  who  is  commandant  at  the  Chippawa,  where  we  arrived 
about  nine.  Mr.  Bing  went  on  to  Niagara. 

NOTE.— Fort  Chippawa  was  dismantled  after  the  "War  of  1812. 
Point  Abino,  or  Bertie,  or  Ridgeway,  is  in  Welland   County, 
nine  miles  from  Buffalo.    It  was  here  that  the  Fenians  crossed  into 
19  289 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Canada  West  in  1866.     Mr.  Bing  was  probably  the  man  who  after- 
wards became  major-general  and  who  fought  against  Bonaparte. 

Sun.  30th — The  weather  was  so  hot  1  gave  up  my  intention  of  riding 
to  Mrs.  Tice's,  but  having  no  gentleman  with  me  I  was  obliged  to  drive 
the  carriage  myself,  which  I  had  never  done,  and  the  roads  were  exces- 
sively rough  till  after  passing  by  the  Falls.  I  tied  Francis  into  the  car- 
riage and  drove  him  very  safely,  altho'  he  complained  of  being  much 
bruised  and  shook.  A  violent  rain  began  just  as  I  arrived  at  Mrs.  Tioe's. 

Mon.  31st — A  Moravian  woman,  married  to  a  farmer  near  here,  brought 
me  a  loaf  of  bread  so  peculiarly  good  that  1  could  not  but  enquire  about 
it.  She  said  that  it  was  made  with  rennet  and  whey,  without  yeast  or 
water,  and  baked  in  wicker  or  straw  baskets,  which  is  the  method  taught 
at  the  Moravian  School  at  Bethlehem  (on  the  Lehigh  River,  in  Pennsyl- 
vania), in  the  States,  where  she  was  educated.  The  bread  was  as  light  as 
possible  and  rich,  like  cake.  This  woman  brought  a  wild  turkey  here 
during  my  absence;  another  has  been  seen.  Mrs.  Tice  has  the  finest 
melons  imaginable.  I  prefer  water  melons,  and  eat  two  or  three  every 
day.  The  Indian  corn  is  just  now  in  proper  state  for  boiling  or  roasting; 
it  begins  to  turn  yellow.  Francis  and  I  dine  upon  it.  All  the  vegetables 
are  particularly  good,  and  I  eat  little  else.  The  Asiatics  eat  no  meat  in 
the  summer,  and  I  daresay  they  are  right,  and  the  'heat  here  nearly 
approaches  to  that  in  the  east.  The  people  here  in  the  summer  live  chiefly 
on  vegetables  and  a  little  salt  pork.  Now  the  wild  pigeons  are  coming 
of  which  there  are  such  numbers  that,  besides  those  they  roast  and  eat 
at  present,  they  salt  the  wings  and  breasts  of  them  in  barrels,  and  at  any 
time  they  are  good  to  eat  after  being  soaked.  There  is  a  pond  before  this 
house  where  hundreds  of  them  drink  at  a  time;  it  is  singular  that  this 
pond  rises  and  falls  as  a  river  does,  tho'  it  is  such  an  immense  height 
above  it.  The  May  apples  are  now  a  great  luxury;  I  have  had  some  pre- 
served, and  the  hurtleberries  are  ripe.  Baron  La  Hontan  says  the  root 
of  the  May  apples  (or,  as  the  French  call  them,  citrons  sauvages)  is 
poisonous. 

Tues.  Sept.  1st — I  rode  to  the  little  mill  near  the  whirlpool;  while  I 
sat  sketching,  the  trees  around  were  covered  with  pigeons. 

Wed.  2nd — A  very  wet  day;  notwithstanding,  I  rode  in  the  evening 
to  drink  tea  with  Mrs.  Powell,  wife  of  Chief  Justice  Powell,  who  was  alone. 
She  is  a  very  sensible,  pleasant  woman.  It  was  very  dark  and  wet  coming 
home.  Elderflower  leaves  take  off  the  pain  of  the  gout  or  rheumatism. 

Fri.  4th — Dined  at  Mrs.  Powell's;  met  Mrs.  Richardson,  wife  of  Dr.  R. 

Sat.  5th — Capt.  Hamilton  called.     No  news  from  Fort  Erie  yet. 

Sun.  6th — I  walked  to  Mrs.  Powell's  this  evening. 

Mon.  7th — I  walked  a  mile  this  evening  to  the  spring  from  whence 
this  house  is  supplied  with  drinking  water.  I  gathered  two  kinds  of 
yellow  flowers,  which  are  sweet  after  sunset.  I  believe  it  is  salep.  Cat 
mint  in  tea  is  a  good  stomatic,  and  sweet  marjorie  tea  for  the  headache. 
Sweet  briar  and  boiling  water  poured  over  it,  put  into  jars,  milk  pans  or 
anything  that  is  to  be  washed  out,  purifies  them  sooner  and  better  than 
anything  else.  Mrs.  Tice  uses  it  constantly  in  her  dairy. 

Tues.  8th — Mrs.  Smith  dined  with  me.  1  walked  in  the  evening  to 
Mrs.  Powell's.  I  was  feverish,  and  felt  great  relief  from  a  saline  draught 
taken  in  the  effervescent  state,  a  little  salt  of  wormwood  water  and  two 
teaspoonfuls  of  lemon  juice.  I  hear  the  people  in  the  Lower  Settlement 
(Queenstown)  are  suffering  severely  by  the  ague.  There  are  a  great 
rranv  sassafras  trees  in  the  woods  near  Navy  Hall,  and  they  are  very 
beautiful  and  sweet.  There  are  also  a  great  many  sumach  shrubs  by  the 
river.  I  gathered  the  branches  of  flowers  of  the  sumach  last  year  and 
poured  boiling  water  upon  them,  which  tastes  like  lemonade;  it  has  a 
very  restringent,  hard  taste. 

290 


MINERAL  SPRINGS  ALONG  NIAGARA  RIVER 

Wed.  9th— I  walked  this  evening  into  a  field  which  was  clearing,  to 
see  the  immense  large  fires. 

Thurs.  10th — I  dined  with  Mrs.  Powell,  whose  company  is  very 
pleasant  to  me. 

Fri.  llth — I  walked  two  miles  thro'  the  woods  below  the  mountains 
to  see  a  spring  which  has  been  lately  discovered,  which  is  said  to  cure 
lameness,  blindness  and  every  disorder.  The  water  tasted  like  ink  and 
looks  very  dark.  It  smells  very  sulphurous,  and  so  does  the  earth  all 
around  it  extremely  strong  of  brimstone. 

Sat.  12th — The  Governor  returned,  and  is  far  from  well.  He  was 
pleased  with  Long  Point,  which  he  called  Charlotteville;  the  banks  on  the 
lake  150  feet  high;  on  the  shore  grew  weeping  willows,  covered  with  vines; 
he  gathered  some  grapes  already  sweet.  He  returned  up  the  Grand  River, 
from  thence  crossed  a  short  portage  into  the  Welland,  which  he  descended 
to  Fort  Chippawa.  He  went  part  of  the  journey  on  horseback,  and  was 
much  annoyed  by  passing  wasps'  nests.  The  wasps  stung  the  horses 
terribly. 

NOTE. — Years  before  a  settlement  was  made  at  or  near  Long  Point 
Lieutenant-Governor  Simcoe  proposed  to  found  there  a  military 
establishment  to  aid  in  the  defence  of  the  new  province  of  Upper 
Canada,  for  he  claimed  that  at  Long  Point  was  "the  only  good  road- 
stead on  Lake  Erie"  and  "admirably  adapted  for  settlements."  Here 
he  laid  out  a  site  for  Government  buildings  and  called  it  "Charlotte 
Villa,"  and  the  township  of  Charlotteville  was  named  in  honor  of 
Queen  Charlotte.  The  township  fronts  on  Long  Point  Bay.  Lord 
Dorchester,  however,  objected  to  this  founding  of  a  military  settle- 
ment. In  1812  Fort  Norfolk  was  built  at  Charlotteville,  but  nothing 
except  the  trenches  remain. 

Mon.  14th — We  walked  to  the  mineral  spring. 

NOTE. — Along  the  boundaries  of  the  River  Niagara,  and  behind 
the  Falls,  the  elevated  and  rocky  banks  were  everywhere  excavated 
by  sulphurous  springs,  the  vitriolic  acid  uniting  with  the  limestone 
rock,  and  forming  plaster  of  paris,  which  was  here  and  there  scat- 
tered amid  the  masses  of  stone  composing  the  beach  beneath.  These 
excavations  extended  in  many  places  to  a  distance  of  fifty  feet  under- 
neath the  summit  of  the  bank.  With  reference  to  the  mineral  spring, 
an  old  resident  of  Niagara-on-the-Lake  states  that  it  was  near  the 
old  military  hospital,  which  information  he  gives  on  the  authority  of 
the  doctor  of  the  Royal  Canadian  Rifles  at  Niagara-on-the-Lake  in 
1850-6.  The  military  hospital  was  formerly  the  Indian  Council 
House  marked  on  a  map  of  1799  as  well  as  on  later  maps.  The 
Council  House  was  converted  into  a  hospital  in  1822.  It  lies  on  the 
common  near  Butler's  Barracks  almost  a  mile  from  Navy  Hall,  and 
on  the  line  between  the  two. 

Tues.  15th — The  Governor  much  worse.  The  heat  excessive.  I  fell 
thro'  a  trap-door  in  my  room  into  a  cellar,  but  was  not  very  much  bruised. 

Sat.  19th— We  walked  to  Mrs.  Powell's. 

Tues.  22nd — We  walked  with  Francis  to  the  school,  where  he  goes 
every  day,  a  mile  from  this  house.  He  carries  some  bread  and  butter  or 
cheese  for  dinner  with  him,  and  returns  in  the  evening. 

293 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Thurs.  24th — Rode  to  the  mill.  The  Governor  very  ill.  His  disorder 
is  bilious  fever. 

NOTE. — This  mill  was  in  all  probability  the  Servos  mill,  situated 
on  the  Four  Mile  Creek. 

Fri.  25th — Very  hot  weather.  Rode  to  Lutes'  farm  this  evening.  Mrs. 
Tice  has  a  number  of  standard  peach  trees;  some  produce  small  fruit, 
others  large,  quite  green,  but  very  well  flavoured,  tho'  they  look  unprom- 
ising. 

NOTE. — This  farm  near  Niagara  was  owned  by  Samuel  Lutes,  or 
Lutz,  as  it  is  also  spelled.  In  the  first  census  of  Niagara  in  1782 
Samuel  Lutz  is  given  as  having  cleared  eighteen  acres  of  land,  and  in 
the  list  of  farms  on  the  Niagara  River  and  back  from  it,  near  St. 
David's,  mention  of  three  farms  belonging  to  Samson  Lutes  is  made. 

Sun.  27th — A  wet  day  and  very  cold. 

Thurs.  Oct.  1st — Mrs.  Powell  drank  tea  with  me. 

Fri.  2nd — Left  Mrs.  Tice's;  went  to  Navy  Hall;  a  very  cold  night. 

Sat.  3rd — A  sultry  day. 

Thurs.  15th — A  most  violent  storm  on  Lake  Erie.     Mr.  Tukel  lost. 

Sun.  Nov.  1st — A  little  snow  fell. 

Wed.  4th— Fine  weather.     We  breakfasted  with  Mrs.  Hamilton. 


394 


CHAPTEE     XVIII. 
VISIT  TO  NEW  CAPITAL  OF  UPPER  CANADA. 

Late  in  the  autumn  of  1795  Mrs.  Simcoe  again  went  to  York, 
leaving  Navy  Hall  on  13th  November.  The  trip  across  the  lake 
occupied  nine  hours  and  was  made  in  the  schooner  "Governor  Sim- 
coe," which  was  considered  a  fast  sailer.  Although  the  Governor  is 
not  mentioned  as  one  of  the  party,  he  was  at  York  on  1st  January, 
1796,  and  apparently  recovering  from  an  illness,  for  Mrs.  Simcoe 
writes  on  that  day,  "The  Governor  infinitely  better,  can  walk  four 
or  five  miles  without  fatigue." 

There  are  no  entries  in  the  diary  between  November  13th  and 
the  1st  December,  while  record  of  happenings  was  kept  with  irregu- 
larity until  the  following  March.  Indeed,  it  would  appear  that  the 
diary  was  only  kept  at  intervals  when  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  away  from 
Navy  Hall.  This  visit  to  York  was  a  prolonged  one.  It  covered 
five  months,  for  Mrs.  Simcoe  did  not  return  to  Navy  Hall  till  the 
29th  of  April,  1796. 

She  writes  on  leaving  Navy  Hall  in  November : — 

Fri.  13th— We  left  Navy  Hall  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  "Governor 
Simcoe,"  and  arrived  at  York  at  five:  drank  tea  with  Mrs.  McGill.  Mr. 
Lawrence  is  come  with  us;  he  is  lately  from  the  States.  The  Hessian  fly 
has  destroyed  much  of  the  crops  in  the  Bay  of  Quinte. 

NOTE. — A  biographer  writes : — "John  Brown  Lawrence  of  New 
Jersey  was  a  member  of  the  Council,  and  a  distinguished  lawyer. 
He  was  born  in  Monmouth  County.  His  inclination  was  to  take 
part  in  the  "Revolution;  but,  suspected  by  the  Whigs  from  the  first. 
because  of  his  official  relations  to  the  Crown,  he  was  finally  arrested 
and  imprisoned  in  the  Burlington  jail  for  a  long  time.  Accused 
of  treasonable  intercourse  with  the  enemy,  he  was  tried  and  acquitted. 
His  imprisonment  proved  a  fortunate  circumstance.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  John  G.  Simcoe,  commander  of  the  Queen's  Bangers,  was 
a  fellow  prisoner,  and  when  exchanged,  said  at  parting,  '  I  shall 
never  forget  your  kindness.'  He  did  not ;  and  when  appointed  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor  of  Canada,  he  invited  Mr.  Lawrence  to  settle  there. 
The  invitation  was  accepted,  and,  favored  by  the  Governor,  he  ac- 
quired a  large  tract  of  Crown  land.  .  .  .  Mr.  Lawrence  died,  I 
conclude  from  circumstances,  in  Upper  Canada  about  the  year  1796." 

Tues.  Dec.  1st — A  summer  day. 

Tues.  8th — Mr.  Lawrence  says  the  tough  skins  from  the  inside  of  wild 
pigeons'  gizzards,  hung  up  to  dry,  and  grated  to  a  fine  powder,  is  an  infal- 
lible cure  for  indigestion. 

Fri.  18th — Francis  brings  all  the  wood  I  burn  in  my  stove  from  the 
woodyard;  I  think  the  exercise  is  of  service  to  him.  He  has  to-day  a 

297 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

little  sledge  to  draw  it  upon.  Mr.  Jones,  the  surveyor,  says  seven  hundred 
rattlesnakes  were  killed  near  Burlington  Bay  this  summer.  They  live  in 
caves,  and  in  very  dry  weather  go  down  to  the  lake  to  drink;  they  are 
sluggish,  and,  as  they  move  in  numbers  at  a  time,  probably  would  be  easier 
destroyed  than  many  other  reptiles.  The  man  is  quite  recovered  who  was 
bitten  by  one  last  August. 

Sun.  20th — A  boat  going  to  the  "  Head  of  the  Lake  "  with  letters  lost 
her  bottom  near  the  River  Credit,  but  the  men  were  saved,  being  near 
the  shore. 

Tues.  22nd — I  walked  towards  the  town;  the  snow  deep  enough  to 
drive  a  sleigh. 

Fri.  25th— A  frost.    Mrs.  Shaw  dined  with  us. 

Sun.  27th — A  slight  shock  of  an  earthquake  was  felt  this  morning 
about  five  o'clock  by  the  Governor  and  almost  every  person  in  the  gar- 
rison but  myself.  The  weather  is  calm,  and  there  is  no  appearance  of 
the  lake  having  risen.  An  express  from  Kingston. 

Mon.  28th — Walked  to  the  town.  A  party  began  to-day  to  cut  a  road 
from  hence  to  the  Pine  Fort,  near  Lake  Simcoe.  Mr.  Jones,  the  surveyor, 
says  the  Indians  killed  over  500  deer  in  a  month  within  a  fence  of  seven 
miles;  they  cut  down  trees  and  laid  them  in  a  circle  of  that  extent;  the 
deer  were  afraid  to  pass  the  apparent  fence  and  were  easily  shot. 

NOTE. — At  the  Holland  River  was  the  Pine  Fort  called  Gwillim- 
bury,  after  "Gwillim,"  Mrs.  Simcoe's  maiden  name.  In  1799,  Yonge 
Street  ended  at  this  Pine  Fort. 

Fri.  Jan.  1st,  1796 — The  Governor  infinitely  better,  can  walk  four  or 
five  miles  without  fatigue,  probably  owing  to  the  cold  season  of  the  year. 
An  express  from  Kingston.  Mrs.  Macaulay  came  to  see  me  and  we  had  a 
dance.  There  are  ten  ladies  here,  and  as  they  dance  reels  we  can  make 
up  a  ball. 

Mon.  18th — A  ball  and  firing,  as  usual  on  this  day  (Queen's  birthday). 
A  very  cold  night. 

Tues.  19th— I  walked  with  Mrs.  Macaulay;  a  bear  killed  by  "The  Man 
of  the  Snakes."  I  do  not  like  the  meat.  It  is  like  pork.  Mr.  McGill 
drinks  tea  made  of  hemlock  pine.  It  is  not  pleasant,  but  thought  whole- 
some. 

Sat.  23rd — We  walked  on  the  ice  to  the  house  which  is  building  on 
Francis'  200  acre  lot  of  land.  It  is  called  Castle  Frank,  built  on  the  plan 
of  a  Grecian  temple,  totally  of  wood,  the  logs  squared  and  so  grooved 
together  that  in  case  of  decay  any  log  may  be  taken  out.  The  large  pine 
trees  make  pillars  for  the  porticos,  which  are  at  each  end  16  feet  high. 
Some  trees  were  cut  and  a  large  fire  made  near  the  house,  by  which 
venison  was  toasted  on  forks  made  on  the  spot,  and  we  dined.  I  returned 
home  in  the  carriole.  Several  people  were  fishing  on  the  River  Don  thro' 
holes  cut  in  the  ice;  the  small  red  trout  they  catch  are  excellent.  I 
gathered  black  haws;  the  roots  of  the  trees,  boiled,  are  a  cure  for  com- 
plaints in  the  stomach. 

NOTE. — This  entry  shows  that  Castle  Frank  was  used  as  a  camp 
not  only  in  the  summer,  but  also  in  the  wintertime.  The  building 
was  not  completed  till  June,  1796. 

Sun.  24th — A  very  cold  day.  I  walked  to  Major  Smith's  lot,  on  which 
I  gathered  keys  of  the  sugar  maple  and  partridge  berries.  They  are 
scarlet,  growing  on  a  creeping  plant  like  stone  cress. 

Mon.  25th — Very  cold  weather;   the  bay  frozen  across. 

Thurs.  28th — Drove  again  to  Castle  Frank,  and  dined  again  in  the 
woods  on  toasted  venison.  The  ice  is  excellent.  The  berries  of  the  moun- 

298 


PICTURESQUE  MILL  ON  DON  RIVER 

tain  tea  or  winter  green  are  now  in  great  beauty,  their  bright  scarlet 
berries  peeping  thro'  the  snow  and  the  rich  colour  of  their  green  leaves; 
they  taste  like  orgeat  (or  barley  syrup),  but  are  of  a  very  warm  nature 
and  raise  the  spirits. 

Fri.  29th — Excessive  cold  weather.  I  walked  to  the  town;  the  Gover- 
nor drove  round  the  bay  to  Gibraltar  Point. 

NOTE. — The  route  was  east  along  the  present  Queen  Street  to 
Woodbine  Avenue,  thence  over  the  peninsula  to  the  site  of  the  light- 
house. There  were  too  many  small  lagoons  for  pleasant  walking 
north  of  this  to  the  actual  spit  of  land  known  as  "Gibraltar  Point." 


SKINNER'S  MILL,  DON  RIVER. 

( From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Si>nc<>e.) 

Tues.  Feb.  2nd — Mrs.  Richardson  went  with  me  to  Castle  Frank;  it  is 
not  yet  floored;  the  carpenters  are  building  a  hut  for  themselves.  I 
gathered  fox  berries.  They  grow  like  small  red  currants  on  a  delicate 
plant.  The  water  elder  berries  are  here  called  tree  cranberries,  and  are 
less  bitter  than  in  England.  We  had  an  immense  fire  to-day,  and  dined  on 
toasted  venison. 

Wed.  3rd — We  drove  on  the  ice  to  Skinner's  Mill,  a  mile  beyond 
Castle  Frank,  which  looked  beautiful  from  the  river.  The  ice  became  bad 
from  the  rapidity  of  the  river  near  the  mill.  At  the  mouth  of  the  Don  I 
fished  from  my  carriole,  but  the  fish  are  not  to  be  caught,  as  they  were 
last  winter,  several  dozen  in  an  hour.  It  is  said  that  the  noise  occasioned 
by  our  driving  constantly  over  this  ice  frightens  away  the  fish,  which 
seems  probable,  for  they  are  still  in  abundance  in  the  Humber,  where  we 
do  not  drive;  15  dozen  were  caught  there  a  few  days  ago.  The  Governor 
finds  great  benefit  by  driving  out  this  cold  weather,  and  likes  my  dor- 
meuse  very  much.  The  children  sit  in  front  of  it. 

NOTE. — Timothy  Skinner's  grist  mill  was  on  the  east  bank  of 
the  Don  River.  To  reach  it  one  had  to  drive  down  the  old  Don  Mills 

301 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

Road,  a  continuation  of  Broadview  Avenue.  The  mill  is  just  below 
Todmorden.  It  was  built  in  1794,  on  Lot  13,  township  of  East  York, 
for  lots -13  and  14  belonged  to  the  Skinner  family.  Parshall  Terry, 
a  member  of  the  first  Legislature,  helped  to  build  the  mill,  which  was 
operated  by  Mr.  Timothy  Skinner  for  some  years,  and  then  by  Mr. 
Colin  Skinner,  who  took  Mr.  John  Eastwood  into  partnership,  and 
they  used  the  building  as  a  paper  mill.  It  is  claimed  that  the  first 
paper  in  Upper  Canada  was  made  in  this  mill  in  1826.  Skinner 
and  Eastwood  both  married  into  the  Helliwell  family,  and  on  Mr. 
Eastwood's  death  the  property  came  into  possession  of  Thomas, 
Joseph  and  William  Helliwell.  In  1847  it  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  Taylor  Bros.  During  their  time  it  was  twice  destroyed  by  fire, 
and  once  during-  the  ownership  of  the  present  owner,  Mr.  Robert 
Davies.  The  walls,  which  were  of  stone,  stood,  however,  and  a  new 
roof  and  floors  made  the  building  as  it  was  first  built. 

Thurs.  4th — We  drove  three  miles  to  the  settlement  below  the  town 
(across  the  Don  River),  and  at  Mrs.  Ashbridge's  saw  calabashes,  the  fruit 
of  the  calabash  tree,  a  vessel  made  of  a  dried  gourd  or  shell — a  gourd 
plant,  which  have  'holes  cut  in  them  as  bowls  to  ladle  out  water,  having 
a  natural  handle.  I  brought  away  some  of  the  seeds,  which  are  to  be 
sown  in  March,  in  rich  ground.  Might  not  the  use  of  these  calabashes, 
which  are  in  shape  like  skulls,  have  given  rise  to  the  story  of  the  southern 
Indians  drinking  out  of  the  skulls  of  their  enemies?  I  saw  Mr.  Richard- 
son's infant  laid  in  a  box,  which  he  held  by  a  cord,  and  was  skating  up 
the  bay;  this  gave  the  child  air  and  exercise. 

NOTE. — George  Ashbridge  emigrated  from  Yorkshire,  England,  to 
the  United  States  and  settled  in  Pennsylvania  near  Philadelphia  in 
1698.  He  had  several  sons  and  daughters.  His  eldest  son,  John, 
born  in  1702,  married  Hannah  Davies,  of  Pennsylvania.  Their  eldest 
son,  Jonathan,  born  1734,  married  Sarah  James.  After  Jonathan 
Ashbridge's  death  his  widow  and  family  settled  in  York.  She 
died  13th  June,  1801.  There  were  two  sons,  John  and  Jonathan, 
and  several  daughters,  two  of  whom  were  Sarah,  who  married  Mr. 
Heron  of  Niagara,  and  Mary,  who  married  Mr.  Parker  Mills,  of  York. 
The  descendants  of  Jonathan  Ashbridge  are  Jesse  Ashbridge  and 
Miss  Hannah  Lambert  of  Toronto,  Jonathan  of  Scarboro  and  W. 
T.  Ashbridge  of  British  Columbia.  Of  John's  descendants  in  Toronto 
there  are  Albert  J.  Ashbridge  and  Mrs.  R.  Short,  also  Mrs.  Hagerman 
of  Victoria  Square.  The  original  Ashbridge  home  was  on  Township 
lots  8  and  9  in  the  First  Concession  from  the  bay,  now  No.  14701 
Queen  Street  East,  just  west  of  the  corner  of  Morley  Avenue  and 
Queen  Street,  Toronto. 

Fri.  5th — Mrs.  McGill,  Miss  Crookshank  and  a  large  party  drove  with 
me  in  carrioles  to  dine  on  toasted  venison  by  a  large  fire  on  the  beach 
below  the  settlements.  We  sat  under  the  shelter  of  the  root  of  an  immense 
pine,  which  had  been  blown  up  by  the  wind,  and  found  it  very  pleasant, 
and  returned  six  miles  in  32  minutes.  Had  a  card  party  in  the  evening. 

Sat.  6th — The  ladies  did  not  catch  cold,  and  were  delighted  with  the 
novelty  of  dining  in  the  air  in  winter,  so  to-day  we  went  to  Castle  Frank. 

302 


QUEBEC  CARRIOLES  ON  TORONTO  BAY 

Mrs.  Macaulay  joined  the  party.  The  ice  was  not  quite  so  good,  and  the 
snow  melted.  It  was  so  mild  we  could  not  wear  great-coats.  Francis  has 
a  small  sleigh,  which  the  servants  have  taught  a  goat  to  draw;  he  is  the 
handsomest  goat  I  ever  saw,  and  looks  very  well  in  harness.  It  is  a  very 
pretty  sight  to  see  Francis  drawn  in  this  car.  They  used  the  animal  to 
draw  the  sleigh  by  making  him  draw  it  full  of  wood.  At  first  he  was  very 
untractable. 

Mon.  8th — We  set  out  on  the  ice  with  three  carrioles  brought  from 
Quebec,  but  driving  too  near  a  large  crack  in  the  ice  near  the  shore  the 
horses  in  the  first  carriole  broke  in,  but  being  quickly  whipped,  recovered 
their  footing  on  the  ice  and  drew  the  carriole  over  the  crack.  We  got  out 
of  our  carriage,  and  Mr.  Givins  thought  he  would  drive  better  and  pass 
safely,  but  the  horses  plunged  much  deeper  and  could  not  extricate  them- 
selves. With  difficulty  the  harness  was  unloosed,  and  they  were  set  free 
without  injury,  the  water  not  being  above  five  feet  deep. 

We  walked  over  to  Mr.  Macaulay's  lot  and  dined  in  that  part  of  the 
woods,  and  in  the  evening  I  walked  home;  but  the  carrioles  went  very 
safely  across  the  bay,  keeping  further  from  the  crack,  and  perhaps  the 
night  air  made  the  ice  harder.  John  Macaulay,  who  is  but  four  years  old, 
cut  through  some  large  pieces  of  wcod  with  an  axe,  which  made  Francis 
emulous  to  become  an  axema?i  also;  he  is  going  to  begin  to-morrow. 

NOTE. — On  September  1st,  1797,  by  patent  from  the  Crown,  Dr. 
James  Macaulay  became  the  owner  of  Park  Lot  No.  9,  consisting  of 
a  hundred  acres  having  a  frontage  of  660  feet  on  Lot  (Queen  Street) 
from  Yonge  Street  west  and  extending  from  Lot  Street  to  Bloor,  a  dis- 
tance of  6,600  feet  on  the  west  side  of  Yonge.  On  the  same  date  David 
W.  Smith,  Surveyor-General,  became  the  owner  of  Park  Lot  No.  10, 
lying  to  the  west  of  the  Macaulay  lot,  with  the  same  frontage  and 
depth.  On  October  16th,  1797,  Mr.  Smith  traded  his  lot,  No.  10,  to 
Chief  Justice  John  Elmsley  in  return  for  other  lands  which  are  not 
named. 

The  Chief  Justice  was  anxious  to  have  a  frontage  on  Yonge  Street, 
and  on  May  30th,  1799,  he  tiaded  the  south  half  of  his  lot  to  Dr. 
Macaulay  for  the  north  half  of  Lot  No.  9.  Thus  Dr.  Macaulay  became 
the  owner  of  the  entire  block  of  property  extending  from  the  north- 
westerly corner  of  Lot  Street  to  the  present  College  Street  and  from 
Yonge  Street  to  a  point  132  feet  west  of  Elizabeth  Street.  On  the 
front  portion  of  this  block  fronting  on  Lot  Street  Dr.  Macaulay  laid 
out  a  plan  of  41  lots,  which  he  called  "Teraulay."  On  this  plan 
James,  Teraulay  and  Elizabeth  Streets  are  shown  running  from 
Lot  Street  north  380  feet  to  Macaulay  Lane,  now  Albert  Street.  The 
entire  block  owned  by  Macaulay  gradually  became  settled  and  was 
given  the  local  name  of  Macaulay  Town.  This  property  at  the  issue 
of  the  patent  was  worth  a  few  hundred  dollars.  To-day  it  is  worth 
about  $30,000,000. 

The  youthful  axeman  to  whom  Mrs.  Simcoe  refers  was  John 
Simcoe  Macaulay,  born  in  October,  1791,  eldest  son  of  Dr.  Macaulay. 

The  dwelling  of  Dr.  Mncaulav  in  Toronto  was  a  commodious 
colonial  cottage,  known  as  "Teraulay  Cottage,"  where  Holy  Trinity 
Church  now  stands.  Sir  Jan^es  B.  Macaulay,  second  son  of  Dr. 
Macaulay,  built  about  1843  a  fine  brick  residence  on  the  south  side 

303 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 


LIEUT.  GIVINS. 


CAPT.  ANDREWS. 


of  College  Street  near  Yonge.     The  site  is  now  occupied  by  the 
Bishop  Strachan  School  for  girls. 

Lieutenant     James     Givins, 

afterwards  Colonel  Givins,  was 

Superintendent       of       Indian 

Affairs.  He  married  Angelique, 

daughter  of  Captain  Andrews, 

of    the    Lake    Ontario    armed 

fleet,,    and    he    had    six    sons 

and  three  daughters — Henry ; 

James,   who  was,   a  Judge  in 

London,    Ont. ;    Saltern,  who 

was  at  one  time  Rector  of  St. 

Paul's  Anglican  Church,  Bloor 

St.,  Toronto;  Adolphus,  Hal- 
ton  and  George,  of  the  Medical 
Staff  in  India;  Caroline,  who  married  Colonel  Hillier;  Cecil  and 
Elizabeth.  Judge  Giving  had  five  sons  and  four  daughters,  James, 
Warren,  Hillier,  John  and  Henry.  James  and  Hillier  had  commis- 
sions in  the  British  Army.  Captain  Hillier  and  Henry  are  the  only 
surviving  sons  of  the  late  Judge  Givins.  Of  the  four  daughters, 
Eliza  of  Elgin,  111.,  the  eldest,  and  Maude,  the  youngest,  of  Toronto, 
are  living.  The  only  living  descendants  of  the  Eev.  Saltern  Givins, 
the  third  son  of  Colonel  Givins,  are  Eobert  C.  Givins,  his  son  Eobert, 
and  Charlotte  C.  Givins  of  Chicago,  111. 

Tues.  9th — A  strong  easterly  wind;  a  vast  quantity  of  ice  driven  by 
it  out  of  the  bay — half  a  mile  of  ice  that  we  drove  over  last  night  is 
totally  gone.  A  Mohawk,  named  Jacob,  and  his  wife  came  here.  They 
are  handsome  and  well  dressed.  She  works  any  pattern  given  her  in  beads 
remarkably  well;  they  brought  Francis  a  present  of  cranberries. 

Wed.  10th — A  wet  day.    The  post  arrived  from  Niagara. 

Thurs.  llth — A  wet  day. 

Fri.  12th— There  is  very  little  ice  left  in  the  bay.     Fine  weather. 

Sat.  13th — Mr.  Pilkington,  of  the  Engineers,  arrived  from  Niagara. 
The  sudden  thaw  obliged  him  to  wade  across  the  inlet  at  the  "  Head  of 
the  Lake." 

NOTE. — This  means  that  Mr.  Pilkington  walked  around  the  Bur- 
lington Beach  and  waded  across  the  original  entrance  to  Burlington 
Bay,  which  had  been  known  as  Geneva  Lake  or  Macassa  Bay  up  to 
1792,  wben  by  proclamation  on  16th  June  of  that  year  the  name 
was  changed  to  Burlington  Bay.  In  the  "Topographical  Description  of 
Upper  Canada,"  issued  in  London  in  1813,  under  the  authority  of 
Sir  Francis  Gore,  it  is  stated  with  regard  to  Burlington  Bay  that  it 
was  "perhaps  as  beautiful  and  romantic  a  situation  as  any  in  the 
interior  of  America,  particularly  if  we  include  with  it  a  marshy 
lake  which  falls  into  it,  and  a  noble  promontory  that  divides  them." 
The  picture,  which  is  the  only  one  known  of  the  entrance  to  the  bay, 
shows  the  original  entrance  at  the  extreme  north  end  of  the  beach. 
It  was  almost  landlocked  in  1796.  It  was  about  a  mile  and  a  half 
north  of  the  present  canal  begun  in  1825  and  opened  in  1832. 

304 


20 


HOW  WINTER  DAYS  WERE  PASSED 

Wed.  17th — The  thermometer  15  degrees  higher  than  it  was  yesterday. 

Thurs.  18th — We  walked  to  the  town,  and  from  thence  drove  on  the 
ice  to  dine  at  Castle  Frank;  the  ice  was  good.  I  made  a  small  sketch  of 
tne  house.  The  winter  express  arrived  from  Quebec.  The  party  who 
went  to  cut  the  road  from  hence  to  Lake  Simcoe,  called  the  Yonge  Street, 
are  returned  after  an  absence  of  seven  weeks.  The  distance  is  33  miles 
and  56  chains;  they  brought  two  trout  from  Lake  Simcoe  weighing  about 
12  pounds  each,  but  they  are  not  as  good  as  the  smaller  trout.  There  are 
plenty  of  black  bass,  maskalonge  and  whitefish  in  that  lake.  I  heard  an 
anecdote  of  black  bass  which,  if  true,  renders  it  probable  they  remain  in 
a  tonpid  state  during  the  winter.  An  old  hollow  tree,  which  lay  on  the 
margin  of  the  lake,  half  under  water,  being  stopped  and  taken  out,  30 
black  bass  were  taken  out  of  it.  Mr.  La,wrence,  who  went  with  the  party 
from  motives  of  curiosity,  speaks  well  of  the  apparent  quality  of  most  of 
the  land;  20  miles  from  hence,  near  Bond's  farm,  he  saw  two  small  lakes 
near  each  other,  from  whence  many  fish  were  taken.  He  saw  no  wild 
animals. 

Mr.  Lawrence  met  with  some  Indians,  who  invited  them  to  feast  on 
bear's  meat.  They  appeared  to  use  many  ceremonies  on  this  occasion, 
w.hich  he  did  not  understand.  The  head  is  always  presented  to  the  chief 
of  the  party,  and  they  make  a  rule  that  all  that  is  dressed  of  bear's  meat 
must  be  eaten  at  the  feast.  Mr.  Lawrence  brought  me  two  wooden  bowls 
and  spoons;  they  are  made  by  the  Indians  from  the  knots  or  excrescences 
growing  on  pine  and  other  large  trees;  they  are  stained  red  by  the  juice 
of  the  inner  bark  of  the  hemlock  pine,  of  which  they  make  a  decoction  on 
purpose.  The  children  will  use  these  bowls  as  basins  at  breakfast  when 
travelling. 

NOTE. — William  Bond  was  a  sergeant  in  the  Queen's  Rangers.  He 
had  a  farm  on  Yonge  Street  near  the  Oak  Ridge  (Lots  62,  63),  1st 
Concession  Whitchnrch,  east  side  of  Yonge  Street.  On  this  property 
is  a  crescent-shaped  sheet  of  water  called  Bond  Lake.  He  had  the 
first  nursery  garden  in  York. 

Fri.  19th — Mr.  Pilkington  went  in  a  boat  to  the  "  Head  of  the  Lake." 
We  dined  in  the  woods  on  Major  Shanks'  farm  lot,  where  an  arbour  of 
branches  of  hemlock  pine  was  prepared;  a  band  of  music  stationed  near. 
We  dined  on  large  perch  and  venison.  Jacob,  the  Mohawk,  was  there.  He 
danced  Scotch  reels  with  more  ease  and  grace  than  any  person  1  ever  saw, 
and  had  the  air  of  a  prince.  The  picturesque  way  in  which  he  wore  and 
held  a  black  blanket  gave  it  the  air  of  a  Spanish  cloak;  his  leggings  were 
scarlet;  on  his  head  and  arms  he  wore  silver  bands.  I  never  saw  so 
handsome  a  figure. 

Mon.  22nd — I  went  to  Castle  Frank.     The  ice  on  the  river  was  good. 

Tues.  23rd — A  boat  crossing  the  bay  to  the  storehouses  on  Gibraltar 
Point  was  driven  among  the  ice  by  a  strong  east  wind,  and  could  not  be 
extricated  until  eight  at  night,  when  a  boat  carried  planks  to  lay  where 
the  ice  was  rotten,  and  assisted  the  men  on  shore. 

Last  Sunday  I  rode  to  Mr.  McGill's  lot,  above  three  miles  from  here, 
where  I  was  surprised  to  see  the  land  rise  so  suddenly;  a  narrow  pine 
ridge  was  on  a  steep  ascent;  a  quantity  of  good  building  stone  near  it. 
The  weather  very  cold.  It  snowed  fast. 

NOTE. — The  blockhouse  at  the  Point  stood  exactly  on  the  spot 
where  the  Toronto  Water  Works  crib  stands,  just  north  of  the  north 
dock  of  the  Toronto  Ferry  Company.  The  formation  of  the  old 
Gibraltar  Point  (Hanlan's)  has,  of  course,  been  entirely  changed  dur- 
ing the  last  forty  years.  At  that  time  the  beach  was  a  hundred  feet  to 

307 


DIARY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

the  east  of  the  Ferry  cribwork,  and  in  1792-1818  there  was  a  large 
area  of  beach  on  which  was  built  the  blockhouse.  The  "storehouses" 
stood  about  five  or  six  hundred  feet  south  of  the  blockhouse,  and  on 
the  west  shore  of  Blockhouse  Bay — hence  the  name  of  that  stretch  of 
water. 

As  to  the  McGill  property,  some  pioneers  to  the  fore  forty  years 
ago  claimed  that  McGill  had  in  addition  to  a  hundred  acres  bounded 
by  Queen,  Mutual,  Bloor  and  Bond  Streets,  land  north  of  Davenport 
Road.  This  height  of  land  was  originally  crowned  by  a  pine  grove 
along  its  entire  face,  and  portions  of  the  original  pine  growth  still 
stand  west  of  Bathurst  Street  and  at  the  head  of  Dufferin  Street. 

Thurs.  25th — I  went  with  a  party  of  ladies  to  Castle  Frank.  The  ice 
is  still  good,  tho'  the  weather  is  warm  and  hazy  like  an  Indian  summer. 
The  young  Shaws  dined  with  us. 

Fri.  26th — Mild  weather.  We  regret  losing  the  cold,  clear  air.  A  boat 
arrived  from  the  "  Head  of  the  Lake  "  in  four  hours. 

Tues.  March  1st — A  card  party  to-night. 

Wed.  2nd — The  weather  very  cold.     I  gathered  partridge  berries. 

Thurs.  3rd — Frost  and  snow. 

Sat.  5th — The  winter  express  set  off  for  Quebec.  An  Indian  and  a 
Canadian  came  from  Matchadash  Bay  in  five  days,  and  said  they  could 
have  travelled  the  journey  in  four.  We  rode  up  the  Yonge  Street  and 
across  a  pine  ridge  to  Castle  Frank. 

Sun.  6th — Rode  to  Castle  Frank. 

Mon.  7th — Very  cold  weather. 

Sat.  12th — Mrs.  Macaulay  came;  a  dance  in  the  evening. 

Sun.  13th — Geese  and  blackbirds  seen,  which  denotes  the  approach  of 
spring. 

Mon.  14th — Rain. 

Tues.  15th — Thaw  and  rain. 

Fri.  18th — A  great  deal  of  snow. 

Sat.  19th — A  thin  ice  covered  the  bay. 

Sun.  27th — Easter  Day.  The  ice  went  out  of  the  bay  this  morning, 
driven  by  a  strong  east  wind;  in  the  evening  the  wind  changed  to  the 
west  and  drove  it  back,  and  as  it  beat  against  the  shore  in  a  floating 
surface  of  very  small  pieces  it  made  an  uncommon  and  fine  sound,  which  I 
listened  to  a  great  while  from  the  terrace  before  the  house. 

Wed.  30th— Wild  pigeons  arrived. 

Thurs.  31st — Walked  to  Castle  Frank  and  returned  by  Yonge  Street, 
from  whence  we  rode.  The  road  is  as  yet  very  bad;  there  are  pools  of 
water  among  roots  of  trees  and  fallen  logs  in  swampy  spots,  and  these 
pools,  being  half  frozen,  render  them  still  more  disagreeable  when  the 
horses  plunge  into  them. 

Sat.  April  2nd — The  "  York "  packet  sailed  for  Niagara  and  the 
Genesee  River. 

Sun.  3rd — Some  Indians  brought  maple  sugar  to  sell  in  birch  bark 
baskets.  I  gave  three  dollars  for  30  pounds. 

Mon.  4th — Capt.  Mayne  arrived  from  New  York  in  18  days.  Some 
Indians  brought  some  excellent  wild  geese  from  Lake  Simcoe,  and  several 
kinds  of  ducks,  which  were  very  pretty  as  well  as  very  good.  The  large 
black  duck  is  esteemed  one  of  the  best.  The  abundance  of  wild  rice,  off 
which  they  feed,  makes  them  so  much  better  than  wild  ducks  in  England. 

Sun.  10th — A  little  snow.  A  man  arrived  from  Kingston.  He  left  it 
the  1st  of  April;  the  bay  was  then  entirely  frozen.  We  walked  to  Castle 
Frank  and  rode  home.  The  air  was  full  of  pigeons.  I  think  they  are 
fatter  and  better  here  than  at  Niagara. 

308 


CAMPING  IN  APRIL 

Sat.  l€th — Commissary  McGill  went  to  Kingston. 

Sun.  17th — Mrs.  McGill  dined  with  me.  We  walked  to  Mrs.  Macaulay's 
in  the  evening.  Came  home  by  nine  o'clock. 

Mon.  18th — Francis  has  not  been  well.  We  therefore  set  off  to  Castle 
Frank  to-day  to  change  the  air,  intending  to  pass  some  days  there.  The 
house  being  yet  in  an  unfinished  state,  we  divided  the  large  room  by  sail 
cloth,  pitched  the  tent  on  the  inner  part,  where  we  slept  on  wooden  beds. 

It  is  quite  a  summer's  day.  Mosquitos  arrived  at  three  o'clock.  A 
large  wooden  canoe  was  launched  here  to-day,  built  by  one  of  the  men  who 
ought  to  have  been  busy  working  at  Castle  Frank. 

Tues.  19th— A  letter  from  Major  Littlehales,  dated  Niagara,  17th  of 
April,  mentions  the  river  being  full  of  ice. 

Wed.  20th — The  porticos  here  (Castle  Frank)  are  delightfully  pleasant, 
and  the  room  cool  from  its  height  and  the  thickness  of  the  logs  of  which 
the  house  is  built;  the  mountain  tea  berries  in  great  perfection.  Francis 
is  much  better,  and  busy  in  planting  currant  bushes  and  peach  trees. 
There  is  an  insect  which  is  not  to  be  got  rid  of;  it  bores  into  the  timber 
and  is  heard  at  night;  it  is  like  a  very  large  maggot.  I  have  seen  them 
taken  from  under  the  bark  of  trees  to  bait  fishing  hooks. 

Sat.  23rd — A  strong  east  wind.  Went  to  the  garrison  in  the  evening, 
as  we  are  soon  going  to  Niagara. 


309 


CHAPTER    XIX. 
A  TRIP  ACROSS  LAKE  ONTARIO. 

Governor  Simcoe  had  not  good  health  during  his  term  of  office 
in  Canada.  While  he  was  most  careful  in  his  living,  yet  he  had 
never  fully  recovered  from  the  strain  of  the  American  campaign  when 
he  led  the  Queen's  Eangers  in  its  most  active  work  as  one  of  the 
gallant  regiments  in  the  British  service.  Frequently  throughout  this 
•diary  there  are  references  to  his  illnesses,  as  on  the  occasion  of  his 
leaving  York  for  Niagara  he  was  "too  ill  to  go  on  board."  The  trip 
too  was  a  severe  one,  for  the  cold  was  extreme.  Yet  it  was  five  hours 
shorter  than  when  Mrs.  Simcoe  crossed  the  lake  in  the  "Governor 
Simcoe"  in  November;  for  on  that  occasion  it  took  nine  hours  to  make 
a  trip  that  was  covered  on  April  29th  in  less  than  four  hours.  The 
visit  to  Niagara  extended  to  the  7th  of  June,  when  a  return  was  made 
to  York. 

Fri.  April  29th — The  wind  and  weather  unfavourable  for  the  canoe. 
Therefore  we  determined  to  sail  in  the  "  Mohawk."  The  Governor  was  too 
ill  to  go  on  board  before  two  o'clock.  The  wind  blew  very  hard  N.N.W. 
We  reached  Navy  Hall  in  3  hrs.  %.  It  was  so  excessively  cold  I  could 
not  remain  on  deck,  and  so  rough  that  I  was  sick  in  the  cabin,  and  wished 
I  had  gone  in  the  canoe. 

Sat.  30th — Still  very  cold  and  snow.  The  vessel  lately  built  on  Lake 
Erie,  and  named  by  Lord  Dorchester  the  "  Francis  "  (after  Mrs.  Simcoe's 
son),  is  arrived  at  Fort  (Erie. 

Tues.  May  3rd — "  The  Ottawa,"  a  government  boat,  left  Detroit  the 
27th  of  April  and  came  to  Fort  Erie  in  36  hours.  Commodore  Grant  say'd 
peas  were  stuck  at  Detroit,  tho'  not  sown  here;  but  probably  that  snow- 
storm which  fell  as  "  The  Ottawa "  left  the  Detroit  River,  killed  them. 
It  does  not  answer  here  to  sow  seeds  in  the  gardens  till  May,  for  tho'  the 
weather  may  have  been  long  good,  when  ice  comes  down  from  the  Upper 
Lakes  in  April  it  occasions  the  air  to  be  so  cold  that  gardens  near  the 
river  suffer  very  much.  Major  Dodgson  made  those  soldiers  who  would 
otherwise  have  kept  a  cur  keep  a  sporting  dog,  by  which  means  he  was 
enabled  to  hunt  hares  and  deer  last  winter  at  Kingston. 

NOTE. — Peas  in  the  garden  were  probably  of  sufficient  height  to 
be  trained  on  sticks,  which  is  quite  a  common  custom. 

Major  Richard  Dodgson  of  the  60th  was  captain  from  14th  July, 
1790,  and  major  from  1st  March,  1794. 

In  1755,  Parliament  authorized  the  raising  of  a  regiment  of  foot 
in  British  North  America,  and  the  60th  or  King's  Royal  Rifle  Corps, 
formerly  the  62nd  or  the  Royal  American  Regiment  of  Foot,  was 
formed  in  1756.  It  fought  in  1758  at  Louisbourg  and  in  1759  at 
Quebec,  and  in  1760  at  Montreal.  Some  of  the  battalions  of  the 
regiment  were  in  various  stations  in  North  America  and  the  West 
Indies  from  1760-1876.  In  1794  rifles  were  introduced  into  the 
English  army,  and  were  first  issued  to  a  battalion  of  the  60th  Royal 

310 


DEATH  OF  COLONEL  BUTLER 


American   Regiment   of   Foot.      In    1852,    one   sergeant   and   forty 
privates  were  lost  in  the  wreck  of  H.M.  troopship  "Birkenhead." 

Thurs.  5th — Sultry  weather. 

Sun.  8th — A  very  cold  night;  we  always  feel  the  N.E.  wind  severely, 
being  so  much  exposed  to  it.  At  York  we  are  only  open  to  the  north. 
Snow  fell  last  night.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hamilton  dined  here. 

Mon.  9th — A  wet,  cold  day. 

Thurs.  12th — Received  a  cap  from  Miss  Bond  from  Philadelphia. 

Sunday  15th,  Whit-Sunday—Coll.  Butler  buried  (His  Majesty's  Com- 
missioner for  Indian  Affairs). 

Mon    16th — The  House  of  Assembly  opened. 

NOTE. — This  was  the  fifth  session  of  the  first  Legislature. 

Tues.  17th — Rode  before  breakfast.    Felt  agueish. 

Sun.  22nd — Went  to  the  garrison.  Mr.  Todd  dined  here.  Miss  Russell, 
sister  of  Hon.  Peter  Russell,  has  preserved  some  winter  cherries  which 
are  very  good. 

NOTE. — Miss  Russell  was  Honorable  Peter  Russell's  sister,  Elizabeth, 
who  lived  with  him  at  Niagara  and  at  York  after  the  latter  place 
was  selected  by  Governor  Simcoe  as  his  capital.  Their  residence 
was  known  as  "Russell  Abbey"  near  the  bay  shore  on  Palace  (Front) 
Street,  at  the  foot  of  what  is  now  Princess  Street,  Toronto.  Miss 
Russell,  who  was  her  brother's  heiress-at-law,  survived  him  by  several 
years.  She  was  a  most  charitable  woman  and  respected  by  all  who 
knew  her. 

Tues.  24th — I  rode  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jarvis  to  the  mountain,  to  call 
on  Mrs.  Powell.  I  gathered  sassafras,  a  shrub  in  bloom.  I  have  been 
drinking  the  buds  in  tea,  and  it  has  removed  the  symptoms  of  ague.  Mrs. 
Powell  mentioned  about  the  weather  at  Detroit,  that  it  was  not  unusual 
to  see  caliches  on  dusty  roads,  carrioles  on  the  ice,  and  ships  sailing  at 
the  same  time. 

NOTE. — William  Jarvis,  fifth  son  of  Samuel  Jarvis  and  Martha 
Seymour,  was  born  in  Stamford,  Conn.,  on  llth  September,  175f>. 
He  was  a  cornet  in  the  Queen's 
Rangers,  and  was  engaged  dur- 
ing the  Revolutionary  War.     In 
1789,  he  was  commissioned  as  a 
ieutenant  in  the  Western  Regi- 
ment of  Militia  of  the  County  of 
fiddlesex,  and  on  1st  January, 
1791,  received  the  commi=fion 
>f  captain   in   the   same   Regi- 
nent.     In  July,  1792,  he  was 
appointed    Secretary   and   Reg- 
istrar   of    the    Records    of    the 
Province     of     Upper     Canada. 
William  married  in  England  in 
1785,    Hannah    Owen     Peters, 
daughter  of  Samuel  Peters,  D.D.,  of  Hebron,  Conn.     Peters  was  a 
Loyalist  and  was  spoken  of  as  first  Bishop  of  Upper  Canada,  but  was 

311 


WILLIAM   JAKWS. 


MRS.   JABVIS. 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

appointed  Bishop  of  Vermont.  He  did  not  take  office  however,  as 
he  was  such"  a  dyed-in-the-wool  Loyalist  that  he  would  not  live  in 
the  United  States. 

There  were  seven  children  "by  the  marriage  of  William  Jarvis 
and  Hannah  Owen  Peters: — 1.  Samuel  Peters,  who  died  in  child- 
hood. 2.  Maria  Lavinia,  married  George  Hamilton,  the  founder  of 
the  city  of  Hamilton.  3.  Augusta,  married  Thomas  McCormick. 

4.  Samuel  Peters  (2)  after  whom  Jarvis  Street,  Toronto,  was  named, 
married   Mary   Boyles    Powell,    daughter   of    Chief   Justice    Powell. 

5.  William  Munson,  Sheriff  of  Gore,  married  Anne  Racy.     6.  Hannah 
Owen,  married  Alexander  Hamilton.     7.  Ann  Elizabeth,  married  W. 
B.  Robinson,  a  brother  of  Chief  Justice  Robinson. 

One  of  the  children  of  Samuel  Peters  Jarvis  and  Mary  Boyles 
Powell  was  William  Dummer  Powell,  who  married  Diana  Irving,  a 
sister  of  Sir  ^Emilius  Irving,  and  had  four  children : — Mary  ^Emilia, 
William  Irving,  Augusta  Lavinia  and  Edward  ^Emiliu?,  who  is  of 
the  firm  of  TEmilius  Jarvis  &  Co.,  Toronto.  Portraits  in  oil  of 
Secretary  Jarvis  and  his  wife,  from  which  these  pictures  are  taken, 
are  in  possession  of  Mr.  /Emilius  Jarvis,  of  Toronto. 

Wed.  25th — Walked  in  the  woods.  May  apples,  ladies'  slippers  in 
bloom,  and  a  beautiful  shrub  here  called  dogwood;  it  is  more  like  a  gum 
cistus,  which  yields  laudanum. 

Sat.  28th — A  wet  day;  the  Governor  ill. 

Wed.  June  1st — News  received  of  the  Treaty  being  ratified  between 
Great  Britain  and  the  United  States. 

NOTE. — The  treaty  referred  to  was  Jay's 
Treaty.  A  writer  says: — "Alarmed  at  the  rising 
spirit  of  hostility  towards  Great  Britain,  Wash- 
ington determined  to  make  a  great  effort  for 
peace,  and,  with  the  consent  of  the  Senate,  sent 
Chief-Justice  John  Jay  to  London,  with  the  offer 
of  a  treaty  of  amity  and  commerce.  Jay  undoubt- 
edly did  the  best  that  could  be  done,  and  on  19th 
November,  1794,  signed  a  treaty  of  amity  and 
commerce,  which  the  President  and  Senate  ap- 
proved in  July,  1795.  The  treaty  provided  that 
the  pre-revolutionary  debts  owed  to  British  sub- 

CHIEF  JUSTICE  JAY.  -I60*8  snould  De  Pai^  D7  tne  United  States,  and 
that  the  British  Government  should  indemnify 
Americans  for  losses  sustained  by  illegal  captures.  A  large  sum 
of  money  was  afterwards  paid  on  this  account.  The  treaty  was 
assailed  in  the  United  States  by  the  party  favorable  to  France.  But 
Alexander  Hamilton  defended  the  treaty  and  it  carried  by  a  vote 
of  fifty-eight  to  fifty-one."  Under  its  terms  the  fort  at  the  east  side 
of  the  Niagara  River  was  given  up  to  the  United  States. 

Fri.  3rd — The  House  of  Assembly  prorogued.  I  went  with  some 
ladies  to  hear  the  Governor's  speech  on  the  dissolution.  Miss  Russell  has 
a  collection  of  plants  dried  by  merely  shutting  them  in  books;  I  wish  I 
had  thought  of  doing  so. 

312 


BALL  AND  SUPPER  AT  NAVY  HALL 

NOTE. — The  function  at  which  Mrs.  Simcoe  was  present  on  3rd 
June,  1796,  was  the  prorogation  at  the  end  of  the  fifth  and  last  session 
of  the  first  Legislature.  The  dissolution  would  follow  afterward  by 
proclamation. 

Sat.  4th — Mr.  Pilkington  has  erected  a  temporary  room  adjoining  our 
house  for  the  ballroom  to-night.  It  is  60  feet  long,  and  the  end  orna- 
mented by  colours.  We  danced  18  couple  and  sat  down  to  supper  76. 

Sun.  5th — Mrs.  Smith  dined  here.  I  rode  in  the  evening  as  far  as 
Mr.  Sheehan's. 

NOTE. — A  Captain  William  Sheehan  married  Miss  Anne  Butler 
in  Gosport,  England,  about  the  middle  of  the  18th  century.  He  was 
an  officer  in  the  British  army.  The  only  issue  of  this  marriage  was 
Walter  Butler  Sheehan,  who  was  clerk  in  the  Indian  department  at 
Niagara  and  was  in  1793  Sheriff  of  the  County  of  Lincoln.  He 
married  a  Miss  Andrews,  a  daughter  of  Captain  Andrews  of  the  Lake 
Ontario  Navy  during  the  War  of  1812-4,  the  issue  of  this  marriage 
being  Walter  Butler,  Henry  Ford,  George  Hill,  James  Muirhead, 
and  William,  and  one  daughter,  Anne.  Walter  Butler  Sheehan,  the 
eldest  son  of  the  sheriff,  was  Collector  of  Customs  at  Dunnville,  where 
a  number  of  his  descendants  still  reside. 

Mon.  6th — Francis  five  years  old  to-day.  Mr. 
Pilkington  drew  his  picture.  The  Governor  drove 
me  to  the  Queenstown  landing,  to  take  leave  of  Mrs. 
Hamilton;  it  was  very  cold  returning.  I  drank  tea 
at  Mrs.  'Smith's,  and  met  Mrs.  Montigny,  wife  of 
Capt.  Montigny,  on  the  staff  at  Detroit,  and  Miss 
Hay,  a  relative  of  Lieut.  Henry  Hay,  serving  at 
Detroit. 

Tues.  7th— We  left  Navy  Hall  at  ten  o'clock  in 
the  canoe,  followed  by  a  boat.  Dined  at  Twelve-Mile 
Creek. 

Some  heavy  showers  in  the  afternoon  induced 
us  to  put  into  the  Twenty-Mile,  where,  after  being 
tolerably  wet  and  climbing  up  a  hill  covered  with 
wet  grass,  we  found  an  empty  house.  We  had  a  fire 
made,  dried  our  clothes  and  beds,  drank  tea,  and 
slept  well  without  mosquitos,  but  the  smell  of  musk-  FKAXCIS  G.  SIMCOE. 
rat  skins,  which  had  been  drying  in  the  house,  was 

disagreeable.     Some  strawberries  ripe,  and  the  fields  covered  with  blue 
lupines,  a  kind  of  gay  flowering  pulse. 

Wed.  8th — We  set  off  at  seven,  but  the  men  paddled  as  idly  as  they 
did  yesterday,  so  that  we  did  not  reach  the  Forty-Mile  Creek  (nine  miles) 
till  twelve  o'clock.  I  was  out  of  patience  that  the  canoe  was  so  disgraced. 
We  encamped  on  the  Point,  where  the  boards  are  piled  that  are  brought 
from  the  saw  mill;  the  plank  afforded  a  shed  for  the  tent.  We  walked  to 
John  Green's,  and  as  a  room  was  prepared  for  us  we  slept  there,  but 
dined  at  the  Point.  They  eat  pumpkin  pie,  which,  with  lemon  juice,  was 
very  good.  Francis  dipped  in  the  lake.  Breakfasted  at  seven  and  set  out. 

NOTE. — This  house  stood  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the 
lake  on  what  is  now  Patton  Street,  being  a  part  of  Lot  10,  Con.  1, 
of  the  township  of  North  Grimsby.  It  was  built  north  and  south, 
and  the  wings  were  added  to  the  main  or  centre  part  ten  years 
after  the  first  erection.  The  north  wing  was  within  the  past  ten  years 

315 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

removed  to  a  fruit  farm,  two  miles  west  of  Winona,  while  the  south 
wing  and  centre  were  used  later  as  a  waiting  room  for  the  Hamilton, 
Grimsby  and  Beamsville  Eailway.  The  building  was  subsequently 
torn  down  and  the  site  is  now  occupied  by  the  Presbyterian  Manse 
and  the  residence  of  H.  H.  March. 

The  Green  brothers  owned  a  grist  and  saw  mill  which  stood  on 
the  west  side  of  the  road,  almost  midway  between  John  Green's 
dwelling  and  Lake  Ontario,  the  grist  mill  being  on  Lot  10  and  the 
saw  mill  on  Lot  9.  The  frame  of  the  old  grist  mill  is  now  used 


JOHN  GREEN'S  DWELLING  AT  THE  "FORTY." 

(From  a  Dram'nrj  by  William  Forbes,  Grimsby,  Ont.) 

as  a  planing  mill  in  connection  with  a  lumber  yard,  while  the  saw 
mill  was  demolished  about  fifty  years  ago. 

Thurs.  9th — I  saw  very  grand  rocks  in  going  towards  the  mountain 
and  passed  three  water  falls,  the  first  sombre  and  beautiful  from  the 
water  falling  from  various  directions  over  dark,  mossy  rocks.  The 
second  was  pretty  from  the  fine  scenery  of  tall  trees,  thro'  which  it  shone 
— the  third,  just  below  an  old  saw  mill,  falls  smoothly  for  some  feet,  and 
is  a  bright  copper  color,  having  passed  through  swamps;  it  then  rushes 
into  white  foam  over  regular  ledges  of  rocks  spreading  like  a  bell,  and 
the  difference  of  color  is  a  fine  contrast.  The  course  of  this  river  is  a 
series  of  falls  over  wild  rocks,  the  perpendicular  banks  on  each  side 
very  high,  covered  from  top  to  bottom  with  hemlock,  pines,  cedars  and  all 
forest  trees  of  an  immense  'height.  By  camping  near  the  bank  the  water 
is  seen  below.  There  are  stones  in  this  water  which  appear  like  petrified 
shells,  but  Green  was  not  at  home  and  I  could  not  get  any  fetched  to  me. 
Returning  we  noticed  a  scene  of  rocks,  the  lake  below  towards  Burlington 

316 


AT  "THE  HEAD  OF  THE  LAKE" 

Bay,  and  half  a  mile  to  the  east  an  extensive  distant  view  towards  the 
Genesee  River  and  overlooking  the  country  from  hence  to  Niagara.  I 
saw  a  cream-colour'd  hawk,  with  <black-tip,p'd  wings  and  a  scarlet  tail. 

We  saw  a  rift  in  the  rocks,  a  narrow  pass  where  wolves  descend 
from  the  mountain  to  commit  depredations  on  the  sheep  below.  The  woods 
are  full  of  sarsaparilla.  I  gathered  some  wild  flax  at  Green's.  In  his 
garden  he  has  quantities  of  melons  near  the  river,  and  last  year  cut  800 
pumpkins  from  three-quarters  of  an  acre  of  land;  they  are  esteemed  excel- 
lent food  for  cows,  making  the  butter  particularly  good.  We  dined  to-day 
at  our  encampment  and  slept  at  Green's. 

Fri.  10th — A  very  wet  night.  I  rode  to-day  towards  Anderson's,  and 
dined  at  one  at  the  encampment,  and  sent  the  children  and  servants  to  the 
"  Head  of  the  Lake  "  in  the  canoe.  Mrs.  Green  went  as  a  guide  to  conduct 
us  on  horseback  across  the  mountain.  Green  has  lately,  at  the  Governor's 
request  and  expense,  cut  a  road  thro'  the  wood,  making  it  passable  for 
me  to  ride.  The  Governor  thinks  the  country  will  derive  great  benefit 
by  opening  a  road  on  the  top  of  the  mountain  (where  it  is  quite  dry) 
from  Niagara  to  the  "  Head  of  the  Lake,"  instead  of  going  a  most  terrible 
road  below,  full  of  swamps,  fallen  trees,  etc.  We  crossed  the  creek  by 
the  old  saw  mill  at  the  head  of  the  waterfalls  I  mentioned  yesterday  after 
leaving  the  Forty-Mile  Creek,  and  found  the  whole  of  the  way  very  dry 
and  good;  stopped  frequently  on  the  edge  of  the  bank  to  look  over  the 
extensive  wooded  plain  below  us,  which  is  bounded  at  four  miles  distance 
by  Lake  Ontario,  and  the  opposite  north  shore  with  Flamborough  Head 
discernible. 

NOTE. — This  is  the  bend  of  the  mountain  north  of  Burlington, 
and  is  quite  a  feature  in  the  northern  horizon,  looking  from  Burling- 
ton Beach. 

The  steep  cliffs  of  the  mountain,  on  the  top  of  which  we  were,  are 
rocky,  covered  with  wood,  the  view  enlightened  by  fleeting  gleams  from 
a  setting  sun,  the  view  to  the  west  terminated  by  Burlington  Bay. 

Thfe  spot  that  most  engaged  our  attention  was  named  by  Green  "  the 
Tavern,"  because  when  cutting  the  road  the  men  generally  met  there  to 
dine,  and  more  wood  being  here  cut  down,  the  view  was  less  obstructed 
by  the  trees;  from  hence  we  observed  the  canoe  with  the  children  in  it. 
After  we  had  passed  these  nine  miles  it  grew  dusky,  and  Mrs.  Green 
rather  misled  us,  but  at  last  we  found  a  way,  tho'  a  very  steep  one,  to 
descend  the  mountain.  A  mile  before  we  came  to  this  descent  we  passed 
Stony  Creek,  seven  miles  from  the  "  Head  of  the  Lake,"  so  named  from 
the  stony  nature  of  its  bottom.  It's  a  small  stream  that  falls  97  feet  in  an 
amphitheatre  of  bare  red  rocks,  which  looked  as  if  they  ought  to  have  been 
covered  by  a  falling  lake  instead  of  so  small  a  stream.  At  the  foot  of  the 
mountain  we  came  to  Adam  Green's  Mill. 

It  was  eight  o'clock,  and  we  had  five  miles  of  that  terrible  kind  of 
road  where  the  horses'  feet  are  entangled  among  the  logs  amid  water  and 
swamps,  to  ride  by  moonlight,  rather  in  the  dark,  for  in  the  woods  the 
glimmering  of  the  moon  is  of  little  use,  but  rather  throws  shadows  which 
deceive  the  traveller,  tho'  to  a  picturesque  eye  they  are  full  of  indistinct 
and  solemn  beauty,  but  little  serviceable  to  horses  who  plunge  to  their 
knees  in  mud  pools  .half  full  of  loose  logs. 

By  daylight  I  much  fear  these  roads,  and  had  particularly  dreaded 
this,  but  not  being  able  to  see  or  try  to  avoid  the  danger,  and  my  nerves 
braced  by  this  cold  and  dry  night,  I  went  thro'  it  not  only  well  but  with 
a  degree  of  pleasure,  admiring  the  unusual  brightness  of  the  stars,  and 
the  immense  apparent  height  given  to  the  trees  by  the  depth  of  shade.  I 
was  so  engaged  by  the  scene  that  I  did  not  much  advert  to  the  cold,  which 
was  very  great  in  passing  the  swampy  grounds. 

319 


DIARY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

After  three  miles  we  came  into  good  galloping  ground  on  fine  turf 
by  the  side  of  the  lake,  till  we  came  to  the  "King's  Head  Inn,"  at  the 
"  Head  of  the  Lake." 

Here  Walbekanine  and  a  number  of  his  tribe,  who  are  encamped  a 
mile  distant,  were  assembled  to  compliment  the  Governor,  and  fired 
muskets  in  our  horses'  faces,  their  usual  mark  of  respect,  which  frightened 
me  and  my  horse  very  much;  he  started  and  I  shrieked,  but  the  sound 
was  lost  in  the  whoops  of  the  Indians.  They  gave  us  the  largest  land 
tortoise  I  ever  saw. 

Sat.  llth — At  the  King's  Head  Inn.  This  house  was  built  by  the 
Governor  to  facilitate  the  communication  between  Niagara  and  the  La 
Tranche,  where  he  intended  to  establish  the  seat  of  government,  and  its 
situation  was  not  without  reference  to  a  military  position. 


THE  ''HEAD"  OF  LAKE  ONTARIO. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Siincoe.) 

NOTE. — The  King's  Head  stood  near  the  southeast  or  southerly 
end  of  Burlington  Bay,  near  the  present  filtering  basins  of  the 
Hamilton  Waterworks,  and  north  of  the  pumping  house.  The  house 
was  two  miles  south  of  the  Burlington  Canal,  200  feet  from  the  bay 
shore,  and  its  front  faced  north  or  northwesterly  looking  towards 
the  Brant  homestead.  It  stood  at  the  junction  of  the  Hamilton 
and  Stoney  Creek  road  on  the  west  side,  between  Burlington  Bay 
and  Lake  Ontario.  In  connection  with  the  King's  Head  Inn  and  its 
situation,  "Topographical  Description  of  Upper  Canada"  says: — 
"At  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario  there  is  a  smaller  lake,  within  a  long 
beach,  of  about  five  miles,  from  whence  there  is  an  outlet  to  Lake 
Ontario,  over  which  there  is  a  bridge.  At  the  south  end  of  the  beach 
is  the  King's  Head,  a  good  inn,  erected  for  the  accommodation  of 
travellers,  by  order  of  His  Excellency  Major-General  Simcoe,  the 

320 


2\ 


AT  "THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN" 

lieutenant-governor.  It  is  beautifully  situated  at  a  small  portage 
which  leads  from  the  head  of  a  natural  canal  connecting  Burlington 
Bay  with  Lake  Ontario,  and  is  a  good  landmark." 

Another  inn  was  intended  to  be  built  at  the  Grand  River.  There  are 
eight  rooms  in  this  house,  besides  two  low  wings  behind  it,  joined  by  a 
colonnade,  where  are  the  offices.  It  is  a  pretty  plan.  I  breakfasted  in  a 
room  to  the  S.E.,  which  commands  the  view  of  the  lake  on  the  south 
shore,  of  which  we  discern  the  Point  of  the  Forty-Mile  Creek,  Jones' 
Point  and  some  other  houses.  From  the  rooms  to  the  N.W.  we  see  Flam- 
borough  Head  and  Burlington  Bay.  The  sand  cliffs  on  the  north  shore 
of  Burlington  Bay  look  like  red  rocks.  The  beach  is  like  a  park  covered 
with  large,  spreading  oaks.  At  eight  o'clock  we  set  out  in  a  boat  to  go  to 


THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN,  BURLINGTON  BAY. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simeoe.) 

Beasley's,  at  the  head  of  Burlington  Bay,  about  eight  miles.  The  river 
and  bay  were  full  of  canoes;  the  Indians  were  fishing;  we  bought  some 
fine  salmon  of  them.  When  we  had  near  crossed  the  bay,  Beasley's  house 
became  a  very  pretty  object.  We  landed  at  it,  and  walked  up  the  hill, 
from  whence  is  a  beautiful  view  of  the  lake,  with  wooded  points  breaking 
the  line  of  shore  and  Flamborough  in  the  background.  The  hill  is  quite 
like  a  park,  with  large  oak  trees  dispersed,  but  no  underwood. 

NOTE. — The  location  of  this  point  of  land  was  on  the  north  shore 
of  the  lake,  east  of  Burlington,  Ont. 

Richard  Beasley  was  an  Indian  trader.  He  was  the  first  settler 
at  the  "Head  of  the  Lake."  He  owned  the  land  now  known  as  Dun- 
durn  Park.  It  is  stated  by  the  Beasley  descendants  that  the  house 
of  Richard  Beasley  was  west  of  the  present  site  of  Dundurn  Castle 
and  that  the  building  was  afterwards  incorporated  in  the  present 

323 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

castle,  but  this  is  not  at  all  likely  as  the  first  dwelling  must  have  been 
built  of  logs.  The  so-called  castle  is  a  substantial  residence,  built  of 
brick  and  well  proportioned.  The  late  Senator  Mclnnes,  the  last 
owner,  informed  me  that  the  stone  building  at  the  western  part  of 
the  castle,  now  used  as  a  gymnasium,  was  built  prior  to  the  main 
structure.  It  shows  indications  of  having  been  incorporated  in  the 
main  building.  The  descendants  of  Beasley's  family  state  that 
Richard  Beasley  moved  to  his  house  at  Dundurn  immediately  after  'his 
arrival  at  Hamilton,  or  more  properly  speaking,  Barton  Township, 
and  that  his  sons,  Richard,  George,  David  C.,  and  Henry  Beasley 
were  born  in  the  house,  the  latter  in  1793.  Without  documentary 
evidence  it  is  believed  that  Richard  Beasley's,  the  U.  E.  Loyalist's, 
first  house,  was  at  Dundurn,  and  that  his  elder  sons  were  born  in  a 
house  on  this  site. 


KING'S  HEAD  INN,  FROM  THE  SOUTH-EAST. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Sat.  llth — We  walked  two  miles  on  this  park,  which  is  quite  natural, 
for  there  are  no  settlements  near  it.  Beasley's,  the  Indian  trader,  can 
scarcely  be  called  such,  trading  being  his  only  occupation;  but  the  country 
appears  more  fit  for  the  reception  of  inhabitants  than  any  part  of  the 
province  1  have  seen,  being  already  cleared. 

The  Governor  says  the  country  on  the  banks  of  the  La  Tranche  is 
like  this,  but  the  plains  infinitely  more  extensive.  Further  west  of  this 
terrace  we  saw  Coote's  Paradise,  so  called  from  a  Capt.  Coote,  who  spent 
a  great  deal  of  time  in  shooting  ducks  in  this  marshy  tract  of  land  below 
the  hill  we  are  upon.  It  abounds  with  wild  fowl  and  tortoises;  from 
hence  it  appears  more  like  a  river  or  lake  than  a  marsh,  and  Mordaunt's 
Point  in  the  distance  takes  a  fine  shape.  I  was  so  pleased  with  this  place 
that  the  Governor  stay'd  and  dined  at  Beasley's.  A  strong  east  wind  pre- 
vented our  sailing  back.  We  therefore  arrived  late,  and  found  a  salmon 
and  tortoise  ready  dressed  for  our  dinner.  Walked  on  the  beach  in  the 
evening.  Beasley  gave  me  a  weed,  somewhat  like  a  milkwort,  a  small 
white  flower  with  a  long  root,  which  tastes  hot  and  aromatic,  which  he 
called  rattlesnake  plantain.  I  think  it  is  what  Charlevoix  calls  senega. 
There  are  several  different  plants  called  rattlesnake,  from  being  supposed 

324 


CAPT.  COOTE'S  "PARADISE." 

to  cure  the  bite  of  that  snake.     (Senega  or  seneca,  snake  root,  antidote 
for  bite  of  rattlesnake.) 

NOTE. — Captain  Coote,  formerly  of  the  8th  Regiment  of  Foot, 
was  so  keen  a  sportsman  and  spent  so  much  of  his  time  in  the 
marsh  shooting  ducks  that  it  was  called  Coote's  Paradise.  The  marsh 
was  between  the  head  of  Burlington  Bay  and  Dundas,  Ontario. 

Sun.  12th — Riding  near  Jones'  house  (Augustus  Jones,  the  Surveyor) 
and  pond,  we  saw  three  deer,  I  suppose  going  to  the  pond.  They  stood 
still  some  time.  We  went  to  Adam  Green's.  He  showed  us  a  spring  of 
salt  water,  which  look'd  thick  and  blue  as  it  fell  into  a  tub,  from  whence 
I  tasted  it.  He  and  his  daughter  guided  us  to  see  the  Fall  of  Stoney 
Creek  from  the  bottom. 


THE  SHORE  AT  THE  "HEAD  OF  THE  LAKE." 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrt.  Simcoe.) 

NOTE. — Stoney  Creek  is  a  village  in  Wentworth  County,  on  Lake 
Ontario,  six  miles  east  of  Hamilton.  This  place  was  the  scene  of  a 
battle  between  the  British  and  Americans  in  1813,  in  which  the  latter 
were  defeated. 

Sun.  12th — We  went  through  pathless  woods  over  rocks,  logs — and,  in 
fact,  the  most  difficult  walk  I  ever  took,  and  if  the  girl  had  not  preceded 
me  I  should  have  given  it  up.  We  came  too  near  the  fall  to  see  it  in  a 
picturesque  view.  I  crossed  the  river  on  stones.  A  man  climbed  a  con- 
siderable height  up  part  of  the  red  amphitheatre  to  get  me  a  piece  of  the 
stones.  He  had  no  apparent  footing,  it  was  so  perpendicular.  He  formed 
a  singular  appearance. 

This  part  of  the  mountain  is  said  to  abound  with  rattlesnakes,  and 
why  I  did  not  meet  them  in  these  unfrequented  places  I  do  not  know.  I 
gathered  a  great  many  plants.  Green  gave  them  all  names,  and  I  stopped 

327 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

at  his  house  to  write  them  down.  Ginseng,  a  root  highly  valued  as  a  tonic, 
which  the  merchants  tell  me  they  send  to  England,  and  in  some  years 
has  sold  at  a  guinea  a  pound;  sarsaparilla,  golden  thread — the  roots  look 
like  gold  thread.  When  steeped  in  brandy  they  make  a  fine  aromatic 
tincture  and  liquorice;  consumption  vine,  a  pretty  creeper.  Green's 
daughter  was  cured  of  consumption  by  drinking  tea  made  of  it.  Poison 
vine,  in  appearance  much  like  the  former,  but  differs  in  the  number  of 
leaves;  one  has  five,  the  other  seven.  Madder,  toothache  plant,  a  beauti- 
ful species  of  fern;  sore  throat  weed;  dragon's  blood;  Adam  and  Eve,  or 
ivy  blade,  very  large,  which  heals  cuts  or  burns;  droppings  of  beach: 
enchanter's  night  shade  (a  slender,  erect  herb,  with  small  white  flowers, 
inhabiting  cool,  damp  woods) ;  dewberries;  wild  turnip,  which  cures  a 
cough — it  is  like  an  aram. 

They  prepared  me  some  refreshment  at  this  house,  some .  excellent 
cakes,  baked  on  the  coals;  eggs;  a  boiled  black  squirrel;  tea,  and  coffee 
made  of  peas,  which  was  good;  they  said  coffee  was  better.  The  sugar 
was  made  from  black  walnut  trees,  which  looks  darker  than  that  from 
the  maple,  but  I  think  it  is  sweeter. 

Green's  wife  died  a  year  ago  and  left  ten  children,  who  live  here  with 
their  father  in  a  house  consisting  of  a  room,  a  closet  and  a  loft;  but 
being  New  Jersey  people,  their  house  is  delicately  clean  and  neat,  and  not 
the  appearance  of  being  inhabited  by  three  people,  every  part  is  so  neatly 
kept.  I  sent  a  boy  to  gather  a  flower  I  forgot  to  bring  from  the  mountain, 
and  he  met  a  rattlesnake.  We  rode  back  to  the  "  King's  Head  "  to  dinner. 

Mon.  13th — The  wind  being  against  our  going  to  York,  we  rode  on 
the  beach,  and  had  a  sweet  view  of  Burlington  Bay.  We  passed  the 
Indian  encampment.  Their  huts  and  dogs  among  the  fine  oak  trees  they 
were  under,  formed  a  picturesque  appearance.  Afterwards  we  sailed  to 
the  north  shore  of  Burlington  Bay  and  pitched  our  tents  near  a  house, 
where  .we  had  the  tea  kettle  boiled,  but  we  found  the  sand  flies  very 
troublesome.  I  found  a  pretty  small  tortoise,  but  boiling  it  took  off  the 
polish  from  the  shell. 

Tues.  14th — The  wind  is  high  and  contrary;  we  could  not  attempt 
going  to  York.  This  place  is  so  delightful  I  do  not  regret  it. 

Wed.  15th — Capt.  Brant  (Thayendanegea)  the  Indian  Chief,  called 
on  horseback  on  his  way  to  Niagara,  but  left  his  sons  and  attendants 
here  till  the  wind  proves  fair  for  them  to  proceed.  The  boys  are  going 
to  school  at  Niagara.  They  are  fine  children  about  ten  years  old.  They 
dined  with  us  and  gave  Francis  a  boat.  Francis  gave  the  Mohawks  a 
sheep  for  their  dinner,  and  afterwards  they  danced  and  played  at  ball. 
A  violent  east  wind  and  terrific  surf — a  prodigious  sea  this  evening. 
1  stood  for  some  time  under  an  umbrella  to  admire  its  grandeur.  It 
proved  a  very  wet  night.  Brant's  sons  slept  in  our  house,  and  the 
Indians  found  shelter  under  a  number  of  planks;  these  are  here  to  finish 
the  house. 

Thurs.  16th — Rode  to  the  inlet  and  embarked  in  the  boat,  for  the 
continued  east  wind  had  raised  such  a  swell  we  thought  the  canoe 
would  not  be  pleasant.  The  wind  was  light.  It  soon  became  calm  and 
continued  so  until  12  o'clock,  when  it  rose  violently  from  the  west,  which 
coming  against  the  late  swell  formed  a  terrifying  sea. 

The  motion  of  the  sea  was  disagreeable  and  my  fears  awoke  also, 
till  we  landed  at  3  o'clock  at  the  River  Credit.  12  miles  from  York.  We 
were  surprised  to  see  how  well  the  canoe  made  her  way  through  this 
heavy  sea.  She  rode  like  a  duck  on  the  waves.  After  dinner  we  walked 
by  the  River  Credit.  Numbers  of  Indians  resort  here  at  this  season 
to  flsh  for  salmon,  and  the  Governor  wishing  to  go  some  way  up  it, 
which  our  boat  was  too  large  to  do,  he  made  signs  to  some  Indians  to 
take  us  into  their  canoe,  which  they  did;  there  were  two  men  in  her, 
which  with  ourselves  and  Sophia  completely  filled  the  canoe.  They 

328 


KAPIDS  AT  CREDIT  RIVER 

carried   us   about   three   miles,   when   we   came   to   rapids   and   went   on 
shore. 

The  banks  were  high,  one  side  covered  with  pine,  and  a  pretty  piece 
of  rocky  country  on  the  other.  On  our  return  to  the  canoe  a  small 
snake  was  in  it,  and  the  Indians  took  it  out  with  caution  and  abhorrence. 
They  hate  snakes,  which  they  seem  to  dread  more  than  the  Europeans 
do.  We  returned  to  our  boats,  where,  not  having  any  provision  left,  or 
money,  the  Governor  made  signs  to  know  that  they  should  be  recom- 
pensed for  their  trouble  if  they  came  to  York.  There  is  abundance  of 
salmon  caught  in  this  river.  About  five,  the  weather  being  calm,  we 
set  out  and  arrived  at  York  at  nine. 


THE  BEACH  NEAR  THE  KING'S  HEAD  INN. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mr*.  Simcoe.) 

NOTE. — The  "Rapids"  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  Credit  still 
exist,  being  situated  at  Streetsville.  They  are,  however,  now  greatly 
reduced  in  volume  as  compared  with  what  they  were  even  sixty 
years  ago.  These  rapids  were  to  a  certain  extent  navigable,  as  ven- 
turesome lumbermen  from  the  earliest  days  of  the  province  used  to 
run  their  timber  rafts  down  them  during  the  spring.  The  Credit 
River  empties  into  Lake  Ontario,  thirteen  miles  west  of  Toronto. 


331 


CHAPTER  XX. 
LEAVETAKINGS  OF  FRIENDS. 

The  16th  of  June,  1796,  was  not  a  very  favorable  day  for  a  water  trip 
along  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  but  the  Governor  having 
waited  for  a  favorable  wind  since  the  13th,  determined  to  make  an 
effort  to  reach  York  on  the  16th.  The  party  were  in  a  sailboat  while 
a  canoe  followed,  and  by  three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  they  landed 
at  the  Eiver  Credit.  The  trip  was  varied  by  an  excursion  three  miles 
up  that  river  in  a  large  canoe  which  had  room  enough  for  the 
Governor,  his  wife  and  daughter,  and  two  Indians.  The  weather 
calming  about  five  o'clock,  a  start  was  made  for  York,  which  was 
reached  by  nine  o'clock. 

The  Governor  had  early  in  the  year  determined  upon  returning 
to  England.  His  relations  with  Lord  Dorchester  had  not  been  of  a 
harmonious  character,  and  his  opinions  so  differed  from  those  of  the 
Governor-General,  especially  on  the  subject  of  the  building  of  Fort 
Miami,  that  Governor  Simcoe  preferred  to  ask  for  leave  of  absence. 
This  request  was  answered  about  the  middle  of  July,  for  on  the  14th 
the  official  letter  came  to  York  stating  that  the  frigate  "Pearl" 
would  be  at  Quebec  to  take  him  home  in  the  beginning  of  August. 

Wednesday,  July  20th,  was  the  last  day  at  Castle  Frank  and  on 
the  21st  Mrs.  Simcoe  said  good-bye  to  her  friends,  but  "was  so  much 
out  of  spirits"  that  she  was  unable  to  dine  with  Mrs.  McGill,  and 
to  make  matters  worse  she  "  cried  all  day."  At  three  o'clock  on  the 
afternoon  of  the  21st  the  "  Onondaga  "  weighed  anchor,  and  the  guns 
at  the  Fort  saluted  the  Governor  as  the  Provincial  vessel  started  on 
its  journey  around  the  peninsula  and  east  on  the  lake  to  Kingston. 

Of  these  last  days  at  York  Mrs.  Simcoe  writes : — 

Fri.  17th  June — Very  warm  day.  Mrs.  McGill  and  Mrs.  Macaulay, 
wife  of  Dr.  Macaulay,  dined  with  me. 

Mon.  20th — Part  of  the  regiment  (Queen's  Rangers)  embarked  for 
Niagara. 

Sat.  25th — We  intended  to  have  gone  to  the  Humber  in  the  canoe, 
attended  by  music,  and  spend  a  pleasant  day  there,  but  Francis  being 
ill  with  fever  prevented  it. 

Wed.  29th — Very  ill  and  feverish,  having  been  alarmed  about  Francis. 

Thurs.  30th — Sent  the  children  to  Castle  Frank  in  a  boat.  We  rode 
there  through  those  pleasant  shady  pine  plains,  now  covered  with  sweet 
scented  fern.  There  is  no  underwood  under  the  pines,  so  it  is  good 
riding. 

Fri.  1st  July — A  large  party  from  the  garrison  to  dinner.  A  boat 
with  music  accompanied  them;  we  heard  it  in  the  evening  until  they 
had  passed  the  town.  It  sounds  delightfully. 

NOTE. — The  favorite  route  by  water  from  the  garrison  or  Fort  was 
from  the  Fort  through  Toronto  Bay  to  its  east  end  and  then  up  the 
Don  River. 

332 


FIRST  BRIDGE  OVER  THE  DOX 

Sun.  3rd — The  Governor  went  to  the  garrison  and  returned  to  supper. 
Some  heavy  thunder  showers  fell  this  evening  and  the  mosquitos  more 
troublesome  than  ever.  It  is  scarcely  possible  to  write  or  use  my  hands, 
which  are  always  occupied  in  killing  them  or  driving  them  away.  This 
situation  being  high  does  not  at  all  secure  us  from  mosquitos  or  gnats. 

Mon.  4th— I  descended  the  hill  and  walked  to  Skinner's  Mill  through 
the  meadows,  which  looked  like  meadows  in  England.  Playter  was 
haymaking.  Going  down  the  hill  some  dragon's  blood  seed  fell  out  as 
I  passed,  which  I  collected. 

Wed.  6th — I  passed  Playter's  picturesque  bridge  over  the  Don;  it 
is  a  butternut  tree  fallen  across  the  river,  the  branches  still  growing 
full  leaf.  Mrs.  Playter  being  timorous,  a  pole  was  fastened  through  the 
branches  to  hold  by.  Having  attempted  to  pass  it,  I  was  determined 
to  proceed,  but  was  frightened  before  I  got  half  way. 

NOTE. — This  was  the  first  bridge  over  the  Don  River  at  York  at 
the  foot  of  the  present  Winchester  Street,  Toronto,  placed  there 
about  1794. 

Thurs.  7th — The  weather  excessively  hot  and  we  find  the  under- 
ground room  very  comfortable;  the  windows  on  the  side  of  it  are  cut 
through  the  side  of  the  hill. 

The  winter  we  were  at  Kingston,  deer  were  continually  seen  about 
here,  but  the  noise  made  by  the  carpenters  at  work  upon  the  house 
last  winter,  prevented  them  from  coming.  A  fine  eagle  shot  at  the 
town. 

Sun.  10th — Rode  very  pleasantly  through  the  pine  plains;  gathered 
tea  berries.  1  saw  mosquito  hawks'  nests,  at  least  the  eggs  and  young 
birds  lying  on  pieces  of  bark  on  the  ground.  Query,  whether  the  mos- 
quito hawk  is  not  the  "  whipper  will"  (whip-poor-will),  so  called  from 
the  resemblance  of  its  notes  to  the  words — which  makes  such  a  noise 
every  night.  We  had  company  at  dinner.  I  walked  down  the  hill  in 
the  evening  and  gathered  dragon's  blood,  a  plant  or  dragon  root,  from 
which  you  get  resin  of  darkish  red  color;  Lychnis  de  Canada,  a  plant 
with  scarlet  flower;  tryliums,  which  resemble  lilies;  toothache  plant,  like 
toothache  grass.  It  has  a  pungent  taste.  Licorice,  wild  lilies,  etc. 

Mon.  llth — A  very  wet  day  and  the  mosquitos  so  numerous  that 
smoke  would  not  drive  them  away;  when  it  grows  dark  I  take  my  candle 
and  sit  to  read  on  my  bed  under  the  mosquito  net,  which  is  the  only 
protection  from  them. 

Tues.  12th — We  rode  to  the  town  by  the  new  road  opened  by  the 
Government  farm,  and  through  the  town;  it  is  the  shortest  way  in  point 
of  time.  The  road  is  so  much  better  than  Yonge  Street.  Dined  with 
Mrs.  McGill.  Returned  to  Castle  Frank. 

Wed.  13th — The  Governor  rode  to  the  garrison  this  morning.  In 
the  evening  we  went  in  a  boat,  caught  a  sun  fish. 

Thur.  14th — Walked  through  the  meadows  towards  Coon's  farm  on 
the  Don — saw  millions  of  the  yellow  and  black  butterflies,  New  York 
swallow  tails,  and  heaps  of  their  wings  lying  about.  Gathered  wild 
gooseberries,  and  when  they  were  stewed  found  them  excellent  sauce 
for  salmon.  In  the  afternoon  the  Governor  received  his  leave  of  absence, 
and  information  that  the  frigate  "Pearl,"  Capt.  Ballard,  is  at  Quebec, 
and  is  to  take  him  to  England.  She  sails  August  the  10th. 

Fri.  15th — Rode  to  the  Garrison  and  slept  there. 

Sat.  16th — Hot  and  sultry  weather. 

Mon.  18th — Rode  to  dine  at  Castle  Frank;  so  heavy  a  shower  of 
rain  that  we  were  obliged  to  quit  the  lower  room,  the  windows  of  which 
are  not  glazed — slept  here. 

335 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 


Tues.  19th—  Mrs.  McGill  and  Mrs.  Macaulay  breakfasted  here.  I 
returned  to  the  garrison  with  them  in  Mr.  Bouchette's  boat,  and  rode 
back  to  dine  at  Castle  Frank.  Mr.  Pilkington  came  in  the  evening.  It 
was  very  damp  and  cold.  I  was  glad  to  stand  by  the  fire. 

Wed.  20th—  Took  leave  of  Castle  Frank,  called  at  Playter's,  dined 
with  Mrs.  McGill.  Mentioned  my  spinning  wheel.  Slept  at  the  garrison. 

NOTE.  —  Mrs.  Simcoe  had  brought 
with  her  to  Canada  a  spinning  wheel 
which  was  made  by  order  of  Queen 
Charlotte,  consort  of  George  III.,  for 
the  Marchioness  of  Buckingham,  and 
given  by  her  to  Mrs.  Simcoe,  who 
on  leaving  Canada  in  1796  gave  the 
spinning  wheel  to  Mrs.  McGill,  annt 
of  Mrs.  Stephen  Heward,  Toronto. 

Thur.  21st  —  Took  leave  of  Mrs.  Mc- 
Gill and  Miss  Crookshank.  I  was  so 
much  out  of  spirits  I  was  unable  to 
•dine  with  them.  Mrs.  McGill  sent  me 
some  dinner,  but  I  could  not  eat;  cried 
all  day.  The  Governor  dined  with  Mr. 
McGill  and  at  three  o'clock  we  went 
on  board  the  "Onondaga,"  under  a 
salute  from  the  vessels.  Little  wind, 
soon  became  calm. 

Fri.  22nd  —  Light  wind  and  contrary. 
Sat.  23rd  —  We  were  opposite  the  50- 
mile  creek  from  Niagara. 

NOTE.  —  Probably  about  in  line  with 
Gobourg  harbour. 

Sun.  24th  —  Opposite  Presqu-isle 
head. 

NOTE.—  Near  the  Carrying  ^  Place 
from  Lake  Ontario  to  Bay  of  Quinte. 


MBS.  SIMCOE'S  SPINNING-WHEEL. 


os^n  of  Mrs. 
Stephen  Heward,  Toronto.) 


Mon.  25th  —  A  side  wind  towards  evening,  fair  and  fresh;  at  half 
past  eleven  at  night  we  anchored  in  Kingston  harbour. 

After  a  stay  of  about  eighteen  hours  the  King's  bateaux  were 
ready  and  the  Governor'  and  his  family  on  the  26th  commenced  their 
journey  to  Montreal,  at  which  place  they  arrived  on  the  evening 
of  the  30th.  The  trip  was  much  like  the  trip  up  the  river  in  1792, 
and  to  Mrs.  Simcoe  it  had  many  charms,  so  that  the  notes  in  her 
diary  are  most  interesting.  She  writes  :  — 

Tues.  26th  —  A  cold  day.  The  Governor  breakfasted  on  shore;  at 
eleven  we  embarked  in  a  batteau;  at  six  stopped  at  a  rocky  island 
six  miles  from  Gananowui,  where  we  made  a  fire  and  boiled  a  tea 
kettle;  there  is  a  pretty  bay  here.  I  called  the  island  "Isle  au  trippe," 
from  gathering  trippe  de  roche  on  the  rocks.  It  is  a  kind  of  liverwort 
plant  good  for  diseases  of  liver,  which  the  Canadians  going  to  the  Grande 
Portage  boil  and  eat  on  very  hungry  days,  but  it  is  bitter  and  not 
wholesome.  We  proceeded  three  miles  to  a  beautiful  rocky  island  (as 

336 


22 


AMONG  THE  THOUSAND  ISLANDS 

we  thought,  but  it  proved  to  be  the  main  shore)  among  the  thousand 
Islands.  I  called  it  "Bass  Island,"  for  the  number  of  black  bass  1  saw 
swimming  in  shallow  water  near  the  shore.  We  supped  at  ten,  the 
stars  shining  unusually  bright.  We  placed  the  beds  on  the  trunks  in 
one  of  the  batteau,  which  was  covered  with  sail  cloth  over  the  awning. 
We  slept  extremely  well  and  so  cool  that  we  determined  to  keep  that 
batteau  so  fitted  up  for  the  rest  of  the  voyage  rather  than  go  into 
houses,  now  the  Governor  is  so  unwell,  and  suffers  from  the  heat,  besides 
the  fresh  breeze  on  the  water  keeps  away  the  mosquitos.  We  heard  a 
wild  kind  of  shriek  several  times  in  the  night;  we  thought  it  was  loons, 
which  scream  in  that  way.  An  American  said  he  guessed  it  was  the 
painters  (so  they  call  panthers),  as  the  sound  came  from  the  shore  of 
the  United  States,  where  those  animals  abound. 


CASTLE  FRANK  IN  THE  SUMMER  OF  1796. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

Wed.  27th — We  breakfasted  and  set  off  at  seven — it  rained.  Passed 
Toniata  Isles  and  the  river  of  that  name,  then  the  Isles  au  Baril,  on  one 
of  which  we  landed.  The  wind  and  sea  so  high  we  had  difficulty  in  turn- 
ing the  Point,  from  whence  we  had  a  pretty  view  of  the  islands.  Dined 
here  and  gathered  hurtleberries.  We  afterwards  came  to  Capt.  Jones',  the 
prettiest  point  on  the  river;  he  has  a  fine  farm  and  garden,  and  water 
melons,  though  so  much  to  the  N.E.  Here  we  waited  until  the  tea  kettle 
was  boiled,  and  then  proceeding,  passed  Commissary  Jones'  saw  mill,  E. 
Jones'  windmill  and  Mr.  Cowan's  pot  ashery,  near  Johnstone. 

NOTE. — Toniata  Island  is  five  leagues  from  Pointe  au  Baril  near 
the  present  village  of  Maitland,  now  known  as  Grenadier  Island. 
In  a  map  William  Chewett  made  for  Governor  Simcoe  and  enclosed 

339 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

in  a  despatch  to  the  Duke  of  Portland,  29th  July,  1795,  Toniata 
Island  is  shown  opposite  Leeds  fonntv.  about  ten  miles  west  of 
Grenville  River.  Pointe  an  Baril  is  near  the  present  village  of 
Maitland  between  Brock ville  and  Prescott. 

Stopped  for  the  night  at  Pt.  au  Cardinal,  just  below  Les  Geolettes 
(the  Gallops,  seven  miles  above  Iroquois),  which  terrifying  rapid  we 
passed  in  a  minute.  Here  Mr.  Hugh  Munro  is  building  a  mill.  The 


KINGSTON  FROM  THE  HARBOUR,  1796. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrg.  Simcoe.) 


KEY  TO  ILLUSTRATION. 

No.  1 — Is  Cartwright's  wharf  and  storehouse,  built  on  the  Horn 
which  turned  in  toward  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  Montreal  Trans- 
portation Company's  shipyard,  there  being  formerly  a  bay  on  the  site 
of  the  shipyard  and  extending  in  close  to  the  present  site  of  the  Hay- 
market.  It  is  now  occupied  partly  by  the  military  stables  on  the  south 
side  of  the  road  leading  to  and  across  the  Cataraqui  bridge,  partly  by 
the  road  itself  and  partly  by  Knapp's  boathouse.  It  is  on  the  north 
side  of  the  road  and  close  to  the  end  of  the  bridge. 

No.  2 — These  buildings  were  storehouses,  formerly  occupied  by  the 
Quartermaster-General's  department.  They  have  long  since  been  swept 
away,  their  site  being  occupied  by  officers'  quarters  within  the  walls 
of  the  barracks.  The  foundation  walls  are  still  visible  in  the  barrack 
square. 

No.  3. — This  is  Forsyth's  wharf,  now  called  the  Queen's  Wharf,  in  the 
barrack  yard,  on  the  south  side  and  on  the  line  of  Barrack  Street. 

No.  4 — The  flag  on  Fort  Frontenac,  probably  the  S.E.  hastion,  where 
there  was  a  round  tower,  the  foundations  of  whicti  are  visible  in  the 
barrack  square. 

No.  5 — Probably  the  gable  of  the  present  Central  Hotel,  corner 
Queen  and  Ontario  Streets. 

340 


14 


AN  HISTOKIC  SPOT 

timbers  are  uncovered  and  it  has  the  appearance  of  a  sketch  of  a  ruin 
in  Italy.  Some  merchants'  batteaux  were  drawing  up  round  the  point 
with  the  greatest  labor,  exertion  and  difficulty,  and  the  velocity  with 
which  a  boat  appeared  flying  downwards  with  great  rapidity  formed 
a  contrast  well  worth  seeing.  We  supped  at  ten  on  a  fine  piece  of  dry 
ground  under  a  plum  tree  and  sheltered  by  some  boards  belonging  to 
the  mill;  a  cold  windy  night.  A  stiff  breeze  astern  kept  off  the  mos- 
quitos.  I  was  only  afraid  the  cable  of  our  boat,  which  was  tied  to  a 
tree,  should  by  this  fresh  breeze  get  loose  and  leave  us  drift  down  the 
rapids. 

Thur.  28th — We  breakfasted  at  seven.  I  made  a  sketch  and  embarked. 
Passed  Frazier's  farm  and  Pt.  Iroquois,  where  the  Indians  formerly 
fought  a  battle,  Pt.  aux  Pins,  a  fine  place  for  a  fortification,  Pt.  Acolo, 
where  Mr.  Munro's  sawmill  stands  near  the  Rapid  Plat,  Capt.  Duncan's, 
Grosse  Point,  Pointe  au  Gobelet  and  then  we  came  to  the  Long  Sault, 
which  extends  nine  miles. 

NOTE. — Point  Iroquois,  a  beautiful  point  of  land  jutting  out  into 
the  St.  Lawrence  from  the  Township  of  Matilda,  is  now  incorporated 
in  the  village  of  Iroquois,  Dundas  County.  When  General  William- 
son passed  down  the  river  with  the  United  States  army  in  November 
1813  (shortly  before  the  battle  of  Chrysler's  Farm")  he  met  with 
obstruction  upon  reaching  Point  Iroquois,  as  a  picket  of  about 
a  dozen  men,  among  whom  were  Jacob  and  Peter  Brouse,  were 


POINT  IROQUOIS,  DUNDAS  COUNTY. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simeoe.) 

posted  at  this  point,  which  commands  an  extensive  view  of  the  river. 
The  first  Methodist  Church  in  Dundas  was  built  in  1797  upon  Point 
Iroquois.  Croil  in  his  "History  of  Dundas"  writes  :  —  "A  more  beau- 
tiful site  could  not  have  been  chosen.  The  point  upon  which  it 
stood  was  the  highest  and  most  picturesque  headland  upon  the  St. 
Lawrence  between  Brockville  and  Montreal,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
a  favorite  spot  with  the  Indians  when  holding  their  councils  of  war 


' 


THE  RIVER  BELOW  POINT  IROQUOIS. 

(From  a  Drarcitig  by  Mrs.  Simeoe.) 

in  days  of  yore.  It  commanded  a  view  of  the  river  above  and  below 
for  many  miles."  Below  Point  Iroquois  is  situated  Point  aux  Pins, 
the  narrowest  part  of  the  river  ;  and  Rapid  du  Plat  is  in  front  of 
the  township  of  Williamsburg,  above  Morrisburg. 

343 


DIARY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

Honorable  John  Munro's  mill  was  built  on  a  magnificent  scale  for 
those  days.  It  was  on  the  point  below  Flagg's,  just  opposite  the  first 
rough  water  in  the  Rapid  du  Plat. 

We  descended  the  Long  Sault  in  an  hour  without  sailing  and  seldom 
rowing,  though  near  particular  currents  they  rowed  with  great  exertion. 
The  most  agitated  part  is  towards  the  end  of  the  rapids,  where  the  river 
becomes  wider;  here  I  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  boats  which 
followed  us;  they  appeared  to  fly.  I  compared  them  to  race  horses  trying 
to  outrun  each  other.  The  velocity  was  extreme;  sometimes  the  whirl- 
pool turned  them  round;  at  others  the  head  of  one  and  stern  of  another 
boat  appeared  buried  under  the  waves.  I  sketched  the  boats.  These 
rapids  did  not  appear  formidable  to  me  last  year.  I  suppose  my  mind 
was  then  more  engaged  by  the  cause  of  my  voyage,  and  the  Governor's 


A  BEND  IN  THE  RIVER  ST.  LAWRENCE. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

situation  at  the  Miami;  then  I  thought  not  of  myself;  now  I  had  nothing 
to  think  of  but  the  present  danger,  and  was  terrified. 

In  the  entrance  of  Lake  St.  Francis  we  went  to  a  small  island  south 
of  our  course;  we  had  the  tea  kettle  boiled  and  walked  about  for  some 
time;  there  were  many  wild  vines,  nut,  gooseberries  and  sumach  trees; 
one  of  the  latter  we  carried  away  to  make  chessmen  of  it,  as  the  wood 
is  said  to  be  beautiful.  The  weather  immoderately  hot,  and  no  wind 
since  we  left  the  rapids.  The  clouds  foretell  rain. 

We  stopped  at  Pointe  Morandiere,  which  stretches  a  great  way  into 
the  lake;  we  were  agreeably  surprised  to  find  it  a  stony,  dry  piece  of 
land;  the  swamps  are  to  the  north  of  it. 

NOTE. — Pointe  Morandiere  is  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  east  of  Corn- 
wall, on  the  northwestern  end  of  Lake  St.  Francis. 

344 


THROUGH  THE  BAPIDS  OF  THE  CEDARS 

Thur.  28th — I  was  very  hungry  and  impatient  for  supper,  but  much 
afraid  from  the  dark  appearance  of  the  sky  that  I  would  have  to  leave  the 
ducks  untasted,  for  I  must  have  retired  to  the  boat  immediately  if  the 
rain  began,  for  I  never  could  have  passed  the  slippery  rocks  I  had  to 
cross  after  they  were  wet.  However,  the  sky  cleared,  we  supped  and 
sat  admiring  the  stars  till  after  eleven  o'clock.  A  prodigious  number 
of  moths  or  flies  here,  which  burnt  themselves  and  lay  in  the  flre  in 
large  heaps,  but  I  did  not  see  mosquitos. 

Fri.  29th — Breakfasted  at  six  in  the  morning  and  set  off  with  a  fair 
wind;  passed  Pte.  au  Bodet  at  nine;  then  Pte.  au  Foin,  a  very  pretty 
spot;  passed  the  rapids  near  the  Coteau  du  Lac;  passed  Pte.  au  Diable 
near  the  Long  Sault,  and  stopped  at  Pte.  au  Biron,  on  a  hill  from  Whence 
the  view  towards  Coteau  de  Lac  is  very  pretty. 

There  is  a  good  Seigneurie  House  falling  to  ruins.  We  saw  batteaux 
drawing  round  this  point  where  the  current  is  particularly  strong.  They 


ISLE  AUX  SOEURS,  NOW  NUN'S  ISLAND. 

(From  a  Drawing  by  Mrs.  Simcoe.) 

used  great  exertion  in  poling  and  drawing  with  a  tow  line  and  pushing 
the  boat,  being  above  their  knees  in  water.  We  embarked  after  dinner, 
and  notwithstanding  the  immoderate  heat  they  insisted  on  taking  off 
the  awning  to  go  down  the  Rapids  of  the  Cedars.  The  preparation 
seemed  formidable  but  the  ensuing  journey  more  so.  People  usually  go 
from  hence  in  caleches  four  miles  to  the  cascades,  but  the  Governor 
wished  to  see  all  the  rapids  and  would  not  go  on  shore. 

This  rapid  is  much  more  frightful  than  the  Long  Sault.  I  cannot 
describe  how  terrifying  the  extent  of  furious,  dashing  white  waves 
appeared,  and  how  the  boat  rose  and  plunged  among  them,  the  waves 
sometimes  was'hing  into  the  boat.  Our  keeping  rather  too  near  the  shore 
made  it  worse.  There  is  a  place  called  "  the  run  "  near  the  locks,  which 
is  like  going  down  the  stream  of  an  overshot  mill,  and  I  really  thought 
we  never  should  have  risen  out  of  it.  The  men  rowed  with  all  their 
might,  and  in  passing  it  called  out  "Vive  le  Roi."  We  passed  a  rock 
which  really  seemed  to  fly  from  us.  The  children  called  out  "  How  fast 

345 


DIAEY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

it  runs."  We  did  not  leave  this  agitated  and  agitating  scene  till  we 
came  in  sight  of  Pointe  Claire  and  Isle  Perrot  and  had  seen  the  junction 
of  the  transparent  St.  Lawrence  with  the  dirty  waters  of  the  Ottawa. 

We  slept  to-night  at  the  Isle  aux  Soeurs.  The  island  consists  of 
a  table-shaped  hill  of  fine  turf,  from  whence  are  three  fine  views:  To 
the  north-west,  looking  over  the  immense  width  of  the  St.  Lawrence, 
which  is  like  a  lake,  is  seen  the  Isle  au  Paix,  Isle  Perrot,  Pointe  Claire — 
in  the  distance  Lac  des  deux  Montagues  (the  Lake  of  Two  Mountains),  the 
country  about  the  Rideaux  and  Ottawa  rivers,  and  some  distant  blue  high- 
lands. To  the  north-east,  a  rich,  woody  foreground  with  a  pretty  sandy 
beach,  and  the  blue  mountain  of  Montreal  in  the  distance. 

NOTE. — The  Isle  aux  Soeurs  was  the  French  name  for  Nun's 
Island,  now  St.  Bernard's  Isle,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Chateauguay  River, 
and  is  washed  hy  the  Chateauguay  on  two  sides  and  by  the  St.  Law- 
rence on  one. 

To  the  south,  the  village  and  river  of  Chateauguay  (on  the  river 
of  that  name  and  24  miles  south  of  Montreal)  winding  along  woods  and 
cultivated  country  to  a  great  distance,  the  Seigneurie  House,  and  the 
river  falling  into  the  St.  Lawrence  forms  the  near  view.  This  island 
and  a  house  on  it  belong  to  the  nuns,  who  reside  at  Montreal,  and  here 
they  take  care  of  insane  persons.  We  pitched  the  tent  at  the  foot  of  the 
hill  and  near  the  house. 

NOTE. — Bouchette  in  his  Topography  states  that  the  Seigniory 
at  Chateauguay  belonged  in  1815  to  the  Grey  Nuns.  It  was  orig- 
inally granted,  in  1673,  to  Le  Moyne,  Sieur  de  Longueuil.  In  con- 
nection with  the  house  Bouchette  uses  the  word  "Mansion,"  for  it 
could  not  be  designated  a  convent,  as  there  were  only  two  nuns. 
Being  the  owners  of  the  Seigniory,  the  nuns  resided  in  the  Manor 
House. 

Sat.  30th— A  little  rain.  I  walked  to  the  Seigneurie  House,  which 
looks  like  a  Flemish  building,  examined  a  raft  lying  in  the  Chateauguay 
River  and  thought  its  construction  very  curious. 

At  nine  we  embarked,  and  at  eleven  stopped  at  La  Chine  (Lachine)  to 
take  a  pilot  to  conduct  us  to  Montreal  thro*  the  rapids,  which  extend  almost 
the  whole  way,  and  are  thought  to  be  most  dangerous  of  any,  as  the  water 
is  so  shallow;  the  great  width  of  the  river  adds  terror  to  the  scene,  which 
presents  miles  of  foaming  waves.  We  stopped  a  little  while,  that  we  might 
not  overtake  or  run  foul  of  an  immense  radeau  or  raft  that  was  going 
down.  However,  she  struck  on  a  rock  and  we  passed  her.  It  was  a  wild 
accompaniment  to  the  scene  we  were  in.  The  distant  view  was  fine;  on 
one  side  the  mountain  of  Montreal  and  the  town  extending  below,  the 
island  of  St.  Helen's  opposite  the  east  end  of  Montreal,  and  near  to  us 
that  of  St.  Paul's,  with  some  ruins  of  burnt  houses  upon  it.  On  the  other 
side  the  town  of  La  Prairie  (on  the  south  shore  seven  miles  from  Mont- 
real), with  the  blue  hills  of  Chambly  and  Beloeil  Mountain  in  the  distance. 

The  Governor  desired  me  to  sketch  the  rapids  of  La  Chine.  I  believe 
he  wished  to  take  off  my  attention  from  the  rapids.  I  was  more  disposed 
to  have  cried  than  to  have  talked;  reason  told  me  there  was  no  danger, 
because  Canadians  pass  the  rapids  safely  so  many  times  every  year,  but 
one  has  to  resist  all  that  can  affright  the  senses  of  seeing  or  hearing,  so 
the  pilot,  to  make  himself  appear  brave,  was  perpetually  reminding  us 
of  the  great  danger,  which  only  his  knowledge  could  save  us  from.  We 
arrived  at  Mr.  Gray's,  at  Montreal. 

346 


BY  BATEAUX  AND  CALECHE  TO  QUEBEC. 

Sun.  31st — Went  to  church  in  Lieut.-General  Christie's  coach. 

NOTE. — General  Gabriel  Christie,  born  1722,  died  in  Montreal, 
1799  ;  he  was  a  brevet-major  under  Amherst  in  1759,  and  commander- 
in-chief  in  Canada,  1798.  He  was  also  a  Justice 
of  the  Peace  and  a  member  of  the  Legislative  and 
Executive  Councils. 

Francis'  surprise  at  a  room  on  wheels  was1  great. 
He  had  never  been  in  any  carriage  but  an  open  one. 
This  house  of  Mr.  Gray's  is  very  pleasant,  from  Vene- 
tian blinds  being  fixed  into  all  the  window  frames, 
which  throws  such  a  sombre  light  that  all  the  women 
who  have  called  have  looked  handsome,  tho'  they 
were  not  so  in  broad  daylight;  et  je  me  sentit  valoir 
dix  fois  plus  qu'un  autrctemps  (and  I  feel  worth  ten 
times  more  than  at  other  times).  GENERAL  CHRISTIE. 

We  drank  tea  at  Mr.  Frobisher's  country  house. 

It  commands  a  noble  view  towards  La  Prairie,  St.  Helen's,  Chambly  and 
Beloeil,  the  town  of  Montreal,  and  a  cultivated  country  in  the  near  view. 
Francis,  being  accustomed  to  sentinels,  asked,  when  he  saw  Mr.  Frobisher's 
dogs'  houses  before  the  door,  whether  the  people  here  kept  dogs  as  sen- 
tinels. Mrs.  Frobisher  has  an  excellent  garden;  there  was  strawberry 
spinach,  which  she  showed  me  as  a  pretty  but  very  poisonous  plant.  I 
assured  her  I  had  often  eaten  it  in  Upper  Canada.  I  have  not  caught  cold 
the  whole  of  the  journey,  which  I  attribute  to  living  so  totally  in  the  air. 
At  Kingston  my  trunk  fell  into  the  water  in  taking  it  from  the  ship,  so  1 
have  had  none  but  damp  clothes  to  wear  since,  and  no  opportunity  of 
airing  them,  as  I  have  met  with  no  fire  but  where  the  men  were  cooking. 

Mon.  Aug.  1st — I  dined  at  Mr.  Frobisher's;  immoderate  hot  weather 
and  a  little  rain. 

NOTE. — The  stay  in  Montreal  was  not  prolonged.  The  Governor 
had  official  matters,  as  a  record  says,  to  attend  to,  and  he  was  anxious 
to  leave  the  affairs  of  his  Province  in  good  order.  The  accounts 
of  the  Province  in  connection  with  the  military  expenditure  were  all 
sent  in  duplicate  to  the  authorities  at  Quebec,  and  some  of  these 
had  to  be  adjusted.  So  after  three  days  had  been  spent  in  Montreal 
the  bateaux  were  on  the  2nd  of  August  in  readiness,  and  on  the 
fifth  of  the  month  the  party  landed  at  Cap  Kouge,  nine  miles  from 
Quebec,  and  after  a  strenuous  journey  in  caleches,  arrived  at  Bel- 
mont,  near  Quebec,  the  residence  of  Colonel  Caldwell,  where  they 
were  received  by  their  friends,  who  were  delighted  to  see  the  Governor 
and  his  wife  again. 

Mrs.  Simcoe  writes: — 

Tues.  Aug.  2nd — Left  Montreal  at  eight;  passed  Long  Pt.  (N.E.  of 
Montreal  and  on  the  island),  Pointe  aux  Trembles  (three  leagues  from 
Montreal  and  on  the  island),  Varennes  (on  the  south  shore,  six  leagues 
below  Montreal),  St.  Sulpice  (on  the  north  shore,  eight  leagues  below 
Montreal),  with  a  strong,  fair  wind;  dined  in  the  boat  near  La  Valtrie 
(on  the  north  shore,  N.E.,  and  twelve  leagues  from  Montreal).  Soon 
afterwards  fell  a  heavy  thunderstorm.  They  furnished  the  boat  at  Mont- 
real with  so  miserable  an  awning  that  it  let  the  water  through,  and  sent 
very  inexperienced  batteau  men,  who  scarcely  knew  how  to  manage  the 

347 


DIAKY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

boat.  We  were  quite  wet,  but  being  near  D'Autray,  went  on  shore  and 
determined  to  sleep  there.  Having  been  there  twice  already,  I  knew  we 
should  be  well  accommodated.  A  very  cold  night.  The  Maitre  de  Poste, 
La  Fontaine  and  his  wife,  very  old  people,  were  perfectly  Flemish  figures. 
They  supped  in  the  room  next  to  ours.  I  observe  they  eat  onion  broth, 
fat  bacon,  and  finished  by  drinking  sour  milk;  after  supper  they  played 
a  game  at  cards  they  called  "  le  grand  Brisque,"  which  they  seemed  to  be 
much  amused  by. 

Wed.  3rd— Left  D'Autray  at  eight,  wrapped  up  in  that  fleecy  hosiery 
which  has  been  the  companion  of  all  my  travels.  At  five  this  evening 
we  came  to  Pte.  du  Lac  St.  Pierre,  which  is  a  widening  of  the  St.  Lawrence, 
a  league  from  Three  Rivers  (30  leagues  below  Montreal),  where  the 
batteau  men  wished  to  go;  but  the  Governor,  being  determined  not  to 
lodge  in  a  town,  insisted  on  their  going  into  this  little  bay,  which,  doing 
unwillingly,  they  struck  us  against  rocks;  it  was  very  shallow  water,  as 
they  had  said.  We  found  the  beach  very  pleasant,  and  walked  from 
thence  to  a  rising  ground,  where  are  the  remains  of  Pte.  du  Lac  barracks, 
built  by  Sir  F.  Haldimand  in  1789.  Gathered  very  fine  wild  raspberries. 
We  were  overtaken  by  a  thunder  shower  that  wetted  me  thro',  but  what 
was  worse,  on  our  return  found  the  canvas  and  awning  of  our  boat  had 
not  been  properly  fixed  and  that  the  beds  were  quite  wet;  there  was  no 
remedy,  so  I  sat  by  the  fire  and  dryed  my  habit,  eat  my  supper,  and 
slept  in  my  clothes  on  the  damp  bed,  without  catching  any  cold. 

Thur.  4th — Drew  a  plant  of  wild  rice  w.hich  was  in  blossom;  gathered 
cardinal  flowers,  a  beautiful  purple  flower,  sand  cherries  and  some  rasp- 
berries. We  went  out  of  the  bay  without  touching  a  rock,  stopped  five 
minutes  at  Three  Rivers  to  speak  to  Mr.  Mountain.  At  five  this  afternoon 
we  went  on  shore  at  a  most  beautiful  point,  St.  Pierre  les  Becquet.  It 
is  a  very  steep  ascent  from  the  beach  to  the  village,  among  wood  and 
rock.  We  went  to  the  Cure's,  who  very  civilly  shewed  us  his  house  and 
garden  and  the  church,  which  is  very  neat.  From  the  garden  is  an  exten- 
sive view.  The  mouths  of  the  rivers  Batiscan  and  St.  Anne  are  seen  on 
the  opposite  shore,  with  distant  blue  hills.  This  is  the  finest  point  on  the 
river  and  a  good  military  position.  Madame  Baby  (wife  of  Hon.  Frangois 
Baby,  of  Quebec)  has  lands  here. 

NOTE. — Mr.  Mountain  was  the  Bishop's  elder  brother,  Dr.  Jehosh- 
aphat  Mountain,  formerly  rector  of  Peldon  in  Essex.  He  and  his 
wife,  with  their  son  and  two  daughters,  were  amongst  the  party  who 
accompanied  the  Bishop  to  Canada  in  1793. 

Batiscan  Eiver  rises  in  the  county  of  Quebec  and  falls  into  the 
St.  Lawrence  at  Batiscan  Bridge.  St.  Anne  Eiver  is  in  Mont- 
morency  County,  Que.,  and  falls  into  the  St.  Lawrence  at  the  east 
corner  of  the  parish  of  St.  Anne. 

Thur.  4th — Descending  the  hill,  we  gathered  nuts  and  wild  fruits. 
Farther  down  the  river  the  view  of  Richelieu  (in  Rouville  County,  about 
seven  leagues  S.E.  of  Montreal  and  south  of  the  St.  Lawrence),  Descham- 
bault  (a  village  on  the  north  shore  of  St.  Lawrence,  14  leagues  S.W.  of 
Quebec),  Grondines  (a  village  in  Portneuf  County,  on  the  north  shore  of 
the  St.  Lawrence  and  about  15  leagues  above  Quebec),  in  the  distance, 
with  bright  lights  from  the  setting  sun  very  beautiful.  We  slept  at 
Grondines  in  a  room  belonging  to  Mr.  McCord,  of  Quebec.  (He  repre- 
sents this  village  in  the  Parliament  at  Quebec.)  We  could  not  sleep  on 
the  water,  as  the  tide  obliged  the  boat  to  be  brought  on  shore.  A  very 
cold  night;  we  supped  upon  the  beach. 

Fri.  5th— We  set  off  at  seven;  I  was  extremely  delighted  with  the  high 
banks  and  beautiful  scenery  in  passing  Deschambault,  Richelieu  and  Cap 

348 


WITH  OLD  FRIENDS  AT  BELMONT 

Santo"  on  the  north  shore,  opposite  to  which  is  Pt.  Platon  (on  the  south 
shore  13  leagues  above  Quebec),  where  we  went  on  shore  and  admired 
the  situation,  which  is  fit  for  a  fine  house;  there  is  a  good  farm  belonging 
to  the  Convent  des  Ursulines  at  Quebec. 

We  dined  in  the  boat  opposite  the  pretty  village  of  St.  Augustine 
(four  leagues  from  Quebec),  and  then  went  ashore  at  Cap  Rouge  (three 
leagues  from  Quebec).  The  Commissary  at  Montreal  ought  to  be  ashamed 
of  sending  such  toatteau  men.  They  frequently  asked  me  how  far  we 
were  from  Quebec,  and  many  such  questions.  The  only  man  at  all  accus- 
tomed to  the  way  was  dying  of  ague  and  of  no  use.  From  the  St.  Law- 
rence we  walked  a  mile  (the  tide  being  out)  over  wet  ground  like  marsh, 
interspersed  with  rock,  which  brought  us  to  a  house  where  we  got  a 
cal&che,  which  carried  us  a  mile  to  a  kind  of  Post  House,  where  we  dressed 
and  set  out  in  a  caliche,  ascending  a  prodigious  steep  but  winding  road 
among  red  rocks  and  wood,  and  four  miles  brought  us  to  Belmont,  where 
we  found  our  friends  well  and  happy  to  see  us.  They  have  just  finished 
an  addition  to  their  house,  which  makes  it  very  comfortable. 

As  a  proof  of  how  much  the  Governor  has  suffered  from  the  illness 
he  had  last  autumn  (the  fever  lasted  from  August  till  November),  he  was 
excessively  fatigued  by  the  exercise  of  driving  four  miles  in  the  caleche. 


349 


CHAPTER    XXI. 
HOMEWARD  BOUND. 

The  Governor  on  his  arrival  at  Quebec  found  that  the  "Pearl" 
had  gone  on  a  cruise,  and  was  expected  back  on  the  10th  of  August; 
but,  as  the  stay  at  Quebec  after  his  business  had  been  transacted  was, 
as  he  said  in  a  private  letter,  "a  very  pleasant  one,"  he  was  glad 
to  do  nothing  more  than  await  the  arrival  of  the  ship  on  which  he 
and  his  wife  were  to  sail  to  England. 

Lord  and  Lady  Dorchester  had  left  Quebec  on  9th  July,  1796, 
for  England,  in  the  "Active"  man-of-war,  but  unfortunately  this 
ship  was  wrecked  off  Anticosti  on  the  15th  July.  Simcoe  was  afraid 
that  the  "Pearl,"  which  had  gone  down  the  Gulf  to  save  the  stores, 
would  be  ordered  to  take  the  Governor- General  to  England  and  so 
cause  further  delay.  The  "Pearl,"  however,  arrived  in  Quebec  on 
the  6th  September,  and  on  Saturday,  the  10th,  sailed  for  England 
with  Governor  Simcoe  and  his  family,  and  after  a  somewhat  eventful 
voyage  anchored  off  the  Downs  on  the  13th  of  October. 

Mrs.   Simcoe  writes : — 

Sat.  6th — A  wet  morning.  Mrs.  and  Miss  Prescott  called  on  me. 
Bishop  Mountain's  youngest  child  died  last  night;  they  sent  a  very  polite 
message  requesting  us  to  use  their  house  at  Quebec  and  their  carriage. 
The  Bishop's  family  are  going  immediately  to  Three  Rivers,  to  visit  his 
brother. 

XOTE. — Mrs.  and  Miss  Prescott  were  the  wife  and  daughter  of 
General  Robert  Prescott,  who  succeeded  Lord  Dorchester.  The  latter 
did  not  know  he  was  to  be  recalled  until  Prescott's  arrival  in  Quebec 
in  June  of  1796.  Although  Lord  Dorchester  left  for  England 
in  July  of  1796,  he  retained  office  until  the  following  April,  during 
which  time  Prescott  performed  the  actual  duties  of  Governor.  General 
Prescott  then  formally  became  Governor-in-Chief,  remaining  in 
Canada  until  1799,  when  he  was  recalled.  He  died  in  England  in 
1815. 

Mon.  8th — Went  to  Quebec;  called  on  Miss  Mountain;  dined  at  the 
Chateau;  returned  to  Belmont  in  Mrs.  Prescott's  carriage.  A  heavy 
thunder  shower  when  we  were  at  dinner,  but  the  weather  still  sultry. 
The  country  about  Quebec  is  charming.  The  Governor,  not  having  seen 
it  in  summer,  is  surprised  at  its  beauty;  the  distant  mountains  appear 
more  grand  when  the  wooded  country  below  is  discerned,  interspersed 
with  the  villages  of  Charlesbourg  (four  miles  from  Quebec),  Montmorency 
(six  and  a  half  miles)  and  Lorette  (eight  miles).  The  "Pearl"  frigate 
has  gone  on  a  cruise,  but  expected  here  on  the  10th. 

NOTE. — Miss  Mountain  was  one  of  the  Bishop's  sisters  who  came 
to  Canada  with  him. 

Tues.  9th — The  Governor  went  with  Coll.  Caldwell  to  his  mills,  and 
returned  much  fatigued. 

350 


LAST  DAYS  IN  THE  ANCIENT  CITY 

Wed.  10th  —  General  and  Mrs.  Prescott  dined  here.  I  am  very  ill  from 
the  heat.  I  never  felt  the  air  so  oppressive  in  Upper  Canada. 

Thur.  llth  —  Left  our  hospitable  friends  at  Belmont  and  went  this 
evening  to  reside  at  the  Bishop's  house  at  Quebec,  where  we  are  very  com- 
fortably lodged.  Our  obligation  to  Bishop  Mountain  is  great,  for  there  are 
no  tolerable  accommodations  here  for  travellers,  and  no  lodgings  to  be 
hired  but  what  are  very  miserable,  as  Mrs.  Prescott  experienced  before 
the  Chateau  was  vacant. 

Fri.  12th  —  There  is  a  fog  like  our  Indian  summer,  with  insufferable 
heat.  In  the  evening  we  walked  upon  Cape  Diamond  and  to  our  favorite 
walk  on  the  terrace.  There  is  a  cherry  or  grape  tree  in  the  Bishop's 
garden,  as  large  as  an  apple  tree.  The  fruit  is  the  size  of  a  large  currant. 

Sat.  13th—  We  dined  at  Chief  Justice's  Osgoode.     Met  Mrs.  Prescott. 

Sun.  14th  —  Went  to  church.  Sat  in  the  Governor's  seat.  Called  on 
Mrs.  Dalton  and  saw  her  beautiful  drawings.  I  read  a  poem  called 
"  Caissa  "  in  Jones'  collection  of  Asiatic  poems. 


.  —  "Caissa,"  a  poetic  introduction  to  the  game  of  chess,  by 
Sir  William  Jones  (1746-1794),  the  celebrated  Oriental  scholar. 

Mon.  15th—  Walked  to  Cape  Diamond  before  breakfast. 

Tues.  16th  —  News  arrived  of  the  "Active,"  Capt.  Leveson  Gower,  on 
the  way  to  England,  being  wrecked  off  the  Isle  of  Anticosti.  The  crew 
got  safe  on  shore,  and  Lord  and  Lady  Dorchester  were  taken  from  hence 
to  Gaspe1  in  a  schooner  which,  fortunately  for  them,  was  passing  Anticosti 
a  day  or  two  after  they  were  wrecked.  From  Gaspe  they  were  to  go  to 
Halifax,  probably  in  the  "  Pearl,"  which  detains  her  from  being  here. 

NOTE.  —  Captain  Leveson  Gower  was  born  in  Maryland  in  1750. 
He  served  in  the  Revolutionary  "War,  and  died  in  1818. 

Wed.  17th  —  Dined  at  Belmont;   sultry  weather. 

Thur.  18th—  The  ship  "  Adriatic  "  arrived  from  Halifax.  Dined  at  the 
Chateau;  thermometer  88.  We  were  under  great  anxiety  lest  Lord.  Dor- 
chester should  take  the  "  Pearl  "  to  carry  him  to  England  from  Halifax. 

Fri.  19th—  So  ill  I  could  not  dine  with  Madame  Baby. 

Sat.  20th  —  So  ill  I  could  not  dine  with  Mrs.  Dunn. 

Sun.  21st  —  So  ill  I  did  not  go  to  church.    Mrs.  Prescott  called. 

Mon.  22nd,  Tues.  23rd  —  Dined  at  home;  the  heat  insufferable.  The 
only  hours  which  are  tolerable  are  from  eight  till  ten  at  night,  when  we 
walk  upon  the  ramparts. 

Wed.  24th—  Drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Winslow;  in  the  night  the  wind 
changed  and  it  became  very  cold. 

Thur.  25th  —  The  Bishop  and  Mrs.  Mountain  called  on  their  return 
from  Montreal,  where  they  had  spent  the  last  fortnight.  I  drank  tea 
with  Mrs.  Smith.  It  was  too  cold  to  walk  with  pleasure  in  the  garden. 

Sat.  27th  —  Madame  Baby  obtained  the  Bishop's  order  for  our  admis- 
sion to  the  Convent  of  Ursulines.  The  nuns  were  very  civil,  and  pleased 
at  my  recollecting  those  I  had  seen  before. 

Mon.  29th  —  Dined  at  Woodfield.  Two  ships  of  those  destined  to  go 
under  convoy  of  the  "  Pearl  "  sailed  to-day.  Tired  of  waiting  for  her. 

Tues.  30th  —  Dined  at  the  Chateau. 

Wed.  31st—  Dined  at  Belmont. 

Thur.  Sept.  1st  —  We  dined  at  Mr.  Finlay's,  the  Deputy  Postmaster- 
General,  at  Woodside.  It  is  a  very  pretty  situation.  Quebec  and  Charles- 
bourg  are  good  objects  from  it,  but  the  weather  was  hazy.  I  walked 
thro'  pretty  grounds  in  the  afternoon. 

NOTE.  —  A  residence  on  the  St.  Louis  Eoad,  built  on  part  of  the 
land  of  the  old  country  seat  of  Thornhill. 
351 


DIAKY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

Fri.  2nd— A  wet  day. 

Sat.  3rd — Drank  tea  with  Miss  Mountain.  The  "  Pearl "  arrived  from 
Halifax  in  14  days. 

Sun.  4th — Coll.  and  Mrs.  Caldwell  dined  with  me. 

Mon.  5th— Dined  at  Woodfield.  Walked  in  the  evening  towards  Sillery 
and  saw  a  beautiful  view  of  Cape  Diamond,  the  Isle  of  Orleans,  etc.,  under 
setting  sun. 

NOTE. — Sillery  was  originally  a  mission  founded  in  1637,  named 
after  Commandeur  Noel  Brulart  de  Sillery,,  Prime  Minister  of  Louis 
XIII.,  who  gave  12,000  livres  (or  pounds)  for  the  purpose.  The  old 
Sillery  settlement  was  within  the  limits  of  the  parish  of  St.  Foye.  The 
mission  was  about  four  and  a  half  miles  from  Quebec,  on  the  north 
shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence. 

Tues.  6th — As  I  was  getting  into  the  carriage  to  go  to  the  Chateau 
the  street  was  full  of  smoke,  which  we  supposed  to  be  from  a  chfcnney  on 


THE  KECOLLET  CHURCH,  QUEBEC. 

(From  an  Engraving  in  the  J.  Ross  Robertson  Collection.) 

fire.  Soon  after  we  arrived  at  Mrs.  Prescott's  the  gentlemen  were 
informed  that  the  fire,  which  had  begun  in  a  barn  of  hay,  was  raging 
furiously  in  St.  Louis  Street  and  approaching  the  Bishop's  house.  Gen'l. 
Simcoe  immediately  went  there  and  remained  the  whole  afternoon,  giving 
directions  to  some  of  the  crew  of  the  "  Pearl,"  by  whose  exertions  the 
Bishop's  house  and  houses  adjoining  were  saved,  tho'  they  several  times 
caught  fire.  Mrs.  Prescott  and  I  were  looking  out  from  the  upper  win- 
dow, when  we  saw  a  spark  alight  on  the  Recollet  Church,  and  in  a  few 
minutes  the  whole  building  was  in  a  blaze. 

The  churches  and  houses,  being  covered  with  shingles  (wooden  tiles), 
burnt  rapidly,  and  the  shingles  being  light,  were  also  easily  blown  by  the 
wind,  which  was  high,  and  had  it  not  changed  probably  the  whole  town 
would  have  been  destroyed.  The  ships  in  the  river  weighed  anchor. 
Some  papers  were  blown  to  Pt.  Levy,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river. 
Our  trunks  being  sent  to  the  Chief  Justice's,  I  went  there  to  change  my 

352 


GOOD-BYE  TO  CANADA 

clothes,  for  we  were  all  in  full  dress,  as  Mrs.  Prescott  was  to  have  had  a 
ball  in  the  evening.  I  was  terrified  in  passing  the  Parade.  The  heat  was 
so  great  from  the  Recollet  Church,  engines  kept  playing  on  the  Chateau, 
which  was  in  great  danger.  I  afterwards  took  the  children  into  Palace 
Street,  and  sat  with  Mrs.  Roslyn,  of  the  Fifth  Regt,  till  eight  o'clock, 
when  Gen'l.  Simcoe  came  to  fetch  us  to  the  Chief  Justice's,  where  we 
slept,  for  tho'  the  danger  was  at  an  end  the  sight  of  everything  still 
burning  around  the  Bishop's  house  made  me  wish  not  to  sleep  there. 

Wed.  7th— Drank  tea  with  Mrs.  Taylor  and  supped  at  the  Chief 
Justice's,  our  baggage  being  sent  on  board  the  "Pearl." 

The  ruins  of  the  Recollet  Church,  brightened  from  within  by  fire,  not 
yet  extinguished,  had  an  awful,  grand  appearance  as  we  walked  home  in 
a  dark  night;  the  effect  of  colour  was  very  rich. 

I  sent  an  enquiry  after  the  health  of  the  Ursulines  since  their  alarm 
and  the  exertions  they  had  made  in  carrying  water  to  the  top  of  their 
house,  which  was  endangered  by  the  fire;  I  received  a  very  polite  note 
from  the  Superieure  and  a  basket  of  plums  from  their  garden. 

Thur.  8th — Breakfasted  at  Woodfield;  returned  to  Quebec  with  Mrs. 
Caldwell  and  dined  with  Coll.  Barnes. 

Sat.  10th — At  eleven  embarked  on  board  the  "  Pearl."  The  cabin  is 
larger  than  that  in  the  "  Triton,"  but  the  guns  are  very  incommodious. 
I  was  busy  arranging  my  trunks,  and  kept  as  few  as  possible  with  me, 
because  I  was  informed  if  we  met  French  ships  we  must  clear  for  action, 
and  all  the  baggage  would  be  tossed  below  in  confusion.  I  met  with  one 
trunk  of  the  Bishop's  clothes,  but  had  an  opportunity  of  a  boat  passing 
to  send  it  to  Quebec. 

I  find  nothing  missing  but  a  very  pretty  Indian  basket,  in  which  were 
shoes.  Capt.  Leveson  Gower,  H.M.S.  "  Active,"  takes  his  passage  to  Eng- 
land with  Capt.  Ballard,  and  four  of  his  lieutenants — Mr.  Bond,  Mr. 
Merriott,  Mr.  Worth,  Mr.  Deighton,  master  of  the  "  Active."  Capt.  Gower 
lives  in  the  cabin.  About  five  we  struck  ground.  The  sensation  was 
unpleasant,  but  we  were  instantly  off.  We  anchored  at  night. 

Sun.  llth — Weighed  anchor  at  five.  At  nine  passed  a  brig  going  to 
Quebec.  Passed  the  Kamouraskas,  rocky  islands  in  the  St.  Lawrence, 
opposite  mouth  of  Kamouraska  River;  and  Pilgrim  Islands,  four  islands, 
only  rocks,  near  the  south  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence  (below  L'Islet). 

Mon.  12th — The  wind  west,  fair,  but  obliged  to  lay  to  for  the  mer- 
chantmen under  our  convoy.  There  are  ten.  The  "Brook  Watson  "  and 
"  Earl  of  Marchmont  "  are  very  bad  sailers. 

Tues.  13th — Fair  wind  and  cold.  We  cannot  carry  sail  enough  to 
keep  the  ship  steady,  on  account  of  those  bad  sailing  merchantmen. 

Wed.  14th — Wind  south-east.  Standing  for  the  Bird  Islands,  north 
of  the  Magdalens. 

Thurs.  15th — A  head  sea,  hauled  close  to  the  wind.  I  was  unwell  all 
day. 

Fri.  16th — A  very  wet  morning  after  a  rough  night,  and  hauled  close 
to  the  wind.  It  cleared  up  at  twelve.  At  six  the  Captain  spoke  with 
the  merchantmen  and  agreed  to  bear  away  from  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle, 
about  50  leagues  off.  We  are  now  in  sight  of  St.  George's  Bay,  on  the 
coast  of  Newfoundland,  and  a  fine  leading  wind. 

Sat.  17th — A  fine  wind;  passed  Scaring  Islands  at  twelve.  Rather 
sick;  I  found  myself  better  by  eating  orange  marmalade.  A  great  swell 
to-night. 

NOTE. — Between  Cow  Head  and  Shallow  Bays,  on  the  western 
coast  of  Newfoundland. 

Sun.  18th — During  the  night  I  heard  the  officer  on  watch  tell  Capt. 
Ballard  there  was  a  sail  in  sight,  and  he  ordered  ammunition  to  be  got 
ready.  I  got  up,  and  tho'  it  was  dark,  contrived  to  collect  my  things  and 

23  353 


DIAEY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

lock  them  up  in  the  trunk,  as  I  thought  we  might  be  suddenly  called 
upon  and  the  cabin  cleared.  1  then  went  to  sleep  again.  The  next  morn- 
ing I  heard  that  the  sail  was  a  brig  from  Quebec  which  had  overshot  her 
port.  Capt.  Ballard  said  we  had  been  in  great  danger  during  the  night. 
It  was  very  calm,  and  a  very  heavy  swell  set  us  on  the  breakers,  which  we 
were  quite  near;  everybody  was  quite  alarmed  and  went  upon  deck,  and 
a  sudden  breeze  springing  up  from  the  breakers  saved  us  from  going 
upon  them.  We  had  entered  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle  and  passed  an  island 
of  ice.  At  nine  I  saw  an  island  of  ice  at  a  great  distance.  It  was  near 
Green  Island,  Newfoundland,  about  nine  leagues  from  Cape  Norman. 

NOTE. — Green  Island  is  between  North  and  South  Heads  in  the 
Bay  of  Islands. 

At  twelve  we  passed  Portreau  Bay.  I  looked  at  it  through  a  glass 
and  made  a  sketch  of  it.  The  country  appears  to  be  ledges  of  rocks,  with 
a  few  scrubby  pine,  scarce  able  to  grow  on  so  harsh  and  dismal  a  soil. 
I  discerned  two  waterfalls  near  the  coast.  After  passing  Portreau  Bay,  at 
entrance  to  Strait  of  Belle  Isle,  near  Green  Island,  a  fishing  boat  with 
Jersey  men  came  alongside  to  inform  the  captain  that  two  days  ago  three 
large  vessels,  supposed  to  be  French,  went  into  Temple  Bay  on  the 
southern  coast  of  Labrador,  and  about  forty  miles  distant,  opposite  Belle 
Isle.  The  boat  brought  fish,  and  while  we  lay  to  some  exceeding  fine 
cod  were  caught.  A  slight  breeze  and  excessive  cold  weather.  This 
afternoon  we  sent  the  trunks  below,  and  the  cabin  was  partly  cleared  to 
prepare  for  meeting  the  French. 

Mon.  19th — A  head  wind  all  night;  towards  morning  a  heavy  gale  and 
great  fog.  We  were  driven  back  between  Portreau  Bay  and  Green  Island. 
At  one  time  it  cleared,  grew  calm  and  the  wind  fair,  but  a  very  great 
swell. 

Tues.  20th — This  morning  at  eight  we  were  opposite  Temple  Bay,  but 
it  was  too  hazy  to  see  any  distance.  A  fair  wind.  At  eleven  we  were 
abreast  of  Belle  Isle,  which  is  one  entire  dismal,  barren  rock.  At  twelve 
two  French  frigates  and  a  brig  were  seen.  They  soon  took  six  of  our 
merchantmen,  who,  not  having  obeyed  the  "  Pearl's "  signals,  were  a 
great  way  ahead  of  us.  We  cleared  for  action.  Capt.  Gower  conducted 
me  down  two  flights  of  steps  into  the  bread  room,  which  just  held  me,  the 
children  and  my  servant;  there  I  spent  six  hours  in  perfect  misery,  every 
moment  expecting  to  hear  the  guns  fire,  as  we  lay  for  the  enemy.  Never 
having  been  in  real  danger  before,  I  had  no  idea  what  it  was  to  be  so 
frightened.  Some  refreshment  was  sent  me,  but  I  could  not  eat.  The 
sailor  who  brought  it  said,  "  You  had  better  take  it  now,  for  there  is  no 
knowing  when  you  may  be  able  to  get  any  more."  I  presently  was 
informed  that  "  The  Progress,"  in  which  Genl.  and  Mrs.  England  were, 
was  taken.  At  six  o'clock  Capt.  Malcolm,  of  the  Marines,  very  obligingly 
offered  me  his  room,  tho'  only  six  feet  long  and  four  wide.  I  lay  down 
with  an  excruciating  headache,  which  essence  of  peppermint  relieved. 

Wed.  21st — As  this  room,  cabin  or  cupboard  is  below  decks,  I  heard 
people  talking  all  the  night,  and  could  not  help  listening,  even  to  the 
cabin  boys.  I  heard  half-sentences  and  supposed  the  rest,  and  it  seemed 
inevitable  for  us  to  escape  being  taken.  However,  the  next  day  at  twelve 
I  was  persuaded  to  go  into  the  gun  room  (the  cabin  being  cleared  and 
bulkheads  thrown  down),  and  I  found  that  a  more  cheerful  place,  and 
the  officers  of  the  "Active,"  having  no  duty,  played  at  back-gammon  or 
cards  with  me  all  day  long,  for  it  was  the  only  relief  I  found.  Some 
gentlemen  were  continually  coming  down  from  deck,  and  various  were 
the  opinions;  some  thought  the  French  would  come  up  with  us,  others  did 
not.  The  French  were  following  at  three  leagues  distance.  We  are  now  a 
mile  to  the  northward  of  Belle  Isle,  between  that  and  the  Labrador  coast. 
Islands  of  ice  were  passing  all  the  day,  which  made  the  air  very  cold. 

354 


FEAE  OF  ATTACK  BY  FRENCH  FRIGATES 

I  wished  to  see  them,  but  did  not  have  spirits  to  go  upon  deck,  and  I  was 
told  we  should  probably  see  them  for  some  days  to  come. 

It  is  supposed  the  "  Ephron  "  got  away  from  the  enemy  after  she  was 
taken,  but  she  has  not  joined  us.  A  fine  breeze  towards  evening.  The 
"  Pearl "  took  the  "  Brook  Watson  "  in  tow  twice,  and  her  master  let  the 
hawser  go.  I  was  glad  when  we  got  rid  of  her.  The  "  Adriatic  "  is  with 
us,  and  the  "  London  "  was  this  morning,  but  guns  were  heard  to-night  off 
the  north  shore,  and  it  is  feared  she  is  aground.  Mr.  Deighton,  the 
master  of  the  "Active,"  says  he  knew  a  ship  which  had  her  bottom  knocked 
off  by  the  ice,  and  yet  she  came  safe  into  port.  1  played  at  backgammon 
and  cards  till  half  after  ten. 

Thurs.  22nd — A  fine  day,  but  very  cold.  We  are  still  in  the  gun  room, 
where  the  motion  is  so  little  felt  that  I  like  it  much  better  than  the  cabin. 
I  played  backgammon  or  cards,  which  tranquilizes  my  mind,  but  it  will 
be  a  great  while  before  I  recover  from  iny  fright.  It  is  supposed  the 
French  ships  are  commanded  by  Citizen  Barney,  a  famous  rebel  during 
the  late  American  War.  He  drinks  nothing  but  water,  and  as  he  lives 
hard  we  suppose  he  will  fight  hard.  The  New  York  paper  mentioned  his 
cruising  off  this  coast. 

NOTE. — Joshua  Barney,  born  in  Baltimore  in 
1759,  was  an  American  naval  officer  in  the  Revo- 
lutionary War.  He  became  lieutenant  in  1776, 
was  captured  by  the  British  in  1777  and  again  in 
1781.  Having  command  of  the  "  Hyder  Ali,"  he 
captured  the  "General  Monk"  in  1782.  In  the 
autumn  of  that  year  he  was  sent  to  France  with 
despatches  for  Franklin,  and  subsequently  re- 
ceived a  commission  in  the  French  service,  resign- 
ing in  1800.  He  commanded  a  flotilla  in  Chesa- 
peake Bay  in  1813,  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of 
Bladensburg  in  1814,  and  died  at  Pittsburg  1st 
December,  1818.  JOSHUA  BARXEY. 

Fri.  23rd — I  slept  more  quietly  last  night,  as  it  is  thought  we  are  Safe 
from  the  pursuit  of  the  French.  We  breakfasted  in  the  cabin.  It  seems 
a  fortnight  since  we  left  it,  so  much  has  the  agitation  of  mind  apparently 
lengthened  the  time.  The  cabin  appears  dull.  It  is  excessively  cold.  We 
are  in  Lat.  53-54.  We  ran  150  miles  since  yesterday  in  the  latitude  of 
Cape  Charles  (at  the  entrance  to  the  Strait  of  Belle  Isle).  If  we  are 
still  driven  on  to  the  northward  by  these  winds  we  shall  soon  get  to 
Greenland.  Mr.  Hill,  one  of  the  lieutenants,  went  to  the  North  Sea,  and 
was  obliged  to  eat  salt  pork  raw,  for  if  it  was  boiled  it  presently  became 
a  cake  of  ice.  This  man  relates  so  many  terrifying  adventures  that  I 
scarcely  feel  safe  to  be  in  the  same  ship,  for  it  seems  impossible  he  can 
perform  any  voyage  in  a  quiet  way. 

Sat.  24th — A  south  wind.  At  three  o'clock  hazy  weather,  raw,  but 
rather  less  cold;  Lat.  54-55.  I  copied  the  action  of  the  1st  of  June  from 
Capt.  Ballard's  drawings,  taken  on  the  spot. 

Wind  S.W.  An  exceedingly  heavy  gale  all  night,  and  this  day  put  in 
the  dead  lights,  the  weather  so  bad.  Meat  could  not  be  roasted,  but  we 
had  a  pork  pie,  and  tho'  I  dislike  pork  on  shore,  it  is  very  good  on  board 
ship,  and  an  excellent  salt-fish  pudding.  The  fish,  having  been  boiled  the 
day  before,  was  now  chopped  up  with  potatoes,  parsnips,  herbs,  pepper, 
salt,  and  boiled  in  a  bag. 

355 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

Mon.  26th — A  sail  in  sight,  which  proved  to  be  the  "London."  A 
fresh  breeze  still  sending  us  northward.  Wind  S.W.  I  copied  nine  plans 
of  the  action  of  the  1st  June. 

NOTE. — Every  search  has  been  made  for  these  drawings.  It  is 
supposed  that  they  were  given  away  by  Mrs.  Simcoe  on  her  return 
to  England,  for  there  is  no  trace  of  them  in  the  portfolios  at 
Wolford. 

Tues.  27th — A  head  wind;  damp,  disagreeable  weather. 

Wed.  28th — A  dreadful  night;  a  very  heavy  gale.  We  did  not  break- 
fast till  twelve  o'clock.  The  forestay  sail  split;  a  heavy  sail  all  day. 
Lat.  56-10. 

Thurs.  29th — Drank  raspberry  vinegar  instead  of  tea  and  slept  better. 
A  great  sea,  little  wind,  very  cold. 

Fri.  30th— Lat.  55-56. 

Sat.  Oct.  1st— Lat.  54-55. 

Mon.   3rd — Wind  north. 

Tues.  4th — Wind  N.W.,  squally;   in  the  long,  of  the  Western  Isles. 

Wed.  5>th— A  very  rough  night;  wind  N.E.;  from  5  p.m.  it  blew  N.W. 
and  an  immoderate  gale.  The  windows  of  the  ports  were  broke,  and  the 
sea  came  into  the  cabin  without  measure. 

Thurs.  6th — The  gale  continued  all  night,  the  sea  washing  in  at  the 
ports,  and  deep  water  under  the  beds  and  until  six  o'clock  p.m.  this  day. 
They  did  not  give  us  any  breakfast,  and  we  got  up  to  dinner  at  two;  the 
dead  lights  and  doors  to  the  quarter  galleries  put  up.  We  have  run  300 
miles  in  the  last  24  hours.  Last  night  went  13  knots  an  hour  under  bare 
poles;  parted  with  the  "  London,"  "Adriatic "  and  "  Brook  Watson "  in 
the  gale. 

Fri.  7th — A  sail  seen  this  morning;  they  began  to  clear  the  ship,  but 
the  vessel  proved  to  be  the  "  Hope,"  of  New  London ;  these  are  the  first 
American  colours  I  have  seen.  A  calm  after  one  o'clock;  wind  S.S.W. 
this  evening. 

Sat.  8th — The  ship  in  soundings  on  the  Great  Sole  Bank,  off  the  Eng- 
lish coast.  At  eight  the  wind  changed  and  blew  fresh  from  the  N.W. 
Some  ships  seen.  The  cabin  was  begun  to  be  cleared,  but  this  having 
happened  two  or  three  times,  and  no  further  ill  consequences  ensued,  I 
now  see  this  preparation  with  indifference,  which  had  before  inspired  me 
with  s<o  much  terror.  I  had  continued  drawing  as  long  as  tihey  left  a 
table  in  the -room.  The  ships  were  soon  discovered  to  be  India-men.  In 
the  evening  we  passed  another,  to  whom  we  spoke.  She  was  from 
Jamaica;  had  parted  from  her  convoy  in  a  dreadful  gale  of  wind  four 
days  since,  in  which  her  top  sails  were  split.  We  ran  nine  knots  an 
hour  under  bare  poles. 

Note. — Great  Sole  Bank  lies  in  latitude  49°  23'  north,  longitude 
10°  16',  and  continues  30  miles  northeast  by  east.  It  is  7  miles  long 
by  7  miles  wide  and  lies  120  miles  southwest  of  the  Fastnet  Light  and 
130  miles  west  of  the  Scilly  Islands  Lights.  Its  greatest  depth  is 
70  fathoms. 

Sun.  9th — We  spoke  to  a  West  India  vessel,  called  "  The  Lioness,"  aim 
took  her  under  convoy.  She  parted  company  from  130  sail  in  the  late 
gale.  A  fair  wind  to-day,  and  we  ran  eight  knots  an  hour.  I  went  on 
deck  to-night  to  see  the  lead  heav'd  and  the  ship  lay  to.  It  was  a  terrific 
sight  when  ahe  turned  her  side  to  the  wind.  The  waves  seemed  as  if 
they  would  overwhelm  the  ship,  and  the  noise  was  frightful. 

356 


IN  SIGHT  OF  OLD  ENGLAND 

Mon.  10th — Passed  the  Islands  of  Scilly  this  morning;  three  or  four  sail 
seen;  we  spoke  to  one  under  Danish  colours;  the  Land's  End  seen  at  one 
o'clock. 

Tues.  llth — We  stood  close  for  Berry  Head,  on  south  coast  of  Devon, 
intending  to  go  on  shore  at  Tor  Bay.  This  landing  would  have  been  more 
convenient  for  Gen.  Simcoe,  as  he  desired  to  go  to  Exeter.  But  the  wind 
freshened  so  much  it  was  impossible  to  get  on  board  the  fishing  boats, 
which  we  saw  at  a  little  distance.  Two  hours  sooner  it  might  have  been 
done,  but  we  lay  to  for  two  or  three  hours  in  the  morning  to  press  men 
out  of  the  India-men,  and  since  that  the  wind  has  risen.  Sophia  wishes 
to  be  on  shore,  but  Francis,  never  having  been  sick,  thinks  it  a  pity  to 
quit  the  ship  he  is  so  fond  of,  and  leave  Beau  and  Bell,  the  captain's 
dogs,  who  are  his  constant  playfellows.  He  is  determined  to  be  a  sailor. 

Wed.  12th — A  fine  day  and  fair  wind,  but  we  lay  to  so  long  for  the 
convoy  that  we  did  not  pass  Dover  till  late.  We  anchored  in  the  Downs, 
off  the  coast  of  Kent,  at  eight  o'clock.  It  is  difficult  to  go  on  shore  here 
if  the  weather  is  not  very  calm,  notwithstanding  the  extreme  skilfulness  of 
the  Deal  boatmen.  We  passed  Beachy  Head,  where  the  cliffs  are  white, 
and  Hastings,  a  brick  town,  this  morning.  In  the  afternoon  the 
"Diamond"  and  "Melampus,"  frigates,  passed  us.  It  was  a  very  fine  sight 
to  see  those  large  frigates  cut  thro'  the  waves  with  so  much  swiftness,  and 
they  are  handsomer  objects  than  a  line  of  battleships,  which  are  heavier; 
they  were  painted  black  and  yellow,  with  white  figure-heads.  A  pretty, 
light,  small  vessel  followed  them,  supposed  to  be  Russian  built. 

Thurs.  13th — We  anchored  very  near  a  large  Indiaman.  I  was  waked 
in  the  night  by  hearing  a  sailor  call  out  that  we  should  be  aboard  the 
Indiaman,  and  having  heard  of  such  accidents  in  the  Downs,  I  did  not 
like  the  alarm. 

This  morning  I  was  much  pleased  with  seeing  the  number  of  vessels 
in  the  Downs.  The  "  Ville  de  Paris  "  got  under  weigh  and  passed  close 
to  us,  but  being  under  jury  masts  she  looked  extremely  heavy  and  clumsy 
and  of  an  immense  size.  I  liked  the  frigates  better.  A  wet  morning; 
we  landed  at  one  o'clock.  Capts.  Ballard,  Gower  and  some  officers  of  the 
"  Pearl "  dined  with  us  at  the  inn  at  Deal. 

We  took  a  friendly  leave  of  men  in  whom  we  were  much  interested, 
having  lived  so  much  in  their  company  for  seven  weeks;  they  both  offered 
their  best  services  for  Francis.  From  my  experience  of  people,  I  am  as 
anxious  he  should  be  a  sailor  as  he  is  to  be  one.  Francis  came  downstairs 
in  the  inn  backwards,  as  he  used  to  descend  the  ladder  on  board  the 
"  Pearl."  I  felt  it  a  great  happiness  to  find  the  rooms  steady,  and  not 
roll  like  the  ship. 

Fri.  14th — Genl.  Grinfield  came  to  breakfast  with  us,  and  invited  us 
to  dine  at  Dover  with  Mrs.  Grinfield,  which  place  we  set  out  for  after 
breakfast,  and  drove  eleven  miles  thro'  a  bleak,  barren  country,  and  when 
I  came  to  the  hill  at  Dover  I  was  amazingly  struck  with  the  grandeur  of 
the  scene,  the  grand  appearance  of  the  castle  on  those  very  high  cliffs, 
part  of  the  building  in  good  and  habitable  preservation,  the  rest  in  ruins; 
a  grand  site  and  a  building  adapted  to  it.  The  bold  cliffs,  the  town  and 
beach  beneath,  form  a  charming  picture,  and  the  horizon  of  the  sea  was 
terminated  by  the  fleet,  which  sailed  yesterday,  the  "Ville  de  Paris" 
towering  above  the  rest;  we  sailed  round  her  before  we  came  on  shore, 
but  a  large  frigate,  such  as  the  "  Diamond,"  is  a  finer  sight  to  my  taste. 
The  fresh  east  wind  has  probably  sent  them  back. 

We  walked  round  the  works,  which  are  enlarging  about  the  castle. 
Capt.  Bruyere,  of  the  Engineers,  went  with  us;  he  has  been  long  in 
Canada,  to  which  country  he  was  much  attached,  therefore  I  was  delighted 
to  talk  with  him. 

We  noticed  the  Roman  brick  very  visible  in  one  of  the  towers  which 
is  in  ruins.  We  distinguished  the  coast  of  France,  a  part  of  which  looks 
like  Beachy  Head.  I  was  shown  the  church  at  Calais  and  the  entrance 

357 


DIARY  OF  MRS.  SIMCOE 

of  Boulogne  harbour.  Saw  the  brass  cannon  given  to  Queen  Elizabeth 
by  the  Dutch;  it  is  24  feet  long,  beautifully  carved  with  figures  of  Brit- 
annia and  the  "God  of  the  Scheldt."  We  went  thro'  the  communication 
lately  cut  underground  thro'  the  hill  from  the  castle  to  the  town;  it  is 
a  handsome  stone  staircase  of  twelve  hundred  steps;  at  the  bottom  of 
every  two  or  three  hundred  feet  it  is  lighted  by  a  passage  and  window 
at  the  extremity  of  the  rock;  we  descended  with  a  lanthorn;  it  cost  £700. 
I  was  much  pleased  with  Capt.  Bruyere,  for  he  talked  with  delight  of 
Canada.  He  married  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Selby's,  of  Montreal. 

It  was  extremely  cold  walking  on  the  hill.  We  spent  some  hours  very 
pleasantly  with  Mrs.  Grinfield,  and  at  seven  at  night  set  off  for  Canter- 
bury. A  very  violent  rain  this  morning.  Canterbury  is  fifteen  miles 
from  Dover.  We  arrived  in  the  dark,  very  much  fatigued. 

NOTE. — William  Grinfield,  colonel  of  the  8th  Regiment  of  Foot, 
16th  May,  1787,  became  major-general,  13th  June,  1793,  and  lieu- 
tenant-general, January,  1798. 

•Captain  Bruyere  of  the  Royal  Engineers  was  one  of  the  military 
Land  Board  at  Niagara  in  1791.  He  died  of  exposure  in  the  War  of 
1812.  Mrs.  Selby,  wife  of  Dr.  George  Selby,  of  Montreal,  was  for- 
merly Miss  Dunbar,  daughter  of  Major  Dunbar.  Dr.  Selby,  who 
was  born  in  England  and  educated  at  the  College  of  St.  Omer,  came 
to  Canada  about  1781.  He  died  in  1835. 

Sat.  15th — Damp,  raw  weather.  Went  to  see  the  cathedral,  which  1 
greatly  admired;  the  style  of  building  is  peculiarly  grand  and  simple, 
and  the  ascent  to  the  choir  by  steps  has  a  grand  effect.  There  is  a  monu- 
ment of  Edward,  the  Black  Prince,  in  brass,  in  great  preservation.  The 
armour,  helmet  and  gloves  he  wore  at  Cressy  are  hung  over  it. 

A  head  of  Dean  Watson  carved  in  stone,  done  in  Italy,  is  a  fine  piece 
of  sculpture,  and  there  are  many  pieces  of  stone  work  curiously  executed; 
there  is  a  great  deal  of  painted  glass;  a  good  picture  of  a  Pope,  but  it  has 
been  shot  thro'  during  the  civil  wars  in  Cromwell's  time. 

Thomas  a  Becket's  tomb  is  plain.  The  stone  around  is  deeply  worn 
by  having  been  knelt  upon,  as  is  said.  There  is  a  good  monument  of 
Henry  IV.  and  his  Queen.  The  ship  called  the  "  Great  Harry,"  with  four 
masts,  built  in  Henry  V.'s  reign,  is  represented  in  stone.  This  cathedral 
has  the  advantage  of  Salisbury  in  not  having  been  modernized. 

The  country  from  Canterbury  to  Dartford  (18  miles  below  London 
on  the  Thames)  is  woody  and  beautiful;  some  views  of  the  Medway  and 
Thames. 

The  weather  is  damp,  raw  and  unpleasant.  I  could  not  but  observe, 
as  we  passed  many  houses,  that  those  mansions  appeared  very  comfortable 
habitations,  in  which  people  might  live  very  happily,  but  it  could  not  be 
supposed  they  could  ever  be  induced  to  go  out  of  them  in  such  a  damp 
climate,  for  the  fields  looked  so  cold,  so  damp,  so  cheerless,  so  uncomfort- 
able from  the  want  of  our  bright  Canadian  sun  that  the  effect  was 
striking,  and  the  contrast  very  unfavourable  to  the  English  climate.  We 
slept  at  Dartford. 

Sun.  16th — A  beautiful  country  from  Dartford  to  London.  On  the 
road  I  passed  a  remarkable  fine  Cedar  of  Lebanon.  Arrived  at  the  hotel 
in  Cork  Street,  London,  at  ten  o'clock. 


358 


CHAPTEE    XXII. 
AGAIN  AT  WOLFORD—SIMCOE'S  DEATH. 

Mrs.  Simcoe's  sojourn  in  Canada  was  always  regarded  by  her 
with  pleasurable  recollections.  She  had  made  many  friends  in  the 
land  across  the  sea.  Her  husband  had  had  the  honor  of  establishing 
the  first  Provincial  Government  when  Upper  Canada  was  marked 
upon  the  map  as  the  western  Province  of  the  old. Province  of  Canada. 

Nor  did  she  forget  the  kindness  and  courtesy  that  had  been  so 
gracefully  accorded  to  both  herself  and  her  husband,  from  the  day 
in  October,  1791,  when  they  landed  at  Quebec,  till  that  day  in  Sep- 
tember, 1796,  when  they  were  homeward  bound  from  the  same  port. 
True,  she  had  two  of  her  children  with  her,  but  there  were  four  others 
at  home.  She  longed  to  see  them,  for  although  their  daily  lives  were 
recorded  by  monthly  letters  from  Mrs.  Hunt,  yet  her  desire  for  her 
little  ones  gave  her  hours  of  depression.  Then  she  remembered  with 
tears  the  green  knoll  in  the  military  burying  ground  at  York  that 
covered  the  little  one,  the  first  Katherine,  who,  born  at  Navy  Hall, 
Niagara,  in  January,  1793,  died  and  was  buried  at  York  (Toronto) 
in  April,  1794. 

When  the  "Pearl"  anchored  in  the  Downs,  within  sight  of  the 
white  cliffs  of  England,  Mrs.  Simcoe  realized  that  she  was  not  far 
from  the  home  of  her  childhood.  She  spent  a  few  hours  at  Deal,  a 
day  with  friends  in  Dover  and  Canterbury,  a  couple  of  days  in  Lon- 
don, and  then  proceeded  southwest  by  coach  to  Exeter. 

Glad  was  the  welcome  at  Wolford.  A  letter  written  from  Quebec 
in  July  had  informed  Mrs.  Hunt  that  probably  at  the  end  of  August 
the  General  and  his  wife  would  sail  for  England.  Then  a  second 
letter  in  August  said  that  they  would  sail  about  the  end  of  the 
first  week  in  September  so  as  to  arrive  in  England  about  the  middle 
of  October;  and  almost  within  a  day  of  the  promised  time  did  the 
family  carriage  and  pair,  which  had  been  sent  down  to  Exeter  to 
meet  the  home-comers,  drive  up  to  the  door  of  Wolford. 

Never  was  there  a  happier  meeting.  Mrs.  Hunt  and  her  daughter 
were  as  eager  to  see  them  as  were  the  children,  who  waited  eagerly 
for  their  father  and  mother  and  for  the  brother  and  sister  whom  they 
had  not  seen  for  five  long  years.  The  delight  was  mutual.  The 
old  home  looked  bright  and  cheerful  on  that  October  afternoon, 
and  the  day  closed  with  worship  read  by  the  master  surrounded  by 
his  household.  The  countryside  knew  of  the  General's  return  and 
the  County  families,  glad  to  renew  their  friendships,  were  not  long  in 
calling  at  Wolford. 

The  old  home  life  was  quietly  resumed.  Much  of  the  General's 
energy  was  thrown  into  the  improvement  of  his  estate,  for  but  little 
along  that  line  had  been  done  during  the  years  of  his  absence.  The 

359 


DIAKY  OF  MES.  SIMCOE 

family  were  early  risers,  always  up  with  the  lark.  The  General  was 
usually  around  with  Mr.  Scadding  as  early  as  six  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  and  Mrs.  Simcoe  and  one  of  her  daughters  frequently  took 
a  five-mile  ride  before  breakfast. 

Eliza  Simcoe  was  now  a  girl  of  twelve  years  of  age,  while  her 
sister,  Charlotte,  was  eleven.  Both  girls  showed  extraordinary  interest 
in  their  studies.  They  were  lovable  children,  and  as  their  governess 
said  "excel